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Taiz

Materials & Manufacturing


Technology (MMT)

University

Module 1:
Introduction
ir. Hans Ponsen
Master Engineering & Management

April 2011

Content of module 1
Introduction

Taiz
University

Learning objectives / Educational concept

Course content and overview

Examination requirements

What is manufacturing? (Chapter 1)

Materials, processes and systems (Chapter 1)

Product attributes (Chapter 5)

Interfaces with other courses

Problems, exercises, discussions


Master Engineering &

Lecturer
Lecturer : ir. Hans Ponsen

Taiz
University

Last job at the University of Twente (technology and


management), education, education, development,
internationalization.
Technical expert and consultant for manufacturing
and materials engineering in the Netherlands Antilles
(Caribbean).
Experience in industry in the design and
implementation of production lines for the
forming and sheet metal industries.
Research in forming technology (metal
extrusion)
Master Engineering &

Educational concept
Taiz
University

Teaching and application of knowledge.


Balanced mix of lectures, group discussions,
video films, problem solving and case studies.
Application of knowledge very important (also
during examination!)
Problems are realistic and can be rather complex.
Case studies and problem solving as teamwork.
The assessment is based for 30% on
student participation during the course.
Master Engineering &

Learning objectives (1)


Taiz
University

Knowledge and understanding of structure and


properties of metals, polymers, composites and
ceramics.

Evaluation and testing of the quality of engineering


materials.
Knowledge and understanding of the most
important manufacturing processes.
Understanding the relationships among material
properties and manufacturing process parameters.
Knowledge, understanding and skills to make
quantitative analyses of manufacturing processes.
Master Engineering &

Learning objectives (2)


Taiz
University

To be able to select the most appropriate manufacturing process for the production of any product
or product part.
Design guidelines related to manufacturing processes.
Main objective: Answer the questions
What is the best way to manufacture an arbitrary
product or product part?
How are existing products made?
Master Engineering &

Content of the course MMT (1)


Taiz
University

1) Introduction: General information, objectives,


what is manufacturing?, product attributes,
interfaces with other courses.
2) Material properties: Nature of materials, stressstrain relationships, hardness, fluid properties,
visco-elastic behaviour of polymers.
3) Engineering materials: Metal alloys, ferrous and
non-ferrous materials, polymer technology,
thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, ceramics,
composite materials.
Master Engineering &

Content of the course MMT (2)


Taiz
University

4) Processes for shapeless materials:


Casting fundamentals and processes, casting quality,
design aspects, powder metallurgy, rapid prototyping
technologies.
5) Shaping of polymers, rubber and composites:
Polymer melts, extrusion, injection moulding,
compression moulding, blow moulding, thermoforming,
design aspects, processes for rubber and composites.
6) Metal forming: Material behaviour in metal forming,
influence of temperature, friction and lubrication, rolling
processes, forging processes, extrusion, wire and bar
drawing.
Master Engineering &

Content of the course MMT (3)


Taiz
University

7) a. Sheet metalworking: Cutting operations, bending


operations, other sheet-metal operations, dies and
presses, other machines, bending of tube.
b. Property enhancing and surface processing:
Heat and surface treatment, cleaning, coating.
8) Material removal: Chip formation, force, power and
energy relationships, cutting temperature, turning
operations, drilling, milling, machining and turning
centres, other machining operations.
9) Material removal: tool life, tool materials, cutting fluids,
machineability, tolerances and surface finish, selection
of cutting conditions, design aspects, grinding, electric
discharge and laser beam machining.
Master Engineering &

Content of the course MMT (4)


Taiz
University

10) Joining and assembly: Fundamentals of welding,


welding processes, weld quality, weldability,
brazing, soldering, adhesive bonding, mechanical
assembly, design aspects.
11) Manufacturing (support) systems: Numerical
control, industrial robots, group technology, FMS,
production lines, quality control, metrology,
measuring instruments, surface measurement.
12) Summary: Overall overview, guidelines and
recommendations, material and manufacturing
process selection, last consultancy.
Master Engineering &

Examination requirements
Final mark:
- 30% participation in group discussions and work
- 70% written or oral examination

Taiz
University

Subjects for the examination:


- Will be specified on Black Board
Expected knowledge and skills :
- You must be able to reproduce the basic knowledge
- You must be able to apply the knowledge about materials
and manufacturing operationally

Master Engineering &

What is manufacturing?
Taiz
University

Literal:

Manufacture = Manus (hand) + Factus


(make) Made by hand
Technological: Application of physical and chemical
processes to make parts or products,
including assembly of products.
Economical:
Transformation of materials into items
of greater value by means of processing and/or assembly operations.
CIRP definition: Design + production + assembly
(CIRP = International Academy for Production Eng.)
Master Engineering &

What is manufacturing?
Taiz
University

Representation of manufacturing
in a technological way
Master Engineering &

What is manufacturing?
Taiz
University

Representation of manufacturing
in a economical way
Master Engineering &

Importance of manufacturing
Taiz
University

Manufacturing is an important mean to create


material wealth!!!
One job in a manufacturing plant generates about
four other jobs else!!!
Question: How?
Data from the USA:
-

Manufacturing
: ~ 20% of the GNP
Agriculture, mining
: < 5% of the GNP
Construction, public utilities : ~ 5% of the GNP
Service sector
: ~ 70% of the GNP
(GNP = Gross National Product)

Question: What are the figures for Yemen?


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Historical perspective (1)


Taiz
University

In broad outlines:
Mans discovery and invention of materials and
processes to make things, since 6000 years ago
Principle of division of labour Adam Smith (~1750)
Industrial Revolution (1770 1850), steam engine,
machine tools, machinery for textile industry
Factory system, UK
American system, interchangeable parts
Whitney (~1800), guns (muskets), USA
Second Industrial revolution mass production,
scientific management, assembly lines, Ford
(~1915), cars, USA
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Industries and products


Manufacturing industries

Taiz
University

- Primary industries: natural resources as mining, fishing,


agriculture, petroleum
- Secondary industries: automotive, computers, electronics
- Tertiary industries (service): banking, tourism, education

Manufactured products
-

Consumer goods: cars, TVs, tires, tennis rackets


Capital goods: aircraft, machine tools, machinery
Discrete products: pumps, shavers, coffee makers
Continuous produced products: sheet-metal coils
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Product example
Taiz
University

Electric shaver

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Production quantity and variety


Taiz
University

Production quantity: low (<100), medium


(102-104), high (>104)
Production variety: low, medium, high
soft, hard

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Manufacturing capability
Taiz
University

Technological Processing capability


- Available processes and machines
- Outsourcing of some operations (casting, heat
treatment, etc.)
Physical product limitations
- Size, weight
- Machine dimensions, handling
Production capacity (Plant capacity)
- Production quantity in a given time, output
Master Engineering &

Materials in Manufacturing
Taiz
University

Metals
- Ferrous: Steel (iron-carbon, 0,02% - 2,11% C)
Cast iron (iron + 2% - 4% C + silicon)
- Nonferrous: copper, aluminium, nickel, alloys
Ceramics: clay, silica, carbides (Al, Si), nitrides (Ti)
Polymers
- Thermoplastic polymers: PE, PP, PS, PVC
- Thermosetting polymers: phenolics, epoxies
- Elastomers: rubber, neoprene, silicone, PU
Composites: more phases, particles/fibres + matrix
glass reinforced plastic, Kevlar, WC in cobalt
Master Engineering &

Materials in Manufacturing
Taiz
University

Venn diagram

Master Engineering &

Historical perspective (2)


Taiz
University

Manufacturing materials and processes:


Neolithic period (~8000 - 3000 B.C.) in Mesopotamia
Mediterranean, Asia; hammering, gold
Bronze age (3500 - 1500 B.C.), extracting copper
from ores, casting, hammering.
Iron age (since 1000 B.C.), heating, quenching
Industrial Revolution (1770 - 1850), machining like
boring, turning, drilling, milling, shaping.
Assembly methods (since ancient cultures), ships,
weapons, tools, farming equipment
Fusion welding (around 1900)
Rubber and polymer shaping, vulcanization (1939)
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Classification
of
Manufacturing

processes
Taiz
University

Manufacturing processes

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Processing operations
1) Shaping operations

Taiz
University

- Solidification processes casting of metals,


moulding of plastics
- Particulate processing powder metallurgy
- Deformation processes forging, extrusion
- Material removal processes machining, nontraditional, grinding

2) Property enhancing processes


- Heat treatments, sintering

3) Surface processing
- Cleaning, coating, plating, deposion

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Casting and moulding processes


Taiz
University

Pouring of the
liquid or melt

Solidification

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Particulate processing
Taiz
University

Sintering

Powder
Pressing
Master Engineering &

Deformation processes
Taiz
University

Forging

Extrusion
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Shaping processes
Taiz
University

General aim: Minimize waste and scrap!!!


- Net shape processes no subsequent machining
- Near net shape processes minimum machining

Turning

Drilling
Master Engineering &

Milling

Manufacturing processes
Taiz
University

1) Processing operations
2) Assembly operations
- Permanent joining: welding, brazing, adhesives
- Mechanical assembly: bolts, screws, rivets, etc.
3) Production machines and tooling
- Machine tools: lathe, milling machine, etc.
- Presses, forge hamers, rolling mills
- Welding machines and equipment
- General and special purpose equipment
- Tooling
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Production systems
Taiz
University

Consist of people, equipment and procedures


Production facilities: factory, production equipment
material handling equipment
Plant layout + Manufacturing systems
Influence of production quantity (low, medium,
high)
Manufacturing support systems
- Manufacturing engineering process planning
- Production planning and control logistics,
ordering materials and parts, scheduling
- Quality control
Master Engineering &

Influence of production quantity


Taiz
University

Low quantity production (1 100 units/year)


- Job shop maximum flexibility, fixed-position
layout and often also process layout
- Examples: aircraft, ships, heavy machinery
Medium quantity production (102 104 units/year)
- Batch production process layout or cellular
layout, usually make-to-stock
- Examples: pumps, lathes, gear drives
High quantity production (> 10.000 units/year)
- Flow line production product layout
- Examples: cars, household appliances
Master Engineering &

Plant layouts
Taiz
University

Fixed-position layout

Cellular layout

Process layout

Product layout
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Production System
Taiz
University

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Mutual relationships
Taiz
University

Function

Shape

Material

Process

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Product attributes
Taiz
University

Mechanical properties, e.g. tensile strength


Physical properties, e.g. thermal expansion
Dimensions, e.g. mm
Tolerances: bilateral, unilateral tolerances
limit dimensions
Geometric attributes: angularity, circularity,
concentricity, cylindricity, flatness, parallellism,
perpendicularity, roundness, squareness and
straightness (See table 5.1)
Surface quality, e.g. roughness
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Specification of tolerances
Taiz
University

Bilatertal
tolerance

Unilateral
tolerance

Master Engineering &

Limit
dimensions

Taiz
University

Geometric
tolerances
a. Flatness
b. Circularity
c. Cylindricity
d. Perpendicularity
e. Concentricity
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Surfaces
Taiz
University

Importance of surface quality


- Aesthetic reasons
- Safety aspects
- Influence on friction and wear
- Influence on mechanical and physical properties
- Important for assembly
- Better electrical contact
Surface technology is concerned with
- Surface texture
- Surface integrity
- Relationship with manufacturing processes
Master Engineering &

Characteristics of surfaces
Taiz
University

A microscopic view shows:


- Substrate bulk material
- Altered layer different structure
- Surface texture exterior part with roughness
- In addition: Mostly an oxide film

Master Engineering &

Surface texture
Surface texture Deviations from the surface
-

Roughness: small deviations


Waveness: deviations with much larger spacing
Lay: predominant direction or pattern of the surface
Flaws: irregularities like cracks, inclusions, etc.

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Taiz
University

Taiz
University

Possible lays

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Surface roughness (1)


Definition of (average) surface roughness
Arithmetic average (AA) of the vertical
deviations from the normal surface
Ra
over a specified surface length.

Master Engineering &

Taiz
University

Lm

L
0

.dx

Surface roughness (2)


Approximation form:
n

Ra
i 1

Taiz
University

yi
n

Units for Ra: m (10 -6 m)


Cutoff length Filter to separate the waviness from
the roughness deviations
Usually: Cutoff length = 0,8 mm = 1/5.L m
Surface finish = surface roughness denoting good
quality and smoothness
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Symbols for surface texture


Taiz
University

Symbols on
engineering drawings
Master Engineering &

Final remarks
Final remarks related to product attributes:

Taiz
University

Surface integrity
- Changes in the subsurface layer
- Alterations like cracks, craters, hardness changes
inclusions, residual stresses, etc. (See Table 5.2)
- Different reasons: mechanical, thermal,etc.
Effect of manufacturing processes on
- Tolerance limits: See Table 5.4
- Surface roughness values: See Table 5.5
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Tolerance limits
Taiz
University

Table 5.4
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Surface roughness values


Taiz
University

Table 5.5
Master Engineering &

Manufacturing Process Selection


Taiz
University

Aspects:
Batch size: Single product, medium size or mass
production
Geometric requirements: Shape and tolerances
Manufacturing phase: Primary or secondary
Tools: General purpose or product specific
Assembly:
Pay attention to assembly aspects
during process selection for part manufacturing
Minimize costs: Costs per product + Costs per
batch + Once-only costs
Master Engineering &

Interfaces with other courses


Taiz
University

Product design: Selection of the product material


and the manufacturing process is related to the
product shape and product function.
Production systems: Selection of a manufacturing
process is related to the optimum batch size and
has consequences for the plant layout.
Management and cost accounting: If more manufacturing scenarios are possible, the final choice
will be made based on minimum costs.
Total Quality Management: All decisions related to
manufacturing are dealing with quality aspects.
Master Engineering &

Problem 1.1
Subject: Manufacturing in Yemen

Taiz
University

1) What is the GNP value in Yemen?


2) Which percentages of the GNP of Yemen are
coming from agriculture, mining, manufacturing,
oil and services?
3) What are the specific industries of Yemen in the
primary, secondary and tertiary categories?
4) What are the most important manufacturing
industries of Yemen, processing metals and/or
plastics?
Master Engineering &

Case study 1.2


Subject: Manufacturing of golf balls

Taiz
University

1) What are the functional requirements for golf


balls?
2) With which type of materials can you realize
these requirements in the best way?
3) Which type of manufacturing processes would
be required to make a golf ball?

Master Engineering &

Case study 1.3


Taiz
University

1) What are the functional requirments for a safe?


2) With which type of materials can
you realize these requirements
in the best way?
3) Which type of manufacturing
processes would be required to
make a safe?

Master Engineering &

Video films
Taiz
University

- Manufacturing of golf balls, series How its made,


Source: Discovery/Teleac, about 5 minutes
- Manufacturing of safes, series How its made,
Source: Discovery/Teleac, about 5 minutes

Master Engineering &