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Cours rseaux informatiques

Dr. Ouni sofiane

Chapitre 1
Rappel des
Concepts des rseaux

1. Dfinition des rseaux


informatiques
Un rseau informatique (computer network)
est un systme de communication (ensemble
matriel + logiciel) qui permet un ensemble
dordinateurs (au sens large) dchanger de
linformation
Lchange dinformation nest pas une finalit
en soi. Les rseaux servent avant tout
raliser des services
4

2. Caractristiques des rseaux

Zone de couverture gographique (des communications):


LAN (Local Area Network) : Rseaux Locaux, 1Km, comme Ethernet,
WiFi
LAN filaire
WLAN (Wireless LAN) : rseaux locaux sans fil WIFI , Quelques centaines de
mtres
PAN (Personal Area Network) : interconnexion dquipements , bluetooth,
quelques mtres

WAN (Wide Area Network) : Rseaux grande distance, > 1Km, un pays,
toute la plante, comme Internet (rseau des rseaux). Les WAN assure la
connexion des rseaux LAN.

MAN (Metropolitan Area Networks): Rseaux mtropolitains, Intermdiaires


entre LAN et WAN - qq dizaines de km, ville ou rgion, comme WIMAX
(60Km)

Dbit (nombre de bits transmis par seconde)


LAN : 100Mbits/s, 1Gbits/s, 10Gbits/s
WAN : 54Kbits/s, 128Kbits/s, 256Kbits/s,512kbits/s, 1Mbits/s
5

Caractristiques
des rseaux
Support de transmission des donnes
LAN : paires torsads(RJ45), fibre optique, onde radio ,
WAN : ligne tlphonique, satellite, cble, Ligne spcialise,

Caractristiques des rseaux


quipements dinterconnexion :
LAN : Hub (concentrateur), switcher
(commutateur) ,
WAN : Routeur, Modem,

Caractristiques des rseaux


une hirarchie Modem puis routeur, puis des
switchers, puis des Hubs, puis des ordinateurs

Rseaux
distants :
WAN

Rseaux
Locaux : LAN
8

Caractristiques des rseaux


Type de liaisons entre quipements rseaux
Liaison directe : sans commutation
point point : entre deux quipements (ordinateurs)

accs multiple : Plusieurs ordinateurs utilisant un


mme support de transmission

Liaison commute : utilisation des quipements


de commutation
9

Caractristiques des rseaux


Liaison directe : Point Point
point point : modem, USB, port srie,
cble crois rseau (RJ45),
USB

USB - port srie


USB to RS232 (9-pin) Cable

Cble rseau : RJ45


10

Caractristiques des rseaux


Liaison directe : accs multiple
Rseau en Bus utilisant le cble coaxiale
Connecteur en T et jonction coaxiale

Rseau avec des HUB (concentrateurs): connecteur multipoints


Hub rseau RJ45 et BNC

Hub rseau RJ45 et USB

11

Caractristiques des rseaux

Liaison commute

Le commutateur assure louverture de lien avec dautre


commutateur afin dassurer lacheminement des
communications
D

Commutateur (switcher)

B
12

3. Les services Internet


le courrier lectronique (mail)
le transfert de fichiers (ftp)
laccs distance (telnet)
laccs au World Wide Web
les services utilisant le Web :
documentation, commerce lectronique,
13

le courrier lectronique
(email)
L'e-mail permet non seulement d'envoyer des
textes, mais toutes sortes de fichiers
(programmes, images, vidos, sons), sous la
forme de pices jointes (attachements).

14

le courrier lectronique (email) :


architecture

15

le courrier lectronique (email) :


paramtrage

16

le courrier lectronique (email) :


paramtrage

Informations sur l'utilisateur:


Votre nom: votre nom complet.
Adresse de messagerie: votre adresse e-mail
Informations sur le serveur:
Serveur de courrier entrant (POP3):
Serveur de courrier sortant (SMTP):
Informations de connexion:
Nom d'utilisateur: votre nom d'utilisateur
17
Mot de passe: votre mot de passe pour l'mail

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) :


Transfert de fichiers
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) est le premier outil qui a
t mis la disposition des utilisateurs pour
changer des fichiers sur Internet.
En utilisant FTP, vous serez clients d'un modle
client/serveur et vous vous adresserez un serveur.
En effet, en quelques clics, vous pourrez tlcharger
la dernire version d'un logiciel ou inversement,
vous pouvez mettre la disposition des utilisateurs
des fichiers ou des logiciels que vous avez crs.
18

FTP : interface navigateur

19

FTP : architecture

20

Telnet

Telnet (TErminal NETwork ou


TELecommunication NETwork, ou
encore TELetype NETwork) : Dsigne
un protocole et une application qui
permet de travailler sur un ordinateur
distance.
21

Telnet : connexion
pouvoir connecter au serveur TELNET il faut :

Lancer la commande TELNET partir d'un client TELNET


Donner le nom ou l'adresse IP de la machine serveur TELNET, le
nom de compte d'utilisateur et le mot de passe
Le serveur va faire la vrification de ces informations
Les droits d'excuter des commandes dpendent des droits de
compte d'utilisateur
La connexion est faite, si l'authentification de client est bien russite,
le client peut maintenant saisir une ligne de commande
Le serveur reoit cette ligne de commande et l'excute. Le rsultat
de l'excution sera ensuite affich l'cran de la machine Client.
EXIT est la commande pour quitter le client TELNET.

22

Telnet : utilisation
Accs une machine distante pour lire et
crire des fichier distance
Accs un serveur distante pour
excuter des applications : simulateur de
phnomnes physiques
Accs distant un serveur email
Accs distant pour configurer un
quipement rseaux : routeur,
23

Telnet : utilisation pour


configuration routeur ADSL

24

Telnet : utilisation pour


configuration routeur ADSL

25

Telnet : utilisation pour


configuration routeur ADSL

26

World Wide Web


Le World Wide Web, littralement la toile (d'araigne) mondiale ,
communment appel le Web, parfois la Toile ou le WWW, est un systme
hypertexte public fonctionnant sur Internet et qui permet de consulter, avec un
navigateur, des pages mises en ligne dans des sites.

27

World Wide Web


Page web : est un document pouvant contenir du
texte, des images, du son, ... et des liens vers
d'autres documents.
Exemple : http://crb.ulco.free.fr/c2i/site
Site web :est un ensemble de pages web relies
entre elles par des liens hypertextes.
Serveur web : est un ordinateur hte qui contient
des pages web et les met la disposition du net.

28

World Wide Web :


navigateur
La barre d'adresse :
C'est dans cette zone que vous taperez l'adresse
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) du site afficher.
Le prfixe http:// se rajoute automatiquement. Il
dsigne la nature du protocole de communication
entre le serveur web et le navigateur : Hyper Text
Transfert Protocol.
Si l'change de donnes est crypt, on utilisera le
protocole http scuris https:// (site scuris).
29

World Wide Web :


architecture

30

4. volution dInternet

31

volution dInternet

32

Applications Multimdia sur


Internet : Vido avec WebCAM
Vido surveillance
Visualisation de place
principale dans les villes
Communication audio visuel

Augustine au sud de lAlaska en Eruption : WebCam du


Volcan

33

Applications Multimdia sur


Internet : Vido avec WebCAM
Communication avec voix et vido entre
deux utilisant :

WebCam
Une connexion Internet
Logiciel de visualisation temps rel : skype,

34

Applications Multimdia sur


Internet : Vido confrence

35

Tlphonie sur Internet


Voix sur IP (aussi connu sous le nom de VoIP,
Tlphonie sur IP, tlphonie Internet) fait rfrence
la technologie qui permet de router les conversations
vocales sur Internet ou un rseau informatique

36

Tlphonie sur Internet


Il y a deux types de tlphones :
Tlphone IP, fonctionne sur le rseaux informatique
Tlphone classique se connectant au rseau tlphonique

On peut passer du rseaux Internet au rseau


tlphonique et vise versa

37

5. volution dInternet:
rseaux mobiles

Rseaux mobiles : rseaux sans fil,


rseaux GSM,GPRS, UMTS
38

Rseaux sans fil : WiFi


Connexion Internet via un routeur ADSL sans fil
Impression sans fil sans cble imprimante
Utilisation des ressources (partage de fichier,
disque, lecteur CD) dune machine distante
sans cble.

39

GSM, GPRS : BTS


La Base Transceiver Station (BTS) est
lquipement terminal du rseau vers les
tlphones portables
Une BTS est un groupement dmetteurs et de
rcepteurs fixes.
Elle change des messages avec les stations
mobiles prsentes dans la cellule quelle contrle.

BTS

40

GSM, GPRS :
architecture

BSC Base Station Controller contrleur des BTS


BSC assure lacheminement des communications dautres
zones
MSC Mobile Switching Centre assure linterconnexion
vers le rseaux tlphonique (fixe).
41

Web sur mobile : WAP


WAP : Wireless Application Protocol.
Protocole normalis permettant l'accs
l'Internet partir d'un tlphone
portable.
Exemple www.awt.be
en Windows mobile

42

volution des rseaux mobiles

43

4.5. Convergence des rseaux

44

volution des rseaux : dbit et


technologie

45

6. Concepts de base des


rseaux
partir dexemple de
Requte
WEB
46

Comment fonctionne un
rseau ?

47

Comment fonctionne un rseau


?

48

Comment fonctionne un
rseau ?

49

Comment fonctionne un
rseau ?

50

6. Notions de protocole

51

Notions de protocole

52

53

Les protocoles de lInternet

54

Les protocoles normaliss de lISO


(International Standards Organisation)
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

55

56

OSI Reference Model (Condensed Information)

57

58

59

Internet Protocols
FTP RFC
959
Telnet
RFC 854

TCP

NFS RPC

SNMP
SMTP
RFC 821

RFC 1058

RFC 1035

RFC 793

UDP RFC 768

IP
ARP

ICMP
RFC 792

RFC 791

RFC 826

Ethernet/IEEE 802.3
LAN

Routing protocols BGP


OSPF IGRP EIGRP

RIP

DNS

X.25
PPP

HDLC

SLIP

LAPB

Public telephone network


60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

Internet

72

73

The OSI Reference Model


Application
Layer

Application
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Session
Layer

Session
Layer

Transport
Layer

Transport
Layer

Network
Layer

Network
Layer

Data Link
Layer

Data Link
Layer

Physical
Layer

Physical
Layer
74

The Physical Layer Connection


Application
Layer

Application
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Session
Layer

Session
Layer

Transport
Layer

Transport
Layer

Data Link
Layer

Network
Specifies
Layer
electrical
Data Link
connection
Layer

Physical
Layer

Physical
Layer

Network
Layer

75

The Physical Layer Connection


Application
Layer

Application
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Session
Layer

Session
Layer

Transport
Layer

Transport
Layer

Network
Layer

Network
Layer

Data Link
Layer
Physical
Layer

Amplification
Regeneration

Data Link
Layer

Hub

Physical
Layer
76

The Data Link Connection


Application
Layer

Application
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Session
Layer

Session
Layer

Transport
Layer
Network
Layer

Transport
Delineation
Address
Error Layer
of
Formatting
DetectionNetwork
Data
Layer

Data Link
Layer

Data Link
Layer

Physical
Layer

Physical
Layer
77

The Data Link Connection


Application
Layer

Application
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Session
Layer

Session
Layer

Transport
Layer

Transport
Layer

Network
Layer

Network
Layer

Data Link
Layer
Physical
Layer

Bridge
& Switch

Data Link
Layer
Physical
Layer
78

The Network Layer Connection


Application
Layer

Application
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Session
Layer

Session
Layer

Transport
Layer
Network
Layer

End to endTransport
Layer
routing
Network
Layer

Data Link
Layer

Data Link
Layer

Physical
Layer

Physical
Layer
79

The Network Layer Connection


Application
Layer

Application
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Presentation
Layer

Session
Layer

Session
Layer

Transport
Layer

Transport
Layer

Network
Layer

Route
r

Network
Layer

Data Link
Layer

Data Link
Layer

Physical
Layer

Physical
Layer
80

81

source
message
segment Ht

Hn Ht

Hl Hn Ht

Datagram
(packet)

Frame

(trame)

Encapsulation

application
transport
network
link
physical

Hl Hn Ht

link
physical

Hl Hn Ht

switch

destination
M
Ht

Hn Ht

Hl Hn Ht

application
transport
network
link
physical

Hn Ht

Hl Hn Ht

network
link
physical

Hn Ht

Hl Hn Ht

router
82

83

Chapitre 2:
Architecture physique des rseaux
et transmission

84

85

86

(DCE)

(DTE)

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

Ethernet Encoding
Manchester Encoding

97

Media de transmission
Spcifications des cbles : il est important de tenir
compte des considrations suivantes lies aux
performances:
quelles vitesses la transmission de donnes. Le type de
conduit utilis influence la vitesse de transmission.
Les transmissions doivent-elles tre numriques ou
analogiques ? La transmission numrique ou bande de
base ncessite des types de cble diffrents de ceux utiliss
pour la transmission analogique ou large bande.

Quelle distance un signal peut-il parcourir avant que


l'attnuation n'affecte la transmission ? Si le signal est
dgrad, les quipements rseau ne peuvent ni le recevoir
ni l'interprter. La dgradation est directement lie la 98
distance parcourue par le signal et au type de cble utilis

spcifications pour Ethernet : IEEE,


ITU, EIA
Les spcifications Ethernet suivantes se rapportent au type de
cble: 10BaseT , 10Base5 , 10Base2
10BaseT indique une vitesse de transmission de 10 Mbits/s.
La transmission est du type bande de base ou interprte
numriquement. La lettre T indique une paire torsade.

99

Cble Coaxiale

Un cble coaxial prsente plusieurs avantages pour les rseaux locaux. Il peut
couvrir des distances plus longues que les cbles paires torsades blindes
(STP), paires torsades non blindes (UTP) ou ScTP (screened twisted pair).
La taille du cble est un paramtre important. L'installation d'un cble coaxial
est plus onreuse que celle d'un cble paires torsades. Les cbles Ethernet
pais ne sont presque plus utiliss ; ils sont dsormais rservs des
installations spcifiques.

100

Cble paires torsades blindes


(STP)

Le cble paires torsades blindes allie les techniques de blindage,


d'annulation et de torsion des fils. Chaque paire de fils est enveloppe dans
une feuille mtallique et les deux paires sont enveloppes ensemble dans un
revtement tress ou un film mtallique.
L'isolation et le blindage augmentent considrablement la taille, le poids et le cot
101
du cble

Cble paires torsades non


blindes (UTP)

Le cble paires torsades non blindes (UTP) est un mdia constitu de quatre
paires de fils. Chacun des huit fils de cuivre du cble est protg par un matriau
isolant. De plus, les paires de fils sont tresses entre elles. Ce type de cble
repose uniquement sur l'effet d'annulation produit par les paires torsades pour
limiter la dgradation du signal due aux interfrences lectromagntiques et radio.
La norme TIA/EIA-568-B.2 comprend des spcifications lies aux performances
102
des cbles .

Mdias optiques

103

104

Les connecteurs les plus frquemment utiliss


sont les connecteurs SC (Subscriber Connector)
pour la fibre multimode, et les connecteurs ST
(Straight Tip) pour la fibre monomode

105

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107

108

Mdias sans fil

109

Connexion dun ordinateur au sans fils

110

Pour rsoudre le problme d'incompatibilit, un point d'accs


est gnralement install pour servir de concentrateur central
dans le mode infrastructure des LAN sans fil. Le point
d'accs est reli par cble au rseau local cbl pour fournir
un accs Internet et la connectivit au rseau cbl. Les
points d'accs sont quips d'antennes et fournissent la
connectivit sans fil sur une zone donne appele cellule.
La dimension d'une cellule dpend de la structure de
l'emplacement dans lequel le point d'accs est install, outre
la taille et la puissance des antennes. Elle est gnralement
comprise entre 91,44 et 152,4 mtres
111

Infrastructure sans fils plusieurs points


daccs

Pour desservir des zones plus vastes, il est possible d'installer plusieurs
points d'accs avec un degr de chevauchement permettant le
roaming entre les cellules. Dans de nombreux rseaux de points
d'accs, le chevauchement est important pour permettre le dplacement
des quipements au sein du LAN sans fil. Un chevauchement de 20
30 % est souhaitable. Comme ce pourcentage favorise le roaming
entre les cellules, l'activit de dconnexion et de reconnexion peut se
produire en toute transparence sans interruption de service.
112

113

Le cble reliant le port du commutateur au port de la carte rseau de


l'ordinateur est un cble droit.

114

Le cble reliant un port de commutateur l'autre est un cble crois.

115

116

117

certification TIA/EIA-568-B
Le bruit est toute nergie lectrique dans un cble de
transmission qui rend difficile, pour le rcepteur,
linterprtation des donnes venant de lmetteur. La
certification TIA/EIA-568-B exige dsormais que les
cbles soient tests pour diffrents types de bruits.

118

119

Normes IEEE sur les caractristiques de cblage

120

Connecteur BNC

121

RJ45

122

123

Fibre optique
Valise de raccordement froid pour
connecteur ST ou SC

Outillage

Pince dnuder 3 diamtres, 250, 900m et 3mm


Pince kevlar
Pince a sertir
Colle
Ensemble de tubes de colle Epoxy
Opticure Anaerobic Adhesive
accessoire de mlange pour Epoxy
Seringue et aiguille
Polissage
plaque de travail en verre
plateau de caoutchouc
Disques de polissage : SC/FC & STbr> Silicon Carbide S

124

Normes IEEE sur les caractristiques de


cblage

125

Conception LAN

126

Conception LAN

MDF : ((Main distribution facility) le rpartiteur principal


IDF: (Intermediate distribution facility) Les locaux techniques secondaires
(appels des rpartiteurs intermdiaires)
HCC : horizontal cross-connect
VCC : interconnexion verticale (vertical cross-connect) permet d'interconnecter
les divers rpartiteurs intermdiaires IDF au rpartiteur principal MDF

127

Conception LAN

128

Conception LAN

129

Conception LAN

130

Conception LAN

131

Table de brassage

Conception LAN

132

HCC & VCC : Cblage horizontale


et verticale

133

HCC

134

HCC

Dans une topologie en toile simple comportant un seul local technique, le


rpartiteur principal MDF comprend un ou plusieurs tableaux dinterconnexions
horizontales (horizontal cross-connect ou HCC).
135

VCC

Une interconnexion verticale (vertical cross-connect ou VCC) permet


d'interconnecter les divers rpartiteurs intermdiaires IDF au rpartiteur principal
MDF. Un cblage en fibre optique est gnralement utilis car les cbles verticaux
136
dpassent souvent la limite des 100 mtres

137

Chapitre 3 :
Rseaux Locaux

138

Chapitre 3 :
Local Area Networks
(LANs)

139

140

Key Features of a LAN

High throughput (dbit lev)


Relatively low cost
Limited to short distance
Often rely on shared media (mduim
partag)
(fiabilit)
141

Star Topology

Central component of network known as


hub
Each computer has separate connection to
hub
142

Ring Topology

No central facility
Connections go directly from one
computer to another
143

Bus Topology

Shared medium forms main interconnect


Each computer has a connection to the
medium
144

Example LAN : Ethernet

Most popular LAN


Widely used
IEEE standard 802.3
Several generations
Same frame format
Different data rates
Different wiring schemes
145

IEEE 802.2 LAN/MAN


Standards

146

IEEE 802 Protocol Layers

147

LAN Protocol Data Units

148

Medium Access Control - Where


Centralized
Decentralized

149

Medium Access Control - How


How
Round Robin
each station in turn is given opportunity to transmit

Reservation
time slots reserved for stream traffic

Contention
all stations compete for time as required - no control

150

MAC

151

Ethernet

152

802.3 Ethernet and Fast Ethernet


CSMA/CD
If medium idle, transmit
Else, wait until idle, then transmit
If collision, transmit jamming signal
Wait random time, transmit

153

MAC Rules and Collision


Detection/Backoff

154

CSMA/CD Operation

155

Types of Collisions

156

CSMA/CD - Protocol
1. If the medium is idle, transmit; otherwise
go to step 2
2. If the medium is busy, wait until it is free
and transmit immediately
3. If a collision is detected, transmit a
jamming signal and stop
4. Wait a random length of time and try
again
157

MAC Frame

64 <= length <= 1500 octets


158

Ethernet Frame Structure


Data:
Sending adapter encapsulates network packet
(1500B)
Preamble:
7 bytes with pattern 10101010 followed by one
byte with pattern 10101011
used to synchronize receiver, sender clock
rates
159

Ethernet Frame Structure


(more)
Addresses: 6 bytes MAC
if adapter receives frame with matching destination
address, or with broadcast address then pass to
network-layer
otherwise, discard frame

CRC: if CRC check fails then frame is dropped

160

Ethernet (Mac) Addressing

The MAC address consists of 12 hex digits (48 bits)


The first six digits (assigned by the IEEE) represent the Organizational
Unique Identifier (OUI) which identifies the manufacturer
The last six are assigned by the manufacturer and represent a unique
161
hardware ID number for the NIC

Ethernet Technologies 10BaseT and


100BaseT

10/100 Mbps rate; latter called fast ethernet


T stands for Twisted Pair
Nodes connect to a hub: star topology; 100
m max distance between nodes and hub
twisted pair

hub

162

802.3 10 Mbps Physical Layer

163

802.3 100BASE-T Physical


Layer Medium Alternatives

164

Interconnecting with hubs


Multi-tier topology extends max distance between nodes
But individual segment collision domains become one large
collision domain
(causes transmission rate reduction)
Cant interconnect 10BaseT & 100BaseT

Backbone hub
100m

100m

100m

hub

hub
100m

100m

hub
100m

165

Switch

Link layer device


Operate on Ethernet frames rather than bits
examines frame header and selectively
forwards frame based on MAC dest address
when frame is to be forwarded on segment,
uses CSMA/CD to access segment
transparent
hosts are unaware of presence of switches
plug-and-play, self-learning
switches do not need to be configured
166

Forwarding
switch

1
2

hub

hub

hub

How do determine onto which LAN segment to


forward frame?
Looks like a routing problem...

167

Switch: traffic isolation


switch installation breaks subnet into LAN segments
switch filters packets:
same-LAN-segment frames not usually forwarded
onto other LAN segments
segments become separate collision domains
switch
collision
domain
hub

collision domain

hub

collision domain

hub

168

Institutional network
to external
network

mail server
router

1Gbps

web server

1Gbps

switch
100Mbps

hub
100Mbps

100Mbps

hub
100Mbps

100Mbps

IP subnet
hub
100Mbps

169

Token Ring

170

Frame Transmission on a Ring

171

Token Ring Fundamentals


IEEE 802.5
Stations take turns sending data:
May transmit only during its turn and only one
frame during each turn

Access method: token-passing


A token is a placeholder frame

Small token packet circulates on ring


As token passes, transmitting station
changes token from free to busy and
follows token with data to be transmitted
172

Token Ring Operation

173

IEEE Standard 802.5


A standard for Token Ring
Ring consists of point-to-point links
Can be connected by twisted pair,
coax, and fibre optics
Typical data rate: 4 Mbps 16Mbp

174

Token Ring LAN Implementation

175

MAU

MAU

IBM Compatible
IBM Compatible

MAU

MAU
IBM AS/400

176

IEEE 802.4 Token Bus


Same technique as Token Ring but
implement in bus topology
Because of complexity of implementation,
token bus is not a popular.

177

FDDI

Fiber Distributed Data Interface


100 Mbps
LAN and MAN application
Use Token Ring technique
Dual rings
Mainly used for large span distance up to 200
km or for very high data rates
Can connect up to 1000 stations
1 error in 2.5 x 1010 bits
178

FDDI Characteristics
Dual Counter-rotating Rings
Single-attached
Stations

Single-attached
Concentrator

Dual-attached
Concentrator

Dual-attached
Concentrator

Max Size - 100 Km


Max Nbr Stations - 500
179

Counter-rotating Ring (Self-healing)

180

Wireless networks
(Rseaux sans Fils)

181

182

183

184

185

Les Rseaux WAN

186

Chap 5 : WAN

187

Internetworking devices
Descending in increasing power and
complexity
Hubs
Bridges
Switches
Routers

188

Hubs
As seen earlier, a hub interconnects two or more workstations
into a local area network. A simple interconnecting device that
requires no overhead to operate.
When a workstation transmits to a hub, the hub immediately
resends the data frame out all connecting links.
A hub can be managed or unmanaged. A managed hub possesses
enough processing power that it can be managed from a remote
location.
Hubs continue to become smarter.
Some call any interconnection device in a LAN a hub!
189

Hubs connecting segments

190

Bridges
A bridge can be used to connect two similar LANs, such as two
CSMA/CD LANs.
A bridge can also be used to connect two closely similar LANs,
such as a CSMA/CD LAN and a token ring LAN.
The bridge examines the destination address in a frame and
either forwards this frame onto the next LAN or does not.
The bridge examines the source address in a frame and places
this address in a routing table, to be used for future routing
decisions.
191

Bridge interconnecting two identical LANs

192

A bridge interconnecting two CSMA/CD networks has


two internal port tables

193

Switches
A switch is a combination of a hub and a bridge.
It can interconnect two or more workstations, but like a bridge, it
observes traffic flow and learns.
When a frame arrives at a switch, the switch examines the
destination address and forwards the frame out the one necessary
connection.
Workstations that connect to a hub are on a shared segment.
Workstations that connect to a switch are on a switched
segment.

194

Workstations connected to a shared segment of a LAN

195

Workstations connected to a dedicated segment of a LAN

196

A Switch with Two Servers Allowing Simultaneous Access to


Each Server

197

A server with two NICs and two connections to a switch

198

Switch providing multiple access to an e-mail server

199

Routers (really specialized computers)

The device that connects a LAN to a WAN or a WAN to a WAN


(the INTERNET! uses IP addresses).
A router accepts an outgoing packet, removes any LAN headers
(MAC addr) and trailers, and encapsulates the necessary WAN
headers (IP addr) and trailers.
Because a router has to make wide area network routing
decisions, the router has to dig down into the network layer of
the packet to retrieve the network destination address.

200

Routers

Thus, routers are often called layer 3 devices. They operate at


the third layer (IP), or OSI network layer, of the packet.
Routers often incorporate firewall functions.

201

Connections (in general)

Bridges for LANs and hubs.


Switches for LANs and workstations.
Routers for LANs and WANs (the Internet).

202

Linksys Router for Home


Network

203

source
message
segment Ht

datagram Hn Ht
frame Hl Hn Ht

M
M
M
M

Encapsulation

application
transport
network
link
physical

Hl Hn Ht

link
physical

Hl Hn Ht

switch

destination
M
Ht

Hn Ht

Hl Hn Ht

application
transport
network
link
physical

Hn Ht

Hl Hn Ht

network
link
physical

Hn Ht

Hl Hn Ht

router
204

Internet

205

An Internet According to TCP/IP

206

207

IP Packet Format

208

VersionIndicates the version of IP currently used.


IP Header Length (IHL)Indicates the datagram header length in 32-bit words.
Type-of-ServiceSpecifies how an upper-layer protocol would like a current
datagram to be handled, and assigns datagrams various levels of importance.
Total LengthSpecifies the length, in bytes, of the entire IP packet, including
the data and header.
IdentificationContains an integer that identifies the current datagram. This
field is used to help piece together datagram fragments.
FlagsConsists of a 3-bit field of which the two low-order (least-significant) bits
control fragmentation. The low-order bit specifies whether the packet can be
fragmented. The middle bit specifies whether the packet is the last fragment in a
series of fragmented packets. The third or high-order bit is not used.
Fragment OffsetIndicates the position of the fragment's data relative to the
beginning of the data in the original datagram, which allows the destination IP
process to properly reconstruct the original datagram.
Time-to-LiveMaintains a counter that gradually decrements down to zero, at
which point the datagram is discarded. This keeps packets from looping endlessly.
ProtocolIndicates which upper-layer protocol receives incoming packets after
IP processing is complete.
Header ChecksumHelps ensure IP header integrity
209

Source AddressSpecifies the sending node.


Destination AddressSpecifies the receiving node.
OptionsAllows IP to support various options, such as security.
DataContains upper-layer information.

210

IP Addressing

211

Global Addressing Scheme

Specified by Internet Protocol


In addition to physical address (contained in NIC),
each host is assigned a 32-bit IP address.

212

Internet Addresses
Each interface on the internet must have a
unique Internet Address, or IP address.
An IP address is a 32 bit number.
Usually written using Dotted Decimal Notation
Example:
1000 1100 1111 1100 0000 1101 0010 0001 in
binary
8C FC 0D 21 in hex
140.252.13.33 in dotted decimal

213

Dotted Decimal Notation


Syntactic form used by IP software to
make the 32-bit form shorter and easier to
read
Written in decimal form with decimal points
separating the bytes

214

Details of IP Addresses

Assigned per interface, not per host, hence...


Routers always have multiple IP addresses.
Three kinds of IP Addresses
unicast: destined for a single host
broadcast: destined for all hosts on a local net
(not all hosts on the internet)
multicast:
destined for all hosts in a specific multicast
group.
(We will concentrate for now on unicast addresses)

215

IP Address Hierarchy
2-part IP address
Prefix: identifies the physical network to which
the computer is attached Network number or id
Suffix: identifies an individual computer on a
given physical network Host id

Unique address
Netid assigned globally Internet Assigned
Number Authority, IANA
Hostid assigned locally

How many bits for Netid and for Hostid?


216

Classful IP addressing
5 different classes to cover the needs of
different types of organizations
3 primary classes: A, B, C

Class type is determined by the first four bits


Netid and hostid have varying lengths, depending
on the class type and use byte boundaries

Classful IP addresses are self-identifying


Maximum number of networks and maximum
number of hosts for each class?
217

Classes of IP Addresses
Class

A 0

7 bits

24 bits

netid

hostid

14 bits

B 10

16 bits

netid

hostid

21 bits

C 1 10

netid

hostid
28 bits

D 1110
E 1 1110

8 bits

multicast group id
27 bits

(reserved for future use)

A: 0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255
B: 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.255.255
C: 192.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255

D: 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255
E: 224.0.0.0 to 247.255.255.255
218

Decimal representation and class


ranges of Internet addresses

219

Details of IP Addresses (continued)

Assigned by a central authority

the Network Information Center, or InterNIC


(rs.internic.net) assigns network ids for the entire
internet.
Local system administrator gets a network id from
the InterNIC, then assigned Ids to individual
interfaces on each host.

The hostid portion may be broken down by a


local system administrator into subnet and
host.
Special case addresses:

220

221

222

223

Network and Host Addresses

224

Summary of special IP
addresses
Suffix
Type of Address
Purpose______

Prefix
All 0s
All 0s
This computer
Network
All 0s
Network
Network
All 1s
Directed broadcast
All 1s
All 1s limited broadcast
127
Any loopback

Used during bootstrap


Identifies a network
broadcast on specified net
broadcast on local net
testing

225

Routers and IP addresses


An internet is composed of arbitrarily many
physical networks interconnected by routers
Each IP address specifies only one physical
network. What is the routers address?
Routers can have more than two interfaces,
therefore must be assigned one IP address for each
connection.

An IP address identifies a connection between


a computer and a network, not a specific
computer.
226

routers

227

Subnetting
IP addressing has only two levels of hierarchy
Subnetting - Add another level to address/routing
hierarchy: subnetworks

228

Subnetting
3 levels of hierarchy: Netid, subnetid, hostid
Subnets are visible only within the local site
Masking: process that extracts address of physical
network from an IP address.
Subnet masks define variable partition of host part of
Class A and B addresses

Class B Address
00000000
111111111111111111111111
Subnet Mask (255.255.255.0)
Network Number
SubnetID
Subnetted Address

HostID
229

Masking
To find network or subnetwork address, apply (perform AND)
the mask to the IP address

230

L'adresse 193.112.2.166 avec le masque 255.255.255.128 dsigne la machine


numro 38 du rseau 193.112.2.128 qui s'tend de 193.112.2.129
193.112.2.254 (plage de 126 adresses). Les adresses ont t converties en
base 2 :

231

232

CIDR notation
CIDR: Classless Inter-Domain Routing
CIDR notation uses slash notation followed by
the size of the mask in decimal
example: 128.10.0.0/16
CIDR mask
The mask tells you which bits count
Suppose 10.10.9.3 wants to send to 10.10.10.9
Are we on the same network?
That depends on the mask
If we are 10.10.10.10/24, then no
If we are 10.10.10.10/22, then yes
233

Subnet Mask Conversions


Prefix
Length

Subnet Mask

/1
/2
/3
/4
/5
/6
/7
/8
/9
/10
/11
/12
/13
/14
/15
/16

128.0.0.0
192.0.0.0
224.0.0.0
240.0.0.0
248.0.0.0
252.0.0.0
254.0.0.0
255.0.0.0
255.128.0.0
255.192.0.0
255.224.0.0
255.240.0.0
255.248.0.0
255.252.0.0
255.254.0.0
255.255.0.0

Prefix
Length

/17
/18
/19
/20
/21
/22
/23
/24
/25
/26
/27
/28
/29
/30
/31
/32

Subnet Mask

255.255.128.0
255.255.192.0
255.255.224.0
255.255.240.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.252.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.128
255.255.255.192
255.255.255.224
255.255.255.240
255.255.255.248
255.255.255.252
255.255.255.254
255.255.255.255

Decimal Octet

Binary Number

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

1000 0000
1100 0000
1110 0000
1111 0000
1111 1000
1111 1100
1111 1110
1111 1111

234

Summary on IP addressing
Virtual network needs uniform addressing
scheme, independent of hardware
IP address:
32-bit number
5 classes: A, B, C, D, E
specifies a connection between a computer and
a network
Dotted decimal notation and CIDR notation
Some special IP addresses
235

Network Layer

236

Network Layer
Handles the movement of packet around
the network
Routing of packets
Internet Protocol
237

ARP
Address resolution protocol
Convert IP address to MAC address.
Before sending IP datagram, host
boardcast ARP request into network
Other host that receive ARP request will
check whether its address.
If yes, sending ARP reply
238

ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol
Communicate error message and other
conditions
Packed in IP frame, sent as general IP
frame
If ICMP packet errors, host must not
generate other ICMP packet
239

Ping Program

Packet InterNet Groper


Test whether another host is reachable
Use ICMP
Implemented by raw socket

240

IP Routing
IP routing protocols are dynamic. Dynamic routing calls
for routes to be calculated automatically at regular
intervals by software in routing devices. This contrasts
with static routing, where routers are established by the
network administrator and do not change until the
network administrator changes them.
An IP routing table, which consists of destination
address/next hop pairs, is used to enable dynamic
routing. An entry in this table, for example, would be
interpreted as follows: to get to network 172.31.0.0, send
the packet out Ethernet interface 0 (E0).
241

242

243

244

245

246

247

248

249

250

251

Sofiane.ouni@insat.rnu.tn
Sofiane_ouni@yahoo.fr

252

253

254

255

256

257

258

259

260

Transport layer

261

Transport layer
Provides a flow of data between two hosts.
Two vastly different transport protocol
UDP
TCP
262

UDP
User Datagram Protocol
Simple, datagram-oriented, transport layer
protocol.
No reliability

263

UDP

264

TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
Use same network layer as UDP
Connection-oriented, reliable, byte stream
service
Sliding Window

265

TCP : Transmission Control


Protocol

Connection based communication


Uses the IP layer service
Provides reliable service
Enables distinguishing among multiple
destinations within a host computer
266

TCP - Transmission Control Protocol

TCP is the protocol layer responsible for making sure that the commands and messages are
transmitted reliably from one application program running on a machine to another one on the
other machine
A message is transmitted and then a positive acknowledgement is being waited for If the
positive acknowledgement does not arrive in a certain period of time, the message is
retransmitted
Messages are numbered in sequence so that no one is being lost or duplicated;
Messages are delivered at the destination in the same order they were sent by the source
If the text of a mail is too large, the TCP protocol will split it into several fragments called
datagrams and it makes sure that all the datagrams arrive correctly at the other end where
they are reassembled into the original message
TCP can be viewed as forming a library of routines that many applications can use when they
need reliable network communication with an application on another computer
TCP provides also flow control and congestion control

267

TCP Protocol Format

268

TCP

269

TCP Protocol Format


Source Port

Destination Port
Sequence Number

Acknowledgment Number
Offset

Reserv

Flags(6)

Window (16 bits)

Checksum (16)

Urgent Pointer

Options(If any)

Padding

Data (variable length)


0

10

16

24

31

270

Source/Dest port: TCP port numbers to ID


applications at both ends of connection
Sequence number: ID position in senders byte
stream

Acknowledgement: identifies the number of


the byte the sender of this segment expects to
receive next
Hlen: specifies the length of the segment
header in 32 bit multiples. If there are no
options, the Hlen = 5 (20 bytes)
Reserved for future use, set to 0
Code: used to determine segment purpose,
e.g. SYN, ACK, FIN, URG
271

Window: Advertises how much data this station


is willing to accept. Can depend on buffer
space remaining.
Checksum: Verifies the integrity of the TCP
header and data. It is mandatory.
Urgent pointer: used with the URG flag to
indicate where the urgent data starts in the data
stream. Typically used with a file transfer abort
during FTP or when pressing an interrupt key in
telnet.
Options: used for window scaling, SACK,
272
timestamps, maximum segment size etc.

273

Establishing and closing TCP


Connections
SYN
SYN+ACK

FIN
time

ACK

ACK

FIN
ACK

Open

Close

274

275

276

TCP simple lost packet recovery


Sender site
Send pkt 1
Start timer
ACK normally
arrives
Timer expires
Retransmit pkt 1
start timer
Rcv ACK 1

Receiver site
Loss

Pkt should arrive


ACK should be sent

Rcv pkt 1
Send ACK 1

Network messages

277

278

279

Sliding Windows
segment 1
ack1
segment 2

segments
time

ack2

Positive
acknowledgment
with retransmission

1 2 3

1 2 3

acks

Sliding window
transmission

280

281

TCP flow control


Windows vary over time
Receiver advertises (in ACKs) how many it can
receive
Based on buffers etc. available

Sender adjusts its window to match advertisement


If receiver buffers fill, it sends smaller adverts

Used to match buffer requirements of receiver


Also used to address congestion control (e.g. in
intermediate routers)

282

Well-known TCP ports


21
23
25
53
109
110

FTP server
telnet server
SMTP mail server
domain nameserver
POP2 server
POP3 server

283

284

Flow using Streams (TCP)


Server
socket()

Client

bind()
listen()

socket()
connect()

accept()
send()/recv()

send()/recv()

closesocket()

closesocket()
285

286

Internet application Layer

287

DNS
Domain Name System
Distributed database
Map between hostnames and IP
addresses
Electronic mail routing information

288

Others Protocol

TFTP
Telnet
FTP
SMTP
SNMP
HTTP

SSH
DHCP
POP
NFS
NIS

289

Something required to connect

IP address
Netmask
Network ID
Boardcast
Default gateway
DNS
DHCP
WINS
290

291

www.storrconsulting.com

Network - Intranet / Internet

Internet

LAN Server

Web Server

Software:

- Proxy Server
- Cache Server
- Gateway Server
- Firewall Server
- Router
- Switch

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