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Chapter Ten Harmonic Analysis

Chapter Ten

Harmonic Analysis

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Harmonic Analysis

Chapter Overview

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis Chapter Overview

Training Manual

In this chapter, performing harmonic analyses in Simulation will be covered:

It is assumed that the user has already covered Chapter 4 Linear Static Structural Analysis and Chapter 5 Free Vibration Analysis prior to this chapter.

The following will be covered in this chapter:

Setting Up Harmonic Analyses Harmonic Solution Methods Damping Reviewing Results

The capabilities described in this section are generally applicable to ANSYS Professional licenses and above.

Exceptions will be noted accordingly

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Background on Harmonic Analysis

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A harmonic analysis is used to determine the response of the structure under a steady-state sinusoidal (harmonic) loading at a given frequency.

A harmonic, or frequency-response, analysis considers loading at one frequency only. Loads may be out-of-phase with one another, but the excitation is at a known frequency. This procedure is not used for an arbitrary transient load.

One should always run a free vibration analysis (Ch. 5) prior to a harmonic analysis to obtain an understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the model.

To better understand a harmonic analysis, the general equation of motion is provided first:

M xCxKxF

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Background on Harmonic Analysis

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis Background on

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In a harmonic analysis, the loading and response of the structure is assumed to be harmonic (cyclic):

F

x

F

max

j

e

x

 

e

j

max

e

j

e

j

t

t

The use of complex notation is an efficient representation of the response. Since e jA is simply (cos(A)+jsin(A)), this represents sinusoidal motion with a phase shift, which is present because of the imaginary (j=-1) term.

The excitation frequency is the frequency at which the loading occurs. A force phase shift may be present if different loads are excited at different phases, and a displacement phase shift may exist if damping or a force phase shift is present.

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Background on Harmonic Analysis

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench Force Value kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis

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For example, consider the case on right where two forces are acting on the structure

Both forces are excited at the same frequency , but “Force 2” lags “Force 1” by 45 degrees. This is a force phase shift of 45 degrees.

The way in which this is represented is via complex notation. This, however, can be rewritten as:

F

F

max

e

j

e

j

t

F

max

cos

jF

max

sin

e

j

t

F

1

jF

2

e

j

t

In this way, a real component F 1 and an imaginary component F 2 are used.

The response {x} is analogous to {F}

1 0.75 0.5 0.25 Force 1 0 Force 2 -0.25 -0.5 -0.75 -1
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
Force 1
0
Force 2
-0.25
-0.5
-0.75
-1
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 540 585 630 675
0
45
90
135
180
225
270
315
360
405
450
495
540
585
630
675
720
Angle (Degrees)

Model shown is from a sample SolidWorks assembly.

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Basics of Harmonic Analysis

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis Basics of

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For a harmonic analysis, the complex response {x 1 } and {x 2 } are solved for from the matrix equation:

 

2

M

jC

K

x

1

jx

2

F jF

1

2

This results in the following assumptions:

[M], [C], and [K] are constant:

Linear elastic material behavior is assumed

Small deflection theory is used, and no nonlinearities included

Damping [C] should be included. Otherwise, if the excitation frequency is the same as the natural frequency of the structure, the response is infinite at resonance.

The loading {F} (and response {x}) is sinusoidal at a given frequency , although a phase shift may be present

It is important to remember these assumptions related to performing harmonic analyses in Simulation.

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  • A. Harmonic Analysis Procedure

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The harmonic analysis procedure is very similar to performing a linear static analysis, so not all steps will be covered in detail. The steps in yellow italics are specific to harmonic analyses.

Attach Geometry

Define Contact Regions (if applicable)

Assign Material Properties

Define Mesh Controls (optional)

Include Loads and Supports

Request Harmonic Tool Results

Set Harmonic Analysis Options

Solve the Model Review Results

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… Geometry

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Geometry

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Any type of geometry may be present in a harmonic analysis

Solid bodies, surface bodies, line bodies, and any combination thereof may be used

Recall that, for line bodies, stresses and strains are not available as output

A Point Mass may be present, although only acceleration loads affect a Point Mass

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… Material Properties

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Material

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In a harmonic analysis, Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, and Mass Density are required input

All other material properties can be specified but are not used in a harmonic analysis

As will be shown later, damping is not specified as a material property but as a global property

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… Contact Regions

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Contact

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Contact regions are available in modal analysis. However, since this is a purely linear analysis, contact behavior will differ for the nonlinear contact types, as shown below:

Contact Type

Static Analysis

 

Harmonic Analysis

Initially Touching

Inside Pinball Region

Outside Pinball Region

Bonded

Bonded

Bonded

Bonded

Free

No Separation

No Separation

No Separation

No Separation

Free

Rough

Rough

Bonded

Free

Free

Frictionless

Frictionless

No Separation

Free

Free

The contact behavior is similar to free vibration analyses (Ch. 5), where nonlinear contact behavior will reduce to its linear counterparts since harmonic simulations are linear.

It is generally recommended, however, not to use a nonlinear contact type in a harmonic analysis

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… Loads and Supports

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Loads

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Structural loads and supports may also be used in harmonic analyses with the following exceptions:

 

Thermal loads are not supported

Rotational Velocity is not supported

The Remote Force Load is not supported

The Pretension Bolt Load is nonlinear and cannot be used

The Compression Only Support is nonlinear and should not be used. If present, it behaves similar to a Frictionless Support

Remember that all structural loads will vary sinusoidally at the same excitation frequency

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… Loads and Supports

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Loads

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A list of supported loads are shown below:

Type of Load

Phase Input

Solution Method

Acceleration Load

No

Full or Mode Superposition

Standard Earth Gravity Load

No

Full or Mode Superposition

Pressure Load

Yes

Full or Mode Superposition

Force Load

Yes

Full or Mode Superposition

Bearing Load

No

Full or Mode Superposition

Moment Load

No

Full or Mode Superposition

Given Displacement Support

Yes

Full Only

The “Solution Method” will be discussed in the next section.

It is useful to note at this point that ANSYS Professional does not support “Full” solution method, so it does not support a Given Displacement Support in a harmonic analysis.

Not all available loads support phase input. Accelerations, Bearing Load, and Moment Load will have a phase angle of 0°.

If other loads are present, shift the phase angle of other loads, such that the Acceleration, Bearing, and Moment Loads will remain at a phase angle of 0°.

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… Loads and Supports

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Loads

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To add a harmonic load:

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Loads

Add any of the supported loads as usual. Under “Time Type,” change it from “Static” to “Harmonic”

Enter the magnitude (or components, if available)

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Loads

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Loads

Phase input, if available, can be input

If only real F 1 and imaginary F 2 components of the load are known, the magnitude and phase can be calculated as follows:

magnitude

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F 1
F
1
  • 2

2

F

2

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    F F

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… Loads and Supports

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Loads

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The loading for two cycles may be visualized by selecting the load, then clicking on the “Worksheet” tab

The magnitude and phase angle will be accounted for in this visual representation of the loading

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  • B. Solving Harmonic Analyses

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis B. Solving

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ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis B. Solving

Prior to solving, request the Harmonic Tool:

Select the Solution branch and insert a Harmonic Tool from the Context toolbar

In the Details view of the Harmonic Tool, one can enter the Minimum and Maximum excitation frequency range and Solution Intervals

The frequency range f max -f min and number of intervals n determine the freq interval 

 

2

f

max

f

min

n

Simulation will solve n frequencies, starting from .

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In the example above, with a frequency range of 0 – 10,000 Hz at 10 intervals, this means that Simulation will solve for 10 excitation frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000, and 10000 Hz.

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… Solution Methods

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Solution

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There are two solution methods available in ANSYS Structural and above. Both methods have their advantages and shortcomings, so these will be discussed next:

The Mode Superposition method is the default solution option and is available for ANSYS Professional and above The Full method is available for ANSYS Structural and above

Under the Details view of the Harmonic Tool, the “Solution Method” can be toggled between the two options (if available).

The Details view of the Solution branch should not be used, as it has no effect on the analysis.

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ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Solution

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… Mode Superposition Method

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Mode

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The Mode Superposition method solves the harmonic equation in modal coordinates

Recall that the equation for harmonic analysis is as follows:

 

2

M

jC

K

x

1

jx

2

F jF

1

2

For linear systems, one can express the displacements x as a linear combination of mode shapes i :

x

n

i 1

y

i

i

where y i are modal coordinates (coefficient) for this relation.

For example, one can perform a modal analysis to determine the natural frequencies i and corresponding mode shapes i .

One can see that as more modes n are included, the approximation for {x} becomes more accurate.

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… Mode Superposition Method

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Mode

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The preceding discussion is meant to provide background information about the Mode Superposition method. From this, there are three important points to remember:

1. Because of the fact that modal coordinates are used, a harmonic solution using the Mode Superposition method will automatically perform a modal analysis first

Simulation will automatically determine the number of modes n necessary for an accurate solution

Although a free vibration analysis is performed first, the harmonic analysis portion is very quick and efficient. Hence, the Mode Superposition method is usually much faster overall than the Full method.

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… Mode Superposition Method

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Mode

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  • 2. Since a free vibration analysis is performed, Simulation will know what the natural frequencies of the structure are

In a harmonic analysis, the peak response will correspond with the natural frequencies of the structure. Since the natural frequencies are known, Simulation can cluster the results near the natural frequencies instead of using evenly spaced results.

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Mode
ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Mode

In this example, the cluster option captures the peak response better than evenly-spaced intervals

(4.51e-3 vs. 4.30e-3) The Cluster Number determines how many results on either side of a natural frequency is solved.

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… Mode Superposition Method

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Mode

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3. Due to the nature of the Mode Superposition method, Given Displacement Supports are not allowed

Nonzero prescribed displacements are not possible because the solution is done with modal coordinates

This was mentioned earlier during the discussion on loads and supports

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… Full Method

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Full

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The Full method is an alternate way of solving harmonic analyses

Recall the harmonic analysis equation:

 

2

M

jC

K

x

1

jx

2

F jF

1

2

In the Full method, this matrix equation is solved for directly in nodal coordinates, analogous to a linear static analysis except that complex numbers are used:

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K

C

 

2

M

j

C

K

x

C

x

1

jx

2

F

C

F

1

jF

2

K

C

x

C

F

C

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… Full Method

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Full

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This results in several differences compared with the Mode Superposition method:

1. For each frequency, the Full method must factorize [K c ].

In the Mode Superposition method, a simpler set of uncoupled equations is solved for. In the Full method, a more complex, coupled matrix [K C ] must be factorized.

Because of this, the Full method tends to be more computationally expensive than the Mode Superposition method

2. Given Displacement Support is available

Because {x} is solved for directly, imposed displacements are permitted. This allows for the use of Given Displacement Supports.

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… Full Method

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Full

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3. The Full method does not use modal information

Unlike the Mode Superposition method, the Full method does not rely on mode shapes and natural frequencies

No free vibration analysis is internally performed

The solution of {x C } is exact

No approximation of the response {x} to mode shapes is used

However, because modal information is not present to Simulation during a solution, no clustering of results is possible. Only evenly-spaced intervals is permitted.

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  • C. Damping Input

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis C. Damping

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The harmonic equation has a damping matrix [C]

It was noted earlier that damping is specified as a global property

For ANSYS Professional license, only a constant damping ratio is available for input

For ANSYS Structural licenses and above, either a constant damping ratio or beta damping value can be input

Note that if both constant damping and beta damping are input, the effects will be cumulative

Either damping option can be used with either solution method (full or mode superposition)

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ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis C. Damping

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… Background on Damping

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Background

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Damping results in energy loss in a dynamic system.

The effect damping has on the response is to shift the natural frequencies and to lower the peak response

Damping is present in many forms in any structural system

Damping is a complex phenomena due to various effects. The mathematical representation of damping, however, is quite simple. Viscous damping will be considered here:

The viscous damping force F damp is proportional to velocity

F

damp

cx

where c is the damping constant

There is a value of c called critical damping c cr where no oscillations will take place

The damping ratio is the ratio of actual damping c over critical damping c cr .

c

  • c cr

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… Constant Damping Ratio

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Constant

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The constant damping ratio input in Simulation means that the value of will be constant over the entire frequency range.

The value of will be used directly in Mode Superposition method

The constant damping ratio is unitless

In the Full method, the damping ratio is not directly used. This will be converted internally to an appropriate value for [C]

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ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Constant

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… Beta Damping

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Beta

Training Manual

Another way to model damping is to assume that damping value c is proportional to the stiffness k by a constant :

 

c k

 

This is related back to the damping ratio :

c

k

  • 2 

i

i

  • c cr

2

i

  • m 2

i

i

2

One can see from this equation that, with beta damping, the effect of damping increases linearly with frequency

Unlike the constant damping ratio, beta damping increases with increasing frequency

Beta damping tends to damp out the effect of higher frequencies

Beta damping is in units of time

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… Beta Damping

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Beta

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There are two methods of input of beta damping:

Beta damping value can be directly input

A damping ratio and frequency can be input, and the corresponding beta damping value will be calculated by Simulation, per the equation on the previous slide

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ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Beta

Although a frequency and damping ratio is input in this second case, remember that beta damping will linearly increase with frequency. This means that lower frequencies will have less damping and higher frequencies will experience more damping.

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Beta

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… Damping Relationships

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Damping

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There are some other measures of damping commonly used. Note that these are usually for single degree of freedom systems, so extrapolating it for use in multi-DOF systems (such as FEA) should be done with caution!

The quality factor Q i is 1/(2i )

The loss factor i is the inverse of Q or 2i

The logarithmic decrement i can be approximated for light damping cases as 2 i The half-power bandwidth  i can be approximated for lightly damped structures as 2i i

Remember that these measures of damping are simplified and for single DOF systems.

If the user understands the physical structure’s response over a frequency range as well as the difference between constant damping ratio and beta damping, then damping can be modeled appropriately in Simulation

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  • D. Request Harmonic Tool Results

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis D. Request

Training Manual

Results can then be requested from Harmonic Tool branch:

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis D. Request

Three types of results are available:

Contour results of components of stresses, strains, or displacements for surfaces, parts, and/or assemblies at a specified frequency and phase angle

Frequency response plots of minimum, maximum, or average components of stresses, strains, displacements, or acceleration at selected vertices, edges, or surfaces.

Phase response plots of minimum, maximum, or average components of stresses, strains, or displacements at a specified frequency

Unlike a linear static analysis, results must be requested before initiating a solution. Otherwise, if other results are requested after a solution is completed, another solution must be re-run.

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… Request Harmonic Tool Results

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Request

Training Manual

Request any of the available results under the Harmonic Tool branch

Be sure to scope results on entities of interest

For edges and surfaces, specify whether average, minimum, or maximum value will be reported Enter any other applicable input

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Request

If results are requested between solved-for frequency ranges, linear interpolation will be used to calculate the response

For example, if Simulation solves frequencies from 100 to 1000 Hz at 100 Hz intervals, and the user requests a result for 333 Hz, this will be linearly interpolated from results at 300 and 400 Hz.

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… Request Harmonic Tool Results

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Request

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Simulation assumes that the response is harmonic (sinusoidal).

Derived quantities such as equivalent/principal stresses or total deformation may not be harmonic if the components are not in-phase, so these results are not available.

No Convergence is available on Harmonic results

Perform a modal analysis and perform convergence on mode shapes which will reflect response. This will help to ensure that the mesh is fine enough to capture the dynamic response in a subsequent harmonic analysis.

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kbench – Simulation

S imula tion

Harmonic Analysis

… Solving the Model

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Solving

Training Manual

The Details view of the Solution branch is not used in a Harmonic analysis.

Only informative status of the type of analysis to be solved will be displayed

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Solving

After Harmonic Analysis options have been set and results have been requested, the solution can be solved as usual with the Solve button

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Solving

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Harmonic Analysis

… Contour Results

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Contour

Training Manual

Contour results of components of stress, strain, or displacement are available at a given frequency and phase angle

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Contour

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Harmonic Analysis

… Contour Animations

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Contour

Training Manual

These results can be animated. Animations will use the actual harmonic response (real and imaginary results)

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ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Contour

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Harmonic Analysis

… Frequency Response Plots

Harmonic Analysis … Frequency Response Plots Training Manual ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – –

Training Manual

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion • XY Plots of
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ANSYS S Wor
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kbench – – Simulation
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XY Plots of components of stress, strain, displacement, or
acceleration can be requested
For scoped results, average,
minimum, or maximum values can be
requested.
Bode plots (shown on right) is the
default display method. However,
real and imaginary results can also
be plotted.
The Ctrl-left mouse button allows the
user to query results on the graph.
Results can also be exported to
Excel by right-clicking on the branch
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Left-click on the graphics window
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Harmonic Analysis

… Phase Response Plots

Harmonic Analysis … Phase Response Plots Training Manual ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – –

Training Manual

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion • Comparison of phase
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Comparison of phase of components of stress, strain, or
displacement with input forces can be plotted at a given
frequency
The average, minimum, or maximum
value of the scoped results can be
used to track the phase relationship
with all of the input forces.
In this example, the response is
lagging the input forces, as expected,
and the user can visually examine this
phase difference.
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kbench – Simulation

S imula tion

Harmonic Analysis

… Requesting Results

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis … Requesting

Training Manual

A harmonic solution usually requires multiple solutions:

A free vibration analysis using the Frequency Finder should always be performed first to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes

Although a free vibration analysis is internally performed with the Mode Superposition method, the mode shapes are not available to the user to review. Hence, a separate Environment branch must be inserted or duplicated to add the Frequency Finder tool.

Oftentimes, two harmonic solutions may need to be run:

A harmonic sweep of the frequency range can be performed initially, where displacements, stresses, etc. can be requested. This allows the user to see the results over the entire frequency range of interest.

After the frequencies and phases at which the peak response(s) occur are determined, contour results can be requested to see the overall response of the structure at these frequencies.

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Harmonic Analysis

  • E. Workshop 10

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis E. WorkshopWorkshop 10 – Harmonic Analysis • Goal: – Explore the harmonic response of the machine frame (Frame.x_t) shown here. The frequency response as well as stress and deformation at a specific frequency will be determined. March 29 " id="pdf-obj-38-19" src="pdf-obj-38-19.jpg">

Training Manual

Explore the harmonic response of the machine frame (Frame.x_t) shown here. The frequency response as well as stress and deformation at a specific frequency will be determined.

ANSY ANSYS S Wor Workbench kbench – – Simulation S imula tion Harmonic Analysis E. WorkshopWorkshop 10 – Harmonic Analysis • Goal: – Explore the harmonic response of the machine frame (Frame.x_t) shown here. The frequency response as well as stress and deformation at a specific frequency will be determined. March 29 " id="pdf-obj-38-40" src="pdf-obj-38-40.jpg">

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