Inductance

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Inductance

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19

Inductance

19-1: Induction by Alternating Current

19-2: Self-Inductance L

19-3: Self-Induced Voltage vL

19-4: How vL Opposes a Change in Current

19-5: Mutual Inductance LM

19-6: Transformers

19-7: Transformer Ratings

19-8: Impedance Transformation

19-9: Core Losses

19-10: Types of Cores

19-11: Variable Inductance

19-12: Inductances in Series or Parallel

19-13: Energy in Magnetic Field of Inductance

19-14: Stray Capacitive and Inductive Effects

19-15: Measuring and Testing Inductors

McGraw-Hill

19-1: Induction by

Alternating Current

Induced voltage is the result of flux cutting

across a conductor.

This action can be produced by physical motion

of either the magnetic field or the conductor.

Variations in current level (or amplitude)

induces voltage in a conductor because the

variations of current and its magnetic field are

equivalent to the motion of the flux.

Thus, the varying current can produce induced

voltage without the need for motion of the

conductor.

The ability of a conductor to induce voltage in

itself when the current changes is called selfinductance, or simply inductance.

19-1: Induction by

Alternating Current

Induction by a varying current results from the change

change to provide motion of the flux.

The faster the current changes, the higher the induced

voltage.

19-1: Induction by

Alternating Current

At point B, the positive direction of current provides some field

Fig. 19-1: Magnetic field of an alternating current is effectively in motion as it expands and

contracts with the current variations.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

19-1: Induction by

Alternating Current

At point D there is less flux than at C. Now the field is collapsing

19-1: Induction by

Alternating Current

Point E with zero current, there is no magnetic flux. The field can be

The next half-cycle of current allows the field to expand and collapse

again, but the directions are reversed.

When the flux expands at points F and G, the field lines are clockwise.

From G to H and I, this clockwise field collapses into the wire.

19-1: Induction by

Alternating Current

Characteristics of inductance are important in:

AC circuits: In these circuits, the current is

voltage.

DC circuits in which the current changes in value: DC

circuits that are turned off and on (changing between

zero and its steady value) can produce induced

voltage.

19-2: Self-Inductance L

The symbol for inductance is L, for linkages of magnetic

flux.

L=

VL

di / dt

second.

The henry (H) is the basic unit of inductance.

One henry causes 1 V to be induced when the current

is changing at the rate of 1 A per second.

Examples

The current in an inductor changes from 12 to 16 A in

amperes per second?

The current in an inductor changes by 50 mA in 2 s.

How much is the di/dt rate of current change in

amperes per second?

How much is the inductance of a coil that induces 40

V when its current changes at the rate of 4 A/s?

How much is the inductance of a coil that induces

1000 V when its current changes at the rate of 50 mA

in 2 s?

19-2: Self-Inductance L

Inductance of Coils

The inductance of a coil depends on how it is wound.

A greater number of turns (N) increases L because

more voltage can be induced (L increases in

proportion to N).

More area enclosed by each turn increases L.

The L increases with the permeability of the core.

The L decreases with more length for the same

number of turns, as the magnetic field is less

concentrated.

19-2: Self-Inductance L

Calculating the Inductance of a Long Coil

air-core

symbol

r = 1)

iron-core

symbol

r >> 1)

L = r

N 2A

l

1.26 106 H

Where:

L is the inductance in henrys.

r is the relative permeability of the core

N is the number of turns

A is the area in square meters

l is the length in meters

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

19-2: Self-Inductance L

Typical Coil Inductance Values

Air-core coils for RF applications have L values in

millihenrys (mH) and microhenrys (H).

Practical inductor values are in these ranges:

1 H to 10 H (for iron-core inductors)

1 mH (millihenry) = 1 10-3 H

1 H (microhenry) = 1 10-6 H

Formula:

vL = L

()

di

dt

inductance (L).

Induced voltage is proportional to the rate of

current change:

()

di

dt

Energy Stored in the Field

LI 2

Energy

2

L is the inductance in henrys

I is the current in amperes

http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/java/index.html

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Examples

How much is the self-induced voltage across a 4-H

The current through a 200-mH L changes from 0 to

a Change in Current

Lenz Law states that the induced

the changes in the current causing the

induction.

The polarity of vL depends on the

direction of the current variation di.

When di increases, vL has polarity that

opposes the increase in current.

When di decreases, vL has opposite

polarity to oppose the decrease in

current.

In both cases, the change in current is

opposed by the induced voltage.

http://www.launc.tased.edu.au/online/sciences/Physics/Lenz%27s.html

Mutual inductance (LM) occurs when current flowing

induces a voltage in a nearby conductor.

Two coils have a mutual inductance of 1 H when a

current change of 1A/s induces 1 V in the other coil.

Unit: Henrys (H)

Formula:

L M k L 1L 2

Coefficient of coupling, k, is the fraction of total flux from

one coil linking another coil nearby.

Specifically, the coefficient of coupling is

k = flux linkages between L1 and L2 divided by

flux produced by L1

There are no units for k, because it is a ratio of two

stated as a decimal fraction.

The coefficient of coupling is increased by placing the

the other, by placing them parallel, or by winding the

coils on a common core.

A high value of k, called tight coupling, allows the

current in one coil to induce more voltage in the other.

Loose coupling, with a low value of k, has the opposite

effect.

Two coils may be placed perpendicular to each other

and far apart for essentially zero coupling to minimize

interaction between the coils.

Loose coupling

Tighter coupling

Unity coupling

Zero coupling

Fig. 19-8: Examples of coupling between two coils linked by LM. (a) L1 or L2 on paper or plastic

form with air core; k is 0.1. (b) L1 wound over L2 for tighter coupling; k is 0.3. (c) L1 and L2 on the

same iron core; k is 1. (d) Zero coupling between perpendicular air-core coils.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Calculating LM

Mutual inductance increases

with higher values for

primary and secondary

inductances.

LM = k L1 L2

where L1 and L2 are the selfinductance values of the two

coils, k is the coefficient of

coupling, and LM is the

mutual inductance.

19-6: Transformers

Transformers are an

important application of

mutual inductance.

A transformer has two or

more windings with mutual

inductance.

The primary winding is

connected to a source of ac

power.

The secondary winding is

connected to the load.

Fig. 19-11: Iron-core power transformer.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

19-6: Transformers

The transformer transfers power from the primary to the secondary.

Transformer steps up voltage (to 100V) and steps current down (to 1A)

Fig. 19-9: Iron-core transformer with 1:10 turns ratio. Primary current IP induces secondary

voltage VS, which produces current in secondary load RL.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

19-6: Transformers

A transformer can step up or step down the voltage

A transformer is a device that

uses the concept of mutual

inductance to step up or step

down an alternating voltage.

Primary

Secondary

Load

Primary

Secondary

Load

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

19-6: Transformers

Turns Ratio

The ratio of the number of turns in the primary to the

number in the secondary is the turns ratio of the

transformer.

Turns ratio equals NP/NS.

where NP equals the number of turns in the primary and

NS equals the number of turns in the secondary.

The turns ratio NP/NS is sometimes represented by the

lowercase letter a.

19-6: Transformers

The voltage ratio is the same as the turns ratio:

VP / VS = NP / NS

VP = primary voltage, VS = secondary voltage

NP = number of turns of wire in the primary

NS = number of turns of wire in the secondary

When transformer efficiency is 100%, the power at the

Power ratings refer to the secondary winding in real

19-6: Transformers

Voltage Ratio

1:3

Step-up (1:3)

120 V

Primary

Step-down (3:1)

120 V

Secondary

3:1

Primary

Secondary

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

VL = 3 x 120

= 360 V

Load

360 V

VL = 1/3 x 120

= 40 V

Load

40 V

19-6: Transformers

Current Ratio is the inverse of the voltage ratio. (That

is voltage step-up in the secondary means current

step-down, and vice versa.)

The secondary does not generate power but takes it

from the primary.

The current step-up or step-down is terms of the

secondary current IS, which is determined by the load

resistance across the secondary voltage.

19-6: Transformers

Current Ratio

120 V

1:3

Primary

IL = 1/3 x 0.3

= 0.1 A

Secondary

0.3 A

Load 360 V

0.1 A

IS/IP = VP/VS

3:1

120 V

Primary

0.1 A

IL = 3 x 0.1

= 0.3 A

Secondary

0.3 A

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Load

40 V

19-6: Transformers

Transformer efficiency is the ratio of power out to

power in.

Stated as a formula

% Efficiency = Pout/Pin x 100

Assuming zero losses in the transformer, power out

equals power in and the efficiency is 100%.

Actual power transformers have an efficiency of

approximately 80 to 90%.

19-6: Transformers

Transformer Efficiency

120 V

Primary

3:1

Secondary

Load

40 V

0.3 A

0.12 A

PSEC = 40 x 0.3 = 12 W

PSEC

Efficiency =

12

100 % = 83 %

100 % =

PPRI

14.4

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

19-6: Transformers

Loaded Power Transformer

1:6

Calculate VS from the

Use VS to calculate IS:

IS = VS/RL

Use IS to calculate PS:

PS = VS x IS

Use PS to find PP:

P P = PS

Finally, IP can be

calculated:

IP = PP/VP

20:1

19-6: Transformers

Autotransformers

An autotransformer is a

transformer made of one

continuous coil with a

tapped connection between

the end terminals.

An autotransformer has only

three leads and provides no

isolation between the

primary and secondary.

Transformer voltage, current, and power ratings must

Typical Ratings:

Voltage values are specified for primary and secondary

windings.

Current

Power (apparent power VA)

Frequency

Voltage Ratings

Manufacturers always specify the voltage rating of the

primary and secondary windings.

Under no circumstances should the primary voltage

rating be exceeded.

In many cases, the rated primary and secondary

voltages are printed on the transformer.

Regardless of how the secondary voltage is specified,

the rated value is always specified under full load

conditions with the rated primary voltage applied.

Current Ratings

Manufacturers usually specify current ratings only for

secondary windings.

If the secondary current is not exceeded, there is no

possible way the primary current can be exceeded.

If the secondary current exceeds its rated value,

excessive I2R losses will result in the secondary

winding.

Power Ratings

The power rating is the amount of power the

transformer can deliver to a resistive load.

The power rating is specified in volt-amperes (VA).

The product VA is called apparent power, since it is

the power that is apparently used by the transformer.

The unit of apparent power is VA because the watt is

reserved for the dissipation of power in a resistance.

Frequency Ratings

Typical ratings for a power transformer are 50, 60, and

400 Hz.

A power transformer with a frequency rating of 400 Hz

cannot be used at 50 or 60 Hz because it will

overheat.

Many power transformers are designed to operate at

either 50 or 60 Hz.

Power transformers with a 400-Hz rating are often

used in aircraft because these transformers are much

smaller and lighter that 50- or 60-Hz transformers.

19-12: Inductances in

Series or Parallel

With no mutual coupling:

For series circuits, inductances add just like

resistances.

LT = L1 + L2 + L3 + ... + etc.

For parallel circuits, inductances combine according

1

LEQ =

1

1

1

+

+

+ ... + etc.

L3

L1

L2

Field of Inductance

The magnetic flux of current in an inductance has

producing the current.

The energy is stored in the field, since it can do the

work of producing induced voltage when the flux

moves.

The amount of electric energy stored is

Energy = = LI2

The factor of gives the average result of I in

producing energy.

Testing Inductors

The most common trouble

As shown in Fig. 19-32, an

ohmmeter connected

across the coil reads infinite

resistance for the open

circuit.

when its continuity is checked with an

ohmmeter.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Testing Inductors

A coil has dc resistance equal to the

As shown in Fig. 19-33, the dc resistance

and inductance of a coil are in series.

Although resistance has no function in

producing induced voltage, it is useful to

know the dc coil resistance because if it is

normal, usually the inductance can also be

assumed to have its normal value.

Fig. 19-33: The internal dc resistance ri of a coil is in series with its inductance L.

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