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Chapter 1: Introduction

to Scaling Networks

Scaling Networks

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

Chapter 1: Objectives
Describe the use of a hierarchical network for a small business.
Describe recommendations for designing a network that is scalable.
Describe the type of switches available for small-to-medium-sized
business networks.
Describe the type of routers available for small-to-medium-sized
business networks.
Configure and verify basic settings on a Cisco IOS device.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

Hierarchical Network Design

Network Scaling Needs


A Network is called scalable if it work efficient and practical when
Expand by applied to large users, data and devices.
A large business environment with many users, locations, and
systems is referred to as an enterprise.
The network that is used to support the business enterprise is called
an enterprise network.
As they grow and expand, all enterprise networks must:
Support different applications (email, IP telephony, video)
Support converged network traffic (text, audio, video)
Support diverse business needs.
Provide centralized administrative control.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

Hierarchical Network Design

Enterprise Business Devices


Users expect enterprise networks, such as the example shown in the
figure, to be up 99.999% of the time.
To provide a highreliability network,
enterprise class
equipment is installed
in the enterprise
network.
Enterprise class
equipment is designed
for reliability, with
features such as:
1. Redundant power
supplies.
2. Failover capabilities
(backup system with
secondary servers,
Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

Hierarchical Network Design

Three-layer hierarchical
To optimize bandwidth on an enterprise network, the network must be
organized so that traffic stays local and is not propagated unnecessarily
onto other portions of the network.
Using the three-layer
hierarchical design model
helps organize the network.
This model divides the
network functionality into three
distinct layers:
1. The access layer provides
connectivity for the users.
2. The distribution layer is used to
forward traffic from one local
network to another.
3. The core layer represents a
high-speed backbone layer
between dispersed (scattered)
networks.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

Hierarchical Network Design

Failure Domains
A well-designed network not only controls traffic, but also limits the
size of failure domains.
Failure Domains are areas of a network that are impacted when a
critical device or network service experiences problems.
Redundant links and enterprise class equipment minimize
disruption of network.
Smaller failure domains reduce the impact of a failure on company
productivity.
Switch block deployment each switch block acts independently of
the others. Failure of a single device does not impact the whole
network.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

Expanding the Network

Designing for Scalability


To support an enterprise network, the network designer must
develop a strategy to enable the network to be available and to
scale effectively and easily.
Included in a basic network design strategy are the following
recommendations:
1. Use expandable, modular equipment or clustered devices that
can be easily upgraded.
2. Include design modules that can be added, upgraded, and
modified, without affecting the design of the other functional
areas of the network. three-layer hierarchical
3. Create an IPv4 or IPv6 address strategy that is hierarchical.
4. Use routers or multilayer switches to limit broadcasts and filter
traffic.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

Expanding the Network

More advanced scalability network design requirements include:

1. Implementing Redundancy
Installing duplicate equipment.
Providing redundant paths.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

Expanding the Network

2. Implementing EtherChannel
EtherChannel is a form of link aggregation used in switched
networks.
Link aggregation (combination) increases the amount of bandwidth
between devices by creating one logical link made up of several
physical links.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

Expanding the Network

3. Implementing Wireless Connectivity


Access layer connectivity can be extended through wireless
connectivity.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

10

Expanding the Network

4. Managing the Routed Network


Using a scalable routing protocol and implementing features within
that routing protocol to isolate routing updates and minimize the
size of the routing table.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) works well for large, hierarchical
networks.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

11

Switch Hardware

Switch Platforms
When designing a network, it is important to select the proper hardware
to meet current network requirements, as well as allow for network
growth.
Within an enterprise network, both switches and routers play a critical
role in network communication.
There are five categories of
switches for enterprise networks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Campus LAN switches


Cloud-Managed Switches
Data Center Switches
Service Provider Switches
Virtual Networking

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

12

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

13

Switch Hardware

1. Port Density
The port density of a switch refers to the number of ports
available on a single switch.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

14

Switch Hardware

2. Port speed (Forwarding Rates)


The processing capabilities of a switch are rated by how much data
the switch can process per second.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

15

Switch Hardware

3. Power (Power over Ethernet (PoE))


PoE allows the switch to deliver power to a device over the
existing Ethernet cabling.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

16

Switch Hardware

4. Multilayer Switching
Can build a routing table, support a few routing protocols, and
forward IP packets.
Deployed in the core and distribution layers of an organizations
switched network.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

17

Router Hardware

Router Requirements
Without the routing process, packets cannot leave the local
network.
Role of routers:
1. Route data to correct
destination.
2. Interconnect multiple sites.
3. Provide redundant paths.
4. Connect ISPs.
5. Translate between media types
and protocols.
6. Provide broadcast containment
7. Connect remote locations
8. Group users logically by
application or department
9. Provide enhanced security
Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

18

Router Hardware

Cisco Routers
Three categories of routers:
1. Branch Highly available
24/7.
2. Network Edge High
performance, high security,
and reliable services.
Connect campus, data
center, and branch
networks.
3. Service provider routers.
Used by ISPs

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

19

Router Hardware

Router Hardware
Fixed configuration Built-in interfaces.
Modular Slots allow different interfaces to be added.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

20

Managing Devices

In-Band vs. Out-of-Band Management

There are two methods for connecting a PC to network device for


configuration and monitoring tasks.
1. In-Band requires, at least, one interface to be connected and
operational and use of Telnet, SSH, or HTTP to access device.
- In-Band access requires the switch to have an IP address
(assigned to VLAN 1).
2. Out-of-Band requires direct connection to console or AUX port and
Terminal Emulation client to access device.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

21

Managing Devices

Basic Router CLI commands


Basic router configuration
includes:
Hostname
Passwords (console,
Telnet/SSH, and privileged
mode)
Interface IP addresses
Enabling a routing
protocol

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

22

Managing Devices

Basic Router show Commands


show ip protocols Displays information about routing
protocol configured.
show ip route Displays routing table information.
show ip ospf neighbor Displays information about OSPF
neighbors.
show ip interfaces Displays detailed information about
interfaces.
show ip interface brief Displays all interfaces with IP
addressing , interface, and line protocol status.
show cdp neighbors Displays information about all directly
connected Cisco devices.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

23

Managing Devices

Basic Switch CLI Commands


Hostname
Passwords
Save configuration copy
running-config startupconfig command.
To clear switch erase
startup-config, and then
reload.
To erase VLAN information
delete flash:vlan.dat.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

24

Managing Devices

Basic Switch Show Commands


show port-security Displays any ports with security
enabled.
show port-security address Displays all secure MAC
addresses.
show interfaces Displays detailed information about
interfaces.
show mac-address-table Displays all MAC addresses the
switch has learned.
show cdp neighbors Displays all directly connected Cisco
devices.

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

25

Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

26