Training Manual
• 
In this chapter, performing harmonic analyses in Simulation will be covered: 
– It is assumed that the user has already covered Chapter 4 Linear Static Structural Analysis and Chapter 5 Free Vibration Analysis prior to this chapter. 

• 
The following will be covered in this chapter: 
Setting Up Harmonic Analyses – Harmonic Solution Methods – Damping – Reviewing Results– 

• 
The capabilities described in this section are generally applicable to ANSYS Professional licenses and above. 
Training Manual
• 
A harmonic analysis is used to determine the response of the structure under a steadystate sinusoidal (harmonic) loading at a given frequency. 

– 
A harmonic, or frequencyresponse, analysis considers loading at one frequency only. Loads may be outofphase with one another, but the excitation is at a known frequency. This procedure is not used for an arbitrary transient load. 

– One should always run a free vibration analysis (Ch. 5) prior to a harmonic analysis to obtain an understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the model. 

• 
To better understand a harmonic analysis, the general equation of motion is provided first: 
Training Manual

F 





x 



F 
max 
j 

e 


x 
ej 

max 
ej 

ej 
t 
Force Value
Training Manual
max
j
j
t
max
max
j
t
1
2
j
t
Model shown is from a sample SolidWorks assembly.
Training Manual
• 
Linear elastic material behavior is assumed 
• 
Small deflection theory is used, and no nonlinearities included 
• 
Damping [C] should be included. Otherwise, if the excitation frequency is the same as the natural frequency of the structure, the response is infinite at resonance. 
• 
The loading {F} (and response {x}) is sinusoidal at a given frequency , although a phase shift may be present 
Training Manual
– 
Attach GeometryDefine Contact Regions (if applicable) 
– 
Assign Material Properties 
– 

– 
Define Mesh Controls (optional) 
– 
Include Loads and Supports 
– 
Request Harmonic Tool Results 
– 
Set Harmonic Analysis Options 
Training Manual
– 
Solid bodies, surface bodies, line bodies, and any combination thereof may be used 
– 
Recall that, for line bodies, stresses and strains are not available as output 
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Contact Type 
Static Analysis 
Harmonic Analysis 

Initially Touching 
Inside Pinball Region 
Outside Pinball Region 

Bonded 
Bonded 
Bonded 
Bonded 
Free 
No Separation 
No Separation 
No Separation 
No Separation 
Free 
Rough 
Rough 
Bonded 
Free 
Free 
Frictionless 
Frictionless 
No Separation 
Free 
Free 
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•Structural loads and supports may also be used in harmonic analyses with the following exceptions: 

– 
Thermal loads are not supported 

– 
Rotational Velocity is not supported 

– 
The Remote Force Load is not supported 

– 
The Pretension Bolt Load is nonlinear and cannot be used 

– The Compression Only Support is nonlinear and should not be used. If present, it behaves similar to a Frictionless Support 

•Remember that all structural loads will vary sinusoidally at the same excitation frequency 
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Type of Load 
Phase Input 
Solution Method 
Acceleration Load 
No 
Full or Mode Superposition 
Standard Earth Gravity Load 
No 
Full or Mode Superposition 
Pressure Load 
Yes 
Full or Mode Superposition 
Force Load 
Yes 
Full or Mode Superposition 
Bearing Load 
No 
Full or Mode Superposition 
Moment Load 
No 
Full or Mode Superposition 
Given Displacement Support 
Yes 
Full Only 
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In the example above, with a frequency range of 0 – 10,000 Hz at 10 intervals, this means that Simulation will solve for 10 excitation frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000, and 10000 Hz.
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• 
For example, one can perform a modal analysis to determine the natural frequencies _{i} and corresponding mode shapes _{i} . 
• 
One can see that as more modes n are included, the approximation for {x} becomes more accurate. 
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In this example, the cluster option captures the peak response better than evenlyspaced intervals
(4.51e3 vs. 4.30e3) The Cluster Number determines how many results on either side of a natural frequency is solved.
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– 
Unlike the Mode Superposition method, the Full method does not rely on mode shapes and natural frequencies 
– 
No free vibration analysis is internally performed 
– 
The solution of {x _{C} } is exact 
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– 
It was noted earlier that damping is specified as a global property 
– 
For ANSYS Professional license, only a constant damping ratio is available for input 
• 
Note that if both constant damping and beta damping are input, the effects will be cumulative 
• 
Either damping option can be used with either solution method (full or mode superposition) 
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• 
Damping results in energy loss in a dynamic system. 

– 
The effect damping has on the response is to shift the natural frequencies and to lower the peak response 

– Damping is present in many forms in any structural system 

• 
Damping is a complex phenomena due to various effects. The mathematical representation of damping, however, is quite simple. Viscous damping will be considered here: 
damp ^{}
c cr
Training Manual
– 
The value of will be used directly in Mode Superposition method 
– 
The constant damping ratio is unitless 
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• 
Another way to model damping is to assume that damping value c is proportional to the stiffness k by a constant : 

c k 

• 
This is related back to the damping ratio :ck

i 

i 



2i

i 
i 

2 
– 
Unlike the constant damping ratio, beta damping increases with increasing frequency 
– 
Beta damping tends to damp out the effect of higher frequencies 
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Although a frequency and damping ratio is input in this second case, remember that beta damping will linearly increase with frequency. This means that lower frequencies will have less damping and higher frequencies will experience more damping.
Training Manual
• 
There are some other measures of damping commonly used. Note that these are usually for single degree of freedom systems, so extrapolating it for use in multiDOF systems (such as FEA) should be done with caution! 
–The quality factor Q _{i} is 1/(2 _{i} )–– 

The loss factor _{i} is the inverse of Q or 2 _{i} 

The logarithmic decrement _{i} can be approximated for light damping cases as 2 _{i} – The halfpower bandwidth _{i} can be approximated for lightly damped structures as 2 _{i} _{i} 

• 
Remember that these measures of damping are simplified and for single DOF systems. 
Training Manual
• 
Contour results of components of stresses, strains, or displacements for surfaces, parts, and/or assemblies at a specified frequency and phase angle 
• 
Frequency response plots of minimum, maximum, or average components of stresses, strains, displacements, or acceleration at selected vertices, edges, or surfaces. 
• 
Phase response plots of minimum, maximum, or average components of stresses, strains, or displacements at a specified frequency 
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• 
Simulation assumes that the response is harmonic (sinusoidal). 
– Derived quantities such as equivalent/principal stresses or total deformation may not be harmonic if the components are not inphase, so these results are not available. 

• 
No Convergence is available on Harmonic results 
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• 
A harmonic sweep of the frequency range can be performed initially, where displacements, stresses, etc. can be requested. This allows the user to see the results over the entire frequency range of interest. 
• 
After the frequencies and phases at which the peak response(s) occur are determined, contour results can be requested to see the overall response of the structure at these frequencies. 
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• 

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