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Effective Utilization of Radio Frequency

Spectrum in Communication Networks using


Cognitive Radio

Presented by
J. Sarada Lakshmi
Research Scholar
Dept. of Computer Science and
Systems Engg.
Andhra University
Jammi_sarada@yahoo.com

Contents

Introduction
Cognitive Radio
Architecture & Protocol Stack
CR Functions
Spectrum Sensing
Spectrum Decision
Spectrum Sharing
Spectrum Mobility
Conclusion & Future Directions

Todays Wireless Network


Radio Frequency Spectrum ranges from 3KHz
to 300GHz used for wireless communication.
Most portion of the Spectrum (Licensed) is
assigned to Licensed users where the users
can use exclusively without any interference.
Few portion of the spectrum is left which is
used for industrial, scientific and medical
purpose(ISM band) which is unlicensed.
Wireless technologies like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth,
Cordless
phones,3G
etc
operate
on
unlicensed band.

LICENSED BAND
(Primary Users)

UNLICENSED BAND
(Secondary Users/Cognitive Radio Users)

A report from FCC concluded that


licensed bands are under-utilized where
as unlicensed are becoming scarce.
Fixed Spectrum assignment policy leads
to inefficient utilization of spectrum
To overcome this problem Cognitive
Radio (CR) emerged as a key technology
to dynamically access the licensed radio
spectrum in an opportunistic manner by
the secondary users without making any
harmful interference to primary users.

Spectrum Hole Concept


Temporarily unused
licensed radio
frequencies by primary users called as
white spaces or spectrum holes

Cognitive Radio
Cognitive Radio (CR) is an intelligent
wireless communication technology to
dynamically access the licensed radio
spectrum in an opportunistic manner by
the secondary users without causing any
interference to primary users.
CR uses a radio called Software Defined
Radio(SDR).
SDR
can
dynamically
change
the
parameters of spectrum like operating
frequency, bandwidth, modulation scheme
and transmission power.

Objectives of CR

Cognitive Radio Architecture


Classified into
Infrastructure based CR Network
CR Adhoc Network
Co-operative
Non Co-operative

Communication Protocols for Cognitive Radio

Spectrum Sensing
Primary User Detection:
To detect the unused frequencies (spectrum
holes) over a frequency band.
To monitor the Spectrum band during the CR
user transmission in order to detect the
presence of primary users to avoid interference.

According to Ian F. Akyildiz [1], PU detection


techniques classified into three groups
Primary transmitter detection
Primary Receiver detection
Interference temperature management.

Sensing Control: Co-ordinates the


sensing operations and its neighbors
in a co-operative manner.

Spectrum Decision
Find out the best spectrum
among the available bands.
Based
on
channel
characteristics and primary
user activities.

Spectrum Characterization:
Observe the characteristics of each
available spectrum

Spectrum Selection:
From the characteristics observed for
each available band, the most
appropriate band should be selected.
Then the reconfiguration of channel
parameters according to the channel
selection should be done in spectrum
decision.

Spectrum Sharing

Provides mutual sharing of spectrum


band by multiple CR users without
making any interference to primary
users.
CR MAC protocols used for controlling
CR MAC
Random
Protocols
Access
the access of radio
spectrum
by CR
users simultaneously.

Spectrum Mobility
Functionalities of Spectrum mobility .
Spectrum Handof
Connection Management

CR users occupy the licensed band in


an opportunistic way so they have to
switch to another band when a primary
user is observed--Spectrum handof.
Handof can be done in 2 ways.
Pro-active
Re-active

Connection Management: Spectrum


handof requires CR user to switch
from current spectrum frequency to
new frequency band which result in
some latency. This latency time
should be known so that CR user can
guess the impact of temporary
disconnection and preserve the
ongoing
communication
with
minimum performance degradation.

Conclusion and Future


Directions

Cognitive Radio Next generation


heterogeneous wireless network
and provides the co-existence of
diferent wireless technologies.
Applications of Cognitive Radio:
E-health Services
Intelligent Transportation
system
Emergency networks

Open challenges for deployment of


Cognitive Radio are
Accurate Sensing
Proactive Spectrum decision
Efficient and balanced usage of
spectrum holes.
Seamless spectrum mobility and QoS
provisioning.
Finally Cognitive Radio is without any doubt
a critical path to the wireless communication
networks in future.

References

[1] Ian F.Akyildiz, Won-Yeol Lee,Kaushik R.Chowdary CRAHNS: Cognitive radio adhoc
networks Adhoc Networks, ELSEVIER, Vol. 7,No. 5,July 2009, PP 810-836.
[2] Jose Marinho, Edmundo Monteiro Cognitive Radio : survey on communication
protocols, spectrum decision issues and future research directions Wireless networks (2012)
18:147-164.
[3] Ian F.Akyildiz, won-yeol Lee,Mehmet C.Vuran,Shantidev Mohanty Next
generation/dynamic spectrum access/Cognitive radio wireless networks: A Survey
Computer networks journal Elsevier (2006) 2127-2159.
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Cognitive Radio Applications IEEE Communications surveys & tutorials Vol. 11 No. 1 first
quarter 2009.
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Any Queries?
Thank You