Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

Effective Utilization of Radio Frequency

Spectrum in Communication Networks using

Cognitive Radio

Presented by
J. Sarada Lakshmi
Research Scholar
Dept. of Computer Science and
Systems Engg.
Andhra University


Cognitive Radio
Architecture & Protocol Stack
CR Functions
Spectrum Sensing
Spectrum Decision
Spectrum Sharing
Spectrum Mobility
Conclusion & Future Directions

Todays Wireless Network

Radio Frequency Spectrum ranges from 3KHz
to 300GHz used for wireless communication.
Most portion of the Spectrum (Licensed) is
assigned to Licensed users where the users
can use exclusively without any interference.
Few portion of the spectrum is left which is
used for industrial, scientific and medical
purpose(ISM band) which is unlicensed.
Wireless technologies like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth,
unlicensed band.

(Primary Users)

(Secondary Users/Cognitive Radio Users)

A report from FCC concluded that

licensed bands are under-utilized where
as unlicensed are becoming scarce.
Fixed Spectrum assignment policy leads
to inefficient utilization of spectrum
To overcome this problem Cognitive
Radio (CR) emerged as a key technology
to dynamically access the licensed radio
spectrum in an opportunistic manner by
the secondary users without making any
harmful interference to primary users.

Spectrum Hole Concept

Temporarily unused
licensed radio
frequencies by primary users called as
white spaces or spectrum holes

Cognitive Radio
Cognitive Radio (CR) is an intelligent
wireless communication technology to
dynamically access the licensed radio
spectrum in an opportunistic manner by
the secondary users without causing any
interference to primary users.
CR uses a radio called Software Defined
parameters of spectrum like operating
frequency, bandwidth, modulation scheme
and transmission power.

Objectives of CR

Cognitive Radio Architecture

Classified into
Infrastructure based CR Network
CR Adhoc Network
Non Co-operative

Communication Protocols for Cognitive Radio

Spectrum Sensing
Primary User Detection:
To detect the unused frequencies (spectrum
holes) over a frequency band.
To monitor the Spectrum band during the CR
user transmission in order to detect the
presence of primary users to avoid interference.

According to Ian F. Akyildiz [1], PU detection

techniques classified into three groups
Primary transmitter detection
Primary Receiver detection
Interference temperature management.

Sensing Control: Co-ordinates the

sensing operations and its neighbors
in a co-operative manner.

Spectrum Decision
Find out the best spectrum
among the available bands.
characteristics and primary
user activities.

Spectrum Characterization:
Observe the characteristics of each
available spectrum

Spectrum Selection:
From the characteristics observed for
each available band, the most
appropriate band should be selected.
Then the reconfiguration of channel
parameters according to the channel
selection should be done in spectrum

Spectrum Sharing

Provides mutual sharing of spectrum

band by multiple CR users without
making any interference to primary
CR MAC protocols used for controlling
the access of radio
by CR
users simultaneously.

Spectrum Mobility
Functionalities of Spectrum mobility .
Spectrum Handof
Connection Management

CR users occupy the licensed band in

an opportunistic way so they have to
switch to another band when a primary
user is observed--Spectrum handof.
Handof can be done in 2 ways.

Connection Management: Spectrum

handof requires CR user to switch
from current spectrum frequency to
new frequency band which result in
some latency. This latency time
should be known so that CR user can
guess the impact of temporary
disconnection and preserve the
minimum performance degradation.

Conclusion and Future


Cognitive Radio Next generation

heterogeneous wireless network
and provides the co-existence of
diferent wireless technologies.
Applications of Cognitive Radio:
E-health Services
Intelligent Transportation
Emergency networks

Open challenges for deployment of

Cognitive Radio are
Accurate Sensing
Proactive Spectrum decision
Efficient and balanced usage of
spectrum holes.
Seamless spectrum mobility and QoS
Finally Cognitive Radio is without any doubt
a critical path to the wireless communication
networks in future.


[1] Ian F.Akyildiz, Won-Yeol Lee,Kaushik R.Chowdary CRAHNS: Cognitive radio adhoc
networks Adhoc Networks, ELSEVIER, Vol. 7,No. 5,July 2009, PP 810-836.
[2] Jose Marinho, Edmundo Monteiro Cognitive Radio : survey on communication
protocols, spectrum decision issues and future research directions Wireless networks (2012)
[3] Ian F.Akyildiz, won-yeol Lee,Mehmet C.Vuran,Shantidev Mohanty Next
generation/dynamic spectrum access/Cognitive radio wireless networks: A Survey
Computer networks journal Elsevier (2006) 2127-2159.
[4] Tevfik yucek and Huseyin Arslan A Survey of Spectrum Sensing Algorithms for
Cognitive Radio Applications IEEE Communications surveys & tutorials Vol. 11 No. 1 first
quarter 2009.
[5] Moshe Timothy Masonta ,Mjumo Mzyece, Ntsibane Spectrum Decision in Cognitive
Radio Networks: A Survey IEEE Communications surveys & tutorials Vol. 15 No. 3 Third
quarter 2013.
[6] Joseph .Mitola III and G.Q.Maguire: Cognitive Radio: Making Software Radios more
personal IEEE Pers Commun, Vol. 6, No. 4,August 1999, PP 13-18.
[7] Joseph Mitola III,Cognitive Radio for Flexible Mobile Multimedia
communications,Springer,Mobile Networks and Applications,2001.
[8] R.V.Prasad, P.Pawelczak, J.A.Hoffmeyer,H.S.Berger: Cognitive Functionality in Next
Generation wireless networks:standardization Efforts, IEEE Communications Magazine,
April 2008, PP 72-78.

[9] Pushp Maheswari, Awadesh Kumar singh: A Survey on spectrum Handoff

techniques in Cognitive Radio Networks,IEEE International Conference on
Contemporary Computing and Informatics(IC3I), May 2014.
[10] Ian F.Akyildiz, won-yeol Lee,Mehmet C.Vuran,Shantidev Mohanty, A
survey on spectrum management in cognitive radio networks,IEEE
Communications Magazine,vol.46,no.4,PP.40-48,April 2008.
[11] Simon Haykin, Cogniive Radio:Brain empowered wireless communications,
IEEE J.Selected Areas Communications, vol.23, no.2,pp.201-220,Feb 2005.
[12] Simon Haykin, Spectrum sensing for Cognitive Radio, Proceedings of the
IEEE, vol.97, no.5, pp 849-877, May 2009.
[13] MITOLA. J., The Software Radio Architecture, IEEE Communications
Magazine, Vol 33, No. 5, pp. 26-38, 1995.
[14] Sai Shankar N, Carlos Cordeiro and Kiranchallapali, Spectrum agile radios:
Utilization and Sensing architectures, Proc. The first IEEE symposium on new
Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, pp. 160-169,2005.
[15] Aleksander Jovicic and Pramod Viswanath, Cognitive Radio: An InformationTheoretic Perspective, IEEE transactions on information theory 2008.
[16] Fredrich K.Jondral,Software Defined Radio-Basics and Evolution to
Cognitive Radio, EURASIP Journal on Communications and Networking 2005.

Any Queries?
Thank You