Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 61

1926.

21 (b)(6)(i)
All employees required to enter into confined or

enclosed spaces shall be instructed as to the


nature of the hazards involved, the necessary
precautions to be taken, and in the use of
protective and emergency equipment required.
The employer shall comply with any specific

regulations that apply to work in dangerous or


potentially dangerous areas.

1926.21 (b)(6)(ii)
Confined or enclosed space" means any
space having a limited means of egress, which
is subject to the accumulation of toxic or
flammable contaminants or has an oxygen
deficient atmosphere.

1926.21 (b)(6)(ii)
Confined or enclosed spaces include, but
are not limited to, storage tanks, process
vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or exhaust
ducts, sewers, underground utility vaults,
tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces
more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubs,
vaults, and vessels.

1926.353(b) Welding, cutting,


and heating in confined spaces.
Either general mechanical or local exhaust
ventilation meeting the requirements of
paragraph (a) of this section shall be
provided whenever welding, cutting, or
heating is performed in a confined space.

1926.353(b) Welding, cutting,


and heating in confined spaces.
When sufficient ventilation cannot be obtained
without blocking the means of access,
employees in the confined space shall be
protected by air line respirators.
An employee on the outside of such a confined
space assigned to maintain communication
with those working within it and to aid them in
an emergency.

1926.353(b) Welding, cutting,


and heating in confined spaces.

"Lifelines." Where a

welder must enter a


confined space through a
manhole or other small
opening, means shall be
provided for quickly
removing him in case of
emergency.

1926.353(b) Welding, cutting,


and heating in confined spaces.
When safety belts and lifelines are used for
this purpose they shall be so attached to the
welder's body that his body cannot be
jammed in a small exit opening.
An attendant with a pre-planned rescue
procedure shall be stationed outside to
observe the welder at all times and be
capable of putting rescue operations into
effect.

1926.651(g)(1)
Where oxygen deficiency (atmospheres
containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen) or a
hazardous atmosphere exists or could
reasonably be expected to exist, such as in
excavations in landfill areas or excavations in
areas where hazardous substances are stored
nearby, the atmospheres in the excavation shall
be tested before employees enter excavations
greater than 4 feet (1.22 m) in depth.

Background
Many workplaces contain spaces which are
"confined.
Their configurations hinder the activities of any
employees who enter, work in, and exit them.
Employees who work in process vessels must
squeeze in and out through narrow openings or
perform their tasks while cramped or contorted.

OSHA Perspective
In some cases, confinement itself poses
entrapment hazards.
In other cases, confined space work keeps
employees closer to hazards, such as
asphyxiating atmospheres or the moving parts
of machinery.

NIOSH Definition
Any space which, by design, has:
limited openings for entry and exit;
unfavorable natural ventilation which could
contain or produce dangerous air
contaminants, and;
which is not intended for continuous employee
occupancy.

Statistics

NIOSH report:
1993 - 1996
276 Confined Space incidents
Resulted in 234 deaths
193 injuries
Up to half of those killed in confined
spaces were rescuers

Overview
Failure to recognize confined space hazards is
high on the list of accident causes

Overview
First Priority - Define the hazards of the space:
Restricted areas within the confined space
Voids
The nature of the contaminants present
The size of the space
The type of work to be performed
The number of people involved

Ventilation Considerations
The ventilation air should not create an
additional hazard:
Recirculation of contaminants
Improper arrangement of the inlet duct
The substitution of anything other than fresh
(normal) air (approximately 20.9% oxygen,
78.1% nitrogen, and 1% argon with small
amounts of various other gases).

Categories of Confined Spaces


1. Open tops and with a depth that will
restrict the natural movement of air
2. Enclosed spaces with very limited
openings for entry.

Properties of Gasses - Open


Top Confined Spaces
Gases that are heavier than air (butane,
propane, and other hydrocarbons) remain in
depressions and will flow to low points where
they are difficult to remove
Water tanks that appear harmless may develop
toxic atmospheres such as hydrogen sulfide
from the vaporization of contaminated water

Properties of Gasses - Closed


Vessel Confined Spaces
Gases which are heavier than air such as
carbon dioxide and propane, may lie in a tank
or vault for hours or even days after the
containers have been opened.

Properties of Gasses - Closed


Vessel Confined Spaces
Because some gases are odorless, the hazard
may be overlooked with fatal results.
Gases that are lighter then air may also be
trapped within an enclosed type confined
space, especially those with access from the
bottom or side.

Confined Space Hazards Controlling Factors


(1) The material stored or used in the
confined space;
(2) The activity carried out,
(3) The external environment,

Combination Hazards
The most hazardous kind of confined space is
the type that combines limited access and
mechanical devices.
Boilers usually contain power-driven equipment
which, unless properly isolated, may be
inadvertently activated after entry.

Flammable Atmospheres
Enriched oxygen atmospheres,
Vaporization of flammable liquids,
Byproducts of work,
Chemical reactions,
Concentrations of combustible dusts

Flammable Atmospheres
The byproducts of
work procedures
can generate
flammable or
explosive conditions
within a confined
space.

Carbon Monoxide
Fatal at 1000 ppm in air
Dangerous at 200 ppm

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Colorless, odorless noncombustible gas


Heavier than air
Common in solid and compressed liquid forms
Carbonation
Inerting
Organic decay (grain elevators, sewers, storage
bins, wells)
Fermentation (digestors, molasses pits, beer
and wine vats)

CO2 (contd)
PEL = 5,000 ppm - TWA (Table Z-1)
TLV/REL = 5,000 ppm - TWA; 30,000
ppm - STEL
IDLH = 50,000 ppm
LEL = none

Carbon Monoxide (CO)


Colorless, odorless gas
Slightly lighter than air
Chemical asphyxiant
Primary source: incomplete combustion
of organic material
Gasoline-fueled combustion engines

CO (contd)
PEL = 35 ppm - TWA
TLV = 25 ppm - TWA
BEI: <3.5% COHb; 20 ppm (endexhaled air)
REL = 200 ppm - STEL; 35 ppm - TWA
IDLH = 1500 ppm
LEL = 12.5%; UEL = 74.2%

Concentration of CO
Necessary to Produce Symptoms
Percent ppm

Effects

0.02

200

Possibly headache, mild frontal in 2-3 hrs.

0.04

400

Headache, frontal, and nausea after 1-2 hrs.; occipital after 2-1/2
to 3-1/2 hrs.

0.08

800

Headache, dizziness and nausea in 3/4 hour, collapse and


possibly unconsciousness in 2 hrs.

0.16

1,600

Headache, dizziness and nausea in 20 min.; collapse,


unconsciousness, possibly death in 2 hr.

0.32

3,200

Headache and dizziness in 5 to 10 min., unconsciousness and


danger of death in 30 min.

0.64

6,400

Headache and dizziness in 1 to2 min., unconsciousness and


danger of death in 10 to 15 min.

1.28

12,800

Immediate effect; unconsciousness and danger of death in 1 to 3


min.
(Source: Hamilton & Hardy)

Symptoms of CO Exposure
Percent*

Symptoms

0-10

Shortness of breath on exertion

10-20

Tightness across forehead, slight headache

20-30

Throbbing headache

30-40

Severe headache, nausea, vomiting, collapse on exertion

40-50

All symptoms increased, pulse rate and breathing


increased

50-70

Coma, interrupted breathing (Cheyne-Stokes), death

* Percent saturation of Hemoglobin with CO [Blood Levels]

(Adapted from Dubois and Geiling)

Carbon Monoxide
Any untested atmosphere must be
suspect
Carbon monoxide must be tested for
specifically.

Oxygen Displacement
Helium
Argon
Nitrogen

Argon

Oxygen Deprivation

21%
17%
14 - 16%
6 -10%
6%

Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres
O2 Content

Effects and Symptoms (at patm)

15-19%

Decreased ability to work strenuously. May impair coordination


and induce early symptoms in persons with coronory,
pulmonary, or circulatory problems.

12-14%

Respiration increases in exertion, pulse up, impaired


coordination, perception, and judgment.

10-12%

Respiration further increases in rate and depth, poor judgment,


lips blue.

8-10%

Mental failure, fainting, unconsciousness, ashen face, blueness


of lips, nausea, and vomiting.

6-8%

8 min., 100% fatal; 6 min., 50% fatal; 4-5 min., recovery with
treatment.

4-6%

Coma in 40 sec., convulsions, respiration ceases, death.

NOTE: Exposure to atmospheres containing 12% or less oxygen will bring about
unconsciousness without warning and so quickly that individuals cannot help or protect
themselves.
(Source: Compressed Gas Association Bulletin SB-2)

0%

AL PEL

PURE
CLEAN
FRESH
AIR

IDLH

LEL

UEL

AL - ACTION LEVEL

100%
PURE
DIRTY
AIR

PEL - PERMISSIABLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (OSHA)


REL - RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LIMIT (NIOSH)
TLV- THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE (ACGIH)
LEL - LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT

Physical Hazards
Thermal effects (heat and cold),
Noise
Vibration
Radiation
Fatigue while working in a confined
space

Thermal Hazards
(1) Air
temperature,
(2) Air velocity,
(3) Moisture
contained in the
air, and
(4) Radiant heat.

Noise
Reverberation
Communication
Commands

Vibration
Whole body
Segmental
Tools

Definition-NIOSH
Any space which, by design, has limited
openings for entry and exit; unfavorable
natural ventilation which could contain or
produce dangerous air contaminants, and
which is not intended for continuous
employee occupancy.

Hazardous atmosphere
Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of
10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL)
Airborne combustible dust at a
concentration that meets or exceeds its
LFL; NOTE: This concentration may be
approximated as a condition in which the
dust obscures vision at a distance of 5
feet (1.52 m) or less.

Hazardous atmosphere
Atmospheric oxygen concentration below
19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;
Atmospheric concentration of any
substance for which a dose or a
permissible exposure limit is published
Any other atmospheric condition that is
immediately dangerous to life or health.

Inerting
The displacement of the atmosphere in
a permit space by a noncombustible
gas (such as nitrogen) to such an
extent that the resulting atmosphere is
noncombustible.
NOTE: This procedure produces an
IDLH oxygen-deficient atmosphere.

Retrieval system
The equipment (including a retrieval line,
chest or full-body harness, wristlets, if
appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor)
used for non-entry rescue of persons from
permit spaces.

Communication
Summoning Help
Body Positions
Voice Alarms

Self Rescue

Usually initiated by worker


Worker removes self
No rescuer entry required
Entrant must know reasons for self
rescue

Entry Rescue
Most difficult and risky
Requires training, equipment and
coordination of efforts

Respirators for IDLH


Atmospheres

Full Facepiece
Pressure Demand
SCBA

Combination Full
Facepiece Pressure
Demand SAR with
Auxiliary Self-Contained
Air Supply

Lanyard

Bosun Chair

Davit Arm

Vehicle-Mounted Davit

Confined space testing


FOUR-GAS
DETECTOR

Oxygen content
Flammability /
explosion
potential
Carbon
monoxide
Hydrogen sulfide

Critical issues Training