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MUSCLES

What Functions Do Muscles


Provide?

Muscle is a specialised tissue of mesodermal origin. About


40-50 percent of the body weight of a human adult is
contributed by muscles. Based ontheir location, three types
of muscles are identified :
(i)Skeletal
(ii) Visceral and
(iii) Cardiac.
Each organised skeletal muscle in ourbody is made of a
number of muscle bundles or fascicles held togetherby a
common collagenous connective tissue layer called fascia.
Eachmuscle bundle contains a number of muscle fibres

Each muscle fibre is lined by the plasma membrane called sarcolemma


enclosing the sarcoplasm. Muscle fibre is a syncitium as the sarcoplasm
contains many nuclei.
The endoplasmic reticulum, i.e., sarcoplasmicreticulum of the muscle
fibres is the store house of calcium ions.
A characteristic feature of the muscle fibre is the presence of a large
numberof parallelly arranged filaments in the sarcoplasm called
myofilaments ormyofibrils.
Each myofibril has alternate dark and light bands on it. A detailed study
of the myofibril has established that the striated appearance is due to the
distribution pattern of two important proteins Actin and Myosin.
The light bands contain actin and is called I-band or Isotropic band,
whereas the dark band called A or Anisotropic band contains myosin.
Both the proteins are arranged as rod-like structures, parallel to each
other and also to the longitudinal axis of the myofibrils.

Actin filaments are thinner as compared to the myosin filaments, hence


are commonly called thin and thick filaments respectively. In the centre
of each I band is an elastic fibre called Z line which bisects it. The
thin filaments are firmly attached to the Z line. The thick filaments in
the A band are also held together in the middle of this band by a thin
fibrous membrane called M line. The A and I bands are arranged
alternately throughout the length of the myofibrils. The portion of the
myofibril between two successive Z lines is considered as the
functional unit of contraction and is called a sarcomere. In a resting state,
the edges of thin filaments on either side of the thick filaments partially
overlap the free ends of the thick filaments leaving the central part of the
thick filaments. This central part of thick filament, not overlapped by
thin filaments is called the H zone.

Smooth Muscle
Characteristics

Has no striations
Spindle-shaped cells
Single nucleus
Involuntary no
conscious control
Found mainly in the
walls of hollow
organs
Figure 6.2a

Skeletal Muscle
Characteristics

Most are attached by tendons to bones


Cells are multinucleate
Striated have visible banding
Voluntary subject to conscious control
Cells are surrounded and bundled by
connective tissue

Cardiac Muscle
Characteristics
Has striations
Usually has a single
nucleus
Joined to another
muscle cell at an
intercalated disc
Involuntary
Found only in the
heart
Figure 6.2b

Characteristics of
Muscles
Muscle cells are elongated
(muscle cell = muscle fiber)
Contraction of muscles is due to the
movement of microfilaments
All muscles share some terminology
Prefix myo refers to muscle
Prefix mys refers to muscle
Prefix sarco refers to flesh

Skeletal Muscle
Attachments
Epimysium blends into a connective tissue
attachment
Tendon cord-like structure
Aponeuroses sheet-like structure

Sites of muscle attachment


Bones
Cartilages
Connective tissue coverings

Connective Tissue Wrappings of


Skeletal Muscle (So as to keep Muscle
fibers together)
Endomysium around
single muscle fiber
Perimysium around
a fascicle (bundle) of
fibers
Epimysium- The
outermost connective
tissue

Figure 6.1

Characteristics of Muscles:
AND.MYO, MYS and SARCO
Muscle cells are elongated
(muscle cell = muscle fiber)
Contraction of muscles is due to the movement
of microfilaments
All muscles share some terminology:
Prefix myo refers to muscle
Prefix mys refers to muscle
Prefix sarco refers to flesh

Muscle Cell =Muscle Fiber= Myocyte: But


BEWAREALL Muscles cells are NOT ALIKE!!

The myocyte is elongated


Their characteristics depend
on which type of muscle
they are found: skeletal,
muscle or cardiac.
Which Type of Muscle are
we referring to here??

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal


Muscle Cell: A First Look
Cells are multinucleate
Nuclei are just beneath the sarcolemma

Figure 6.3a

We Will See The Role of


Calcium
During Muscle Contraction

Smooth Endoplasmic
Reticulum (SR) in Muscle Cells
VERY SPECIALIZED
It STORES and MOBILIZES Calcium
ions
What is the role of Ca++ in muscle
contraction??

What Does the SER Look


Like?

Function of Muscles

Produce movement
Maintain posture
Stabilize joints
Generate heat

Properties of Skeletal Muscle


Activity
Irritability ability to receive and respond
to a stimulus
Contractility ability to shorten when an
adequate stimulus is received

Muscle Contraction Begins


When..
Stored Calcium is released into the
sarcoplasm
These ions are released into the sarcomeres

Relaxed and Contracted


Sarcomeres
Muscle cells shorten because their
individual sarcomeres shorten
pulling Z discs closer together
pulls on sarcolemma
Notice neither thick nor thin filaments
change length during shortening
Their overlap changes as sarcomeres shorten

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal


Muscle
Sarcoplasmic reticulum specialized
endoplasmic reticulum

Figure 6.3a

Microscopic Anatomy of
Skeletal Muscle
Myofibril
Bundles of myofilaments
Myofibrils are aligned to give distinct bands
I band =
light band
A band =
dark band

Figure 6.3b

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal


Muscle
Sarcomere
Contractile unit of a muscle

Figure 6.3b

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal


Muscle
Organization of the sarcomere
Thick filaments = myosin filaments
Composed of the protein myosin
Has ATPase enzymes

Figure 6.3c

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal


Muscle
Organization of the sarcomere
Thin filaments = actin filaments
Composed of the protein actin

Figure 6.3c

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal


Muscle
Myosin filaments have heads (extensions,
or cross bridges)
Myosin and
actin overlap
somewhat

Figure 6.3d

Microscopic Anatomy of
Skeletal Muscle
At rest, there is a bare zone that lacks actin
filaments
Sarcoplasmic
reticulum
(SR) for
storage of
calcium
Figure 6.3d

Neural Stimulus to Muscles


Skeletal muscles
must be stimulated
by a nerve to
contract
Motor unit
One neuron
Muscle cells
stimulated by that
neuron
Figure 6.4a

Those Myofiloments: How They


Move: The Basis of Muscle
Contraction

Plus: The Neuromuscular Junction:


where it all happens: This IS Muscle
Physiology!

What Do You Think?


Glycogen- Stored form of starch found in
muscle
What is the role of Glycogen in muscle
physiology?

The Case of the Shrinking


Sarcomere
SEE THE I BAND
DISAPPEAR during a
contraction of the..
sarcomere? Yes. Which
makes up myofilament.
Will the I band
reappear? When?
What causes the I band
to dissapear?

What is ACTUALLY happening


when a Sacromere Shrinks?
The thin filament ACTIN and the THICK
filament MYOCIN form a CROSS-BRIDGE
that cause a SLIDING motion.
This shortens the sacromere or closes that GAP
or I band and causes a CONTRACTION.
Neither the ACTIN nor the Myocin filament
actually shorten its the sacromere itself.

OBSERVE THE UNCOVERED ACTIN


SITESMYOCIN CAN NOW BIND

Before Contraction Can Happen


We must think about it even if it is a
reflex.
We must involve the CNS

Nerve Stimulus to Muscles


Skeletal
muscles must be
stimulated by a
nerve to contract
Motor unit
One neuron
Muscle cells
stimulated by that
neuron
Figure 6.4a

MOTOR END PLATE


This is where the neuron and myofiber intercept.
Muscle contraction is possible because of neural
impulse at the motor end plate.
It is the action potential that causes the release
of Ca++ ions from the SR,
The Ca++ can then bind to Troponin and change
the configuration of Tropomyocin.
ACTiNs G binding sites are then exposed.

Nerve Stimulus to Muscles


Synaptic cleft
gap between
nerve and muscle
Nerve and
muscle do not
make contact
Area between
nerve and muscle
is filled with
interstitial fluid
Figure 6.5b

Transmission of Nerve
Impulse to Muscle
Neurotransmitter chemical released by
nerve upon arrival of nerve impulse
The neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle is
acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter attaches to receptors on the


sarcolemma
Sarcolemma becomes permeable to sodium
(Na+)

Transmission of Nerve
Impulse to Muscle
Sodium rushes into the cell generates an
action potential (AP)

The action potential travels along the Ttubules to the SR to stimulate release of
Calcium ions.

The SR Stores Ca ions and Release


them When There is an AP!
Find the T-Tubules

Where do Ca ions go?


The ions travels to the muscle tissue and bind
to the ACTIN regulatory proteins
( TROPONIN) .
This UNCOVERS Myosin Head BINDING
Sites on ACTIN so as to allow CROSS
BRIDGING ( once myosin is powered by
ATP.

The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle


Contraction
Activation by nerve
causes myosin heads
(crossbridges) to attach
to binding sites on the
thin filament
Myosin heads then bind
to the next site of the
thin filament

Figure 6.7

The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle


Contraction
This continued
action causes a
sliding of the myosin
along the actin
The result is that the
muscle is shortened
(contracted)
Figure 6.7

The Sliding Filament Theory

Figure 6.8

NOW the muscle Must


RELAX
Acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter is broken
down by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase
SO the stimulus to muscle ceases!
Calcium ions are actively transported back to
the SR
The actin and myocin cross bridges break
RELAXES------S T R E T C H of the
sarcomere. Get it??

WHERE DOES ALL OF THIS


ENERGY for CONTRACTION
COME FROM?

Creatine Phosphate
This a high energy molecule found in muscle cells
4 to 6 time more abundant in muscle fibers than
ATP!!
It CANNOT directly transfer a phosphate group to
a reaction
INSTEAD, when ATP is sufficient an enzyme in
mitochondrian, creatine phosphokinase promotes
the synthesis of creatine phosphate.
As ATP gets degraded, creatine phosphate can
donate its phosphate bonds to ADP creating
NEW ATP

Energy for Muscle Contraction


Direct phosphorylation
Muscle cells contain
creatine phosphate (CP)
CP is a high-energy
molecule
After ATP is depleted,
ADP is left
CP transfers energy to
ADP, to regenerate ATP
CP supplies are exhausted
in about 20 seconds
Figure 6.10a

Energy for Muscle Contraction


Initially, muscles used stored
ATP for energy

Bonds of ATP are broken to


release energy
Only 4-6 seconds worth of ATP is
stored by muscles

After this initial time, other


pathways must be utilized to
produce ATP

Energy for Muscle Contraction


Aerobic Respiration
Series of metabolic
pathways that occur in
the mitochondria
Glucose is broken down
to carbon dioxide and
water, releasing energy
This is a slower reaction
that requires
continuous oxygen
Figure 6.10b

Energy for Muscle Contraction


Anaerobic glycolysis
Reaction that breaks down
glucose without oxygen
Glucose is broken down to
pyruvic acid to produce
some ATP
Pyruvic acid is converted
to lactic acid
Figure 6.10c

Myoglobin
Myoglobin is oxygen carrier ( It is a
pigment)
Synthesized in muscle
Higher affinity for oxygen than hemoglobin
One globin protein, rather than 4:
therefore we say this protein has tertiary
level structure as apposed to
hemoglobins quartenary level structure.
It can STORE oxygen as well as carry it.

Muscles and Body


Movements
Movement is
attained due
to a muscle
moving an
attached
bone
Figure 6.12

Energy for Muscle Contraction


Anaerobic glycolysis
(continued)
This reaction is not as
efficient, but is fast
Huge amounts of glucose
are needed
Lactic acid produces muscle
fatigue

Figure 6.10c

Muscle Fatigue and Oxygen Debt


When a muscle is fatigued, it is unable to
contract
The common reason for muscle fatigue is
oxygen debt
Oxygen must be repaid to tissue to remove
oxygen debt
Oxygen is required to get rid of accumulated
lactic acid

Increasing acidity (from lactic acid) and lack


of ATP causes the muscle to contract less

SO YOU SAY one of the


functions of muscles is to
generate HEAT?
HOW DO THEY DO
THAT??

Muscles and Body


Movements
Muscles are attached to
at least two points
Origin attachment to
a immoveable bone
Insertion attachment
to a movable bone
Action- What this
muscle and bone
(together) accomplish
Figure 6.12

Example of how it works:


Name of Muscle: Biceps Brachii
Origin: Scapula of Shoulder girdle
Insertion: Proximal Radius
Action: Flexes elbow and supinates ( to turn
backward = supinate ) forearm

Types of Ordinary Body


Movements

Flexion
Extension
Rotation
Abduction
Circumduction

Body Movements

Figure 6.13ac

Body Movements

Figure 6.13d

TYPES OF MUSCLES
:
Prime mover:
major muscle of movement

Antagonist:

opposes movement;when primeMover is active


, antagonist is stretched and relaxes

Synergists:
assist prime mover
fixator--stabilizers

Fascicle Arrangement
All skeletal muscles have fascicles

Fascicle arrangement allows


different functions of muscles
circular (sphincter)
squeeze
convergentfan, triangle
parallel (fusiform)-strap
pennate (feather)

Power and Range of Motion

Determined by fascicular

arrangement
Skeletal muscle shortens to 70%
of resting length
parallel--shorter, not powerful
pennate--lots of fibers, powerful

Pennate Muscles
Unipennate:
fibers on 1 side of tendon e.g., extensor digitorum
Bipennate:
fibers on both sides of tendon e.g., rectus femoris

tendon branches within muscle e.g., deltoid


Multipennate:
Form angle with tendon
Dont move as far as
parallel muscles
Contain more myofibrils
than parallel muscles
Figure 111c,
Develop more tension than
d, e
parallel muscles

Diseases of
Muscles

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy


Inherited muscle-destroying diseases
affects muscle (MALES only)
Muscles atrophy- wheelchairs at a
young age. Death from failure of
respiratory muscles by young
adulthood.
Due to lack of protein called
dystropin-associated glycoprotein
(DAG) that helps maintain
sarcolemma. NO CURE YET.

Myathenia Gravis
The disease involves a
SHORTAGE of
Acetylcholine receptors at
the neuromuscular junction.
NT cant bind and stimulate
AP to muscle.

Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia Gravis

Patients of Myasthenia Gravis


usually have drooping eyelids
Difficulty in swallowing and talking
Generalized muscle weakness and
fatigability
Antibodies to acetylcholine
receptors found in blood
suggests MG is autoimmune
disease
Respiratory Failure due to muscle
failure here--Death

Botulism
Bacterium, Clostridium botulinum,
under anaerobic conditions, produces
a toxin called botulinum.
It prevents release of Acetylcholine
from nerves at NM junction.
Paralyzes muscles. Do you
understand why?

1. Skeletal Muscle:
Voluntary movement
Maintenance of posture
Heat production