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# Chapter

19

Inductance

## Topics Covered in Chapter 19

19-1: Induction by Alternating Current
19-2: Self-Inductance L
19-3: Self-Induced Voltage vL
19-4: How vL Opposes a Change in Current
19-5: Mutual Inductance LM
19-6: Transformers

## Topics Covered in Chapter 19

19-7: Transformer Ratings
19-8: Impedance Transformation
19-9: Core Losses
19-10: Types of Cores
19-11: Variable Inductance
19-12: Inductances in Series or Parallel
19-13: Energy in Magnetic Field of Inductance
19-14: Stray Capacitive and Inductive Effects
19-15: Measuring and Testing Inductors
McGraw-Hill

19-1: Induction by
Alternating Current
Induced voltage is the result of flux cutting

across a conductor.
This action can be produced by physical motion
of either the magnetic field or the conductor.
Variations in current level (or amplitude)
induces voltage in a conductor because the
variations of current and its magnetic field are
equivalent to the motion of the flux.
Thus, the varying current can produce induced
voltage without the need for motion of the
conductor.
The ability of a conductor to induce voltage in
itself when the current changes is called selfinductance, or simply inductance.

19-1: Induction by
Alternating Current
Induction by a varying current results from the change

## in current, not the current value itself. The current must

change to provide motion of the flux.
The faster the current changes, the higher the induced

voltage.

19-1: Induction by
Alternating Current

## At point A, the current is zero and there is no flux.

At point B, the positive direction of current provides some field

## lines taken here in the counterclockwise direction.

Fig. 19-1: Magnetic field of an alternating current is effectively in motion as it expands and
contracts with the current variations.
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19-1: Induction by
Alternating Current

## Point C has maximum current and maximum counterclockwise flux.

At point D there is less flux than at C. Now the field is collapsing

## because of reduced current.

19-1: Induction by
Alternating Current

Point E with zero current, there is no magnetic flux. The field can be

## considered collapsed into the wire.

The next half-cycle of current allows the field to expand and collapse
again, but the directions are reversed.
When the flux expands at points F and G, the field lines are clockwise.
From G to H and I, this clockwise field collapses into the wire.

19-1: Induction by
Alternating Current
Characteristics of inductance are important in:
AC circuits: In these circuits, the current is

## continuously changing and producing induced

voltage.
DC circuits in which the current changes in value: DC
circuits that are turned off and on (changing between
zero and its steady value) can produce induced
voltage.

19-2: Self-Inductance L
The symbol for inductance is L, for linkages of magnetic

flux.
L=

VL
di / dt

## VL is in volts, di/dt is the current change in amperes per

second.
The henry (H) is the basic unit of inductance.
One henry causes 1 V to be induced when the current
is changing at the rate of 1 A per second.

Examples
The current in an inductor changes from 12 to 16 A in

## 1 s. How much is the di/dt rate of current change in

amperes per second?
The current in an inductor changes by 50 mA in 2 s.
How much is the di/dt rate of current change in
amperes per second?
How much is the inductance of a coil that induces 40
V when its current changes at the rate of 4 A/s?
How much is the inductance of a coil that induces
1000 V when its current changes at the rate of 50 mA
in 2 s?

19-2: Self-Inductance L
Inductance of Coils
The inductance of a coil depends on how it is wound.
A greater number of turns (N) increases L because
more voltage can be induced (L increases in
proportion to N).
More area enclosed by each turn increases L.
The L increases with the permeability of the core.
The L decreases with more length for the same
number of turns, as the magnetic field is less
concentrated.

19-2: Self-Inductance L
Calculating the Inductance of a Long Coil
air-core
symbol
r = 1)

iron-core
symbol
r >> 1)

L = r

N 2A
l

1.26 106 H

Where:
L is the inductance in henrys.
r is the relative permeability of the core
N is the number of turns
A is the area in square meters
l is the length in meters
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

19-2: Self-Inductance L
Typical Coil Inductance Values
Air-core coils for RF applications have L values in
millihenrys (mH) and microhenrys (H).
Practical inductor values are in these ranges:
1 H to 10 H (for iron-core inductors)
1 mH (millihenry) = 1 10-3 H
1 H (microhenry) = 1 10-6 H

Formula:

vL = L

()
di
dt

## Induced voltage is proportional to

inductance (L).
Induced voltage is proportional to the rate of

current change:

()
di
dt

## 19-3: Self-Induced Voltage vL

Energy Stored in the Field

LI 2
Energy
2

## Where the energy is in joules:

L is the inductance in henrys
I is the current in amperes

http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/java/index.html
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Examples
How much is the self-induced voltage across a 4-H

## inductance produced by a current change of 12 A/s?

The current through a 200-mH L changes from 0 to

## 19-4: How vL Opposes

a Change in Current
Lenz Law states that the induced

## voltage produces current that opposes

the changes in the current causing the
induction.
The polarity of vL depends on the
direction of the current variation di.
When di increases, vL has polarity that
opposes the increase in current.
When di decreases, vL has opposite
polarity to oppose the decrease in
current.
In both cases, the change in current is
opposed by the induced voltage.
http://www.launc.tased.edu.au/online/sciences/Physics/Lenz%27s.html

## 19-5: Mutual Inductance LM

Mutual inductance (LM) occurs when current flowing

## through one conductor creates a magnetic field which

induces a voltage in a nearby conductor.
Two coils have a mutual inductance of 1 H when a
current change of 1A/s induces 1 V in the other coil.
Unit: Henrys (H)
Formula:

L M k L 1L 2

## 19-5: Mutual Inductance LM

Coefficient of coupling, k, is the fraction of total flux from
one coil linking another coil nearby.
Specifically, the coefficient of coupling is
k = flux linkages between L1 and L2 divided by
flux produced by L1
There are no units for k, because it is a ratio of two

## values of magnetic flux. The value of k is generally

stated as a decimal fraction.

## 19-5: Mutual Inductance LM

The coefficient of coupling is increased by placing the

## coils close together, possibly with one wound on top of

the other, by placing them parallel, or by winding the
coils on a common core.
A high value of k, called tight coupling, allows the
current in one coil to induce more voltage in the other.
Loose coupling, with a low value of k, has the opposite
effect.
Two coils may be placed perpendicular to each other
and far apart for essentially zero coupling to minimize
interaction between the coils.

## 19-5: Mutual Inductance LM

Loose coupling

Tighter coupling

Unity coupling

Zero coupling

Fig. 19-8: Examples of coupling between two coils linked by LM. (a) L1 or L2 on paper or plastic
form with air core; k is 0.1. (b) L1 wound over L2 for tighter coupling; k is 0.3. (c) L1 and L2 on the
same iron core; k is 1. (d) Zero coupling between perpendicular air-core coils.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

## 19-5: Mutual Inductance LM

Calculating LM
Mutual inductance increases
with higher values for
primary and secondary
inductances.
LM = k L1 L2
where L1 and L2 are the selfinductance values of the two
coils, k is the coefficient of
coupling, and LM is the
mutual inductance.

19-6: Transformers
Transformers are an

important application of
mutual inductance.
A transformer has two or
more windings with mutual
inductance.
The primary winding is
connected to a source of ac
power.
The secondary winding is
Fig. 19-11: Iron-core power transformer.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

19-6: Transformers
The transformer transfers power from the primary to the secondary.

Transformer steps up voltage (to 100V) and steps current down (to 1A)
Fig. 19-9: Iron-core transformer with 1:10 turns ratio. Primary current IP induces secondary
voltage VS, which produces current in secondary load RL.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

19-6: Transformers
A transformer can step up or step down the voltage

## level from the ac source.

A transformer is a device that
uses the concept of mutual
inductance to step up or step
down an alternating voltage.

Primary

Secondary

Primary

Secondary

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

19-6: Transformers
Turns Ratio
The ratio of the number of turns in the primary to the
number in the secondary is the turns ratio of the
transformer.
Turns ratio equals NP/NS.
where NP equals the number of turns in the primary and
NS equals the number of turns in the secondary.
The turns ratio NP/NS is sometimes represented by the
lowercase letter a.

19-6: Transformers
The voltage ratio is the same as the turns ratio:

VP / VS = NP / NS
VP = primary voltage, VS = secondary voltage
NP = number of turns of wire in the primary
NS = number of turns of wire in the secondary
When transformer efficiency is 100%, the power at the

## primary equals the power at the secondary.

Power ratings refer to the secondary winding in real

## transformers (efficiency < 100%).

19-6: Transformers
Voltage Ratio
1:3

Step-up (1:3)
120 V

Primary

Step-down (3:1)

120 V

Secondary

3:1

Primary

Secondary

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

VL = 3 x 120
= 360 V

360 V

VL = 1/3 x 120
= 40 V

40 V

19-6: Transformers
Current Ratio is the inverse of the voltage ratio. (That
is voltage step-up in the secondary means current
step-down, and vice versa.)
The secondary does not generate power but takes it
from the primary.
The current step-up or step-down is terms of the
secondary current IS, which is determined by the load
resistance across the secondary voltage.

19-6: Transformers
Current Ratio
120 V

1:3

Primary

IL = 1/3 x 0.3
= 0.1 A

Secondary

0.3 A

0.1 A

IS/IP = VP/VS
3:1

120 V

Primary
0.1 A

IL = 3 x 0.1
= 0.3 A

Secondary
0.3 A

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

40 V

19-6: Transformers
Transformer efficiency is the ratio of power out to
power in.
Stated as a formula
% Efficiency = Pout/Pin x 100
Assuming zero losses in the transformer, power out
equals power in and the efficiency is 100%.
Actual power transformers have an efficiency of
approximately 80 to 90%.

19-6: Transformers
Transformer Efficiency
120 V

Primary

3:1
Secondary

40 V

0.3 A
0.12 A

## PPRI = 120 x .12 = 14.4 W

PSEC = 40 x 0.3 = 12 W

PSEC
Efficiency =

12
100 % = 83 %

100 % =
PPRI

14.4

## Primary power that is lost is dissipated as heat in the transformer.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

19-6: Transformers
1:6
Calculate VS from the

## turns ratio and VP.

Use VS to calculate IS:
IS = VS/RL
Use IS to calculate PS:
PS = VS x IS
Use PS to find PP:
P P = PS
Finally, IP can be
calculated:
IP = PP/VP

20:1

19-6: Transformers
Autotransformers
An autotransformer is a
continuous coil with a
tapped connection between
the end terminals.
An autotransformer has only
isolation between the
primary and secondary.

## 19-7: Transformer Ratings

Transformer voltage, current, and power ratings must

## not be exceeded; doing so will destroy the transformer.

Typical Ratings:
Voltage values are specified for primary and secondary
windings.
Current
Power (apparent power VA)
Frequency

## 19-7: Transformer Ratings

Voltage Ratings
Manufacturers always specify the voltage rating of the
primary and secondary windings.
Under no circumstances should the primary voltage
rating be exceeded.
In many cases, the rated primary and secondary
voltages are printed on the transformer.
Regardless of how the secondary voltage is specified,
the rated value is always specified under full load
conditions with the rated primary voltage applied.

## 19-7: Transformer Ratings

Current Ratings
Manufacturers usually specify current ratings only for
secondary windings.
If the secondary current is not exceeded, there is no
possible way the primary current can be exceeded.
If the secondary current exceeds its rated value,
excessive I2R losses will result in the secondary
winding.

## 19-7: Transformer Ratings

Power Ratings
The power rating is the amount of power the
transformer can deliver to a resistive load.
The power rating is specified in volt-amperes (VA).
The product VA is called apparent power, since it is
the power that is apparently used by the transformer.
The unit of apparent power is VA because the watt is
reserved for the dissipation of power in a resistance.

## 19-7: Transformer Ratings

Frequency Ratings
Typical ratings for a power transformer are 50, 60, and
400 Hz.
A power transformer with a frequency rating of 400 Hz
cannot be used at 50 or 60 Hz because it will
overheat.
Many power transformers are designed to operate at
either 50 or 60 Hz.
Power transformers with a 400-Hz rating are often
used in aircraft because these transformers are much
smaller and lighter that 50- or 60-Hz transformers.

19-12: Inductances in
Series or Parallel
With no mutual coupling:
For series circuits, inductances add just like

resistances.
LT = L1 + L2 + L3 + ... + etc.
For parallel circuits, inductances combine according

1
LEQ =
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... + etc.
L3
L1
L2

## 19-13: Energy in Magnetic

Field of Inductance
The magnetic flux of current in an inductance has

## electric energy supplied by the voltage source

producing the current.
The energy is stored in the field, since it can do the
work of producing induced voltage when the flux
moves.
The amount of electric energy stored is
Energy = = LI2
The factor of gives the average result of I in
producing energy.

## 19-15: Measuring and

Testing Inductors
The most common trouble

## in coils is an open winding.

As shown in Fig. 19-32, an
ohmmeter connected
resistance for the open
circuit.

## Fig. 19-32: An open coil reads infinite ohms

when its continuity is checked with an
ohmmeter.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

## 19-15: Measuring and

Testing Inductors
A coil has dc resistance equal to the

## resistance of the wire used in the winding.

As shown in Fig. 19-33, the dc resistance
and inductance of a coil are in series.
Although resistance has no function in
producing induced voltage, it is useful to
know the dc coil resistance because if it is
normal, usually the inductance can also be
assumed to have its normal value.
Fig. 19-33: The internal dc resistance ri of a coil is in series with its inductance L.