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BRAIN COMPUTER

INTERFACE
Oleh:
Josan Putra

1206229181

M.Zaky Ramadhan

1206229465

Panji Fakhruzzaman 1206226412

INTRODUCTION
By reading signals from an array of neurons and using computer chips and
programs to translate the signals into action, BCI can enable a person suffering
from paralysis to write a book or control a motorized wheelchair or prosthetic
limb through thought alone. Current brain-interface devices require deliberate
conscious thought; some future applications, such as prosthetic control, are
likely to work effortlessly

DEFINITION
BCI (brain-computer
interface) adalah sistem
yang dirancang untuk
memungkinkan komunikasi
secara langsung antara
manusia dengan komputer /
mesin tanpa menggunakan
saluran normal dari sistem
saraf otak manusia (Wolpaw,
2002).

HUBUNGAN EEG DAN BCI


BCI dan EEG adalah suatu alat yang dapat menangkap/mendeteksi sinyal
biomedis. Awalnya ilmuan dari Inggris, Richard Caton menemukan EEG dengan
mengambil sampel data dari monyet dan kelinci, kemudian dikembangkan oleh
Hans Banger pada tahun 1925 yang diukurkan pada otak manusia yang kemudian
berkembang sampai sekarang dengan nama BCI (Brain Computer interface)
dengan otak sebagai sumber utama. Pada era ini EEG digunakan untuk menangkap
bio-signal untuk mendapatkan struktur dan pola gelombang pada manusia.
Namun yang membedakan antara BCI dan EEG adalah cakupan kerjanya. Pada
umumnya sistem BCI bekerja berbasis EEG, dimana BCI merupakan sistemnya
dan EEG adalah ekskutor sebagai pendeteksi sinyal, sehingga sinyal yang
didapatkan oleh EEG dapat langsung diproses oleh sistem BCI.

OTAK MENARIK UNTUK DITELITI

Yang menyebabkan sinyal otak menarik untuk dieksplorasi


adalah karena sinyal otak dengan menggunakan teknologi BCI
dapat menjadikan interaksi antara manusia dan komputer
berjalan lebih cepat, interaksi manusia dan sistem masih
sangat dibatasi oleh kemampuan manusia untuk menyerap,
menganalisa, menyimpan, dan menginterpretasikan informasi
untuk berkomunikasi. Namun dengan kemajuan teknologi
seperti BCI ini, menjadikan sinyal otak lebih menarik dieksplor
karena dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai media untuk berinteraksi
langsung dengan komputer atau sistem yang ada

APLIKASI BCI PADA DUNIA MEDIS


Kursi roda untuk orang paralyzed
Kursi roda ini diintegrasikan dengan sistem BCI sebagai kontroler, sehingga orang yang
menderita paralyzed tidak perlu menggunakan tangan/anggota tubuh untuk mengontrol kursi
roda
Brain Frequency Stimulator (BFS)
Memanfaatkan perangkat keras (BCI-Brain Computational Interface) sebagai penunjang
pelatihan otak untuk meningkatkan fokus dan konsentrasi.

Capnograph
Alat yang digunakan untuk memonitor keadaan pasien yang sedang dalam perawatan intensif
atau dalam kondisi pembedahan.

APLIKASI BCI PADA BIDANG NON


MEDIS
Games

Komunikasi

Driving

Hardware
electrocorticography (ECoG),
intracortical electrodes (ICE),
functional near-infrared spectroscopy
(fNIRS),
functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI),
magnetoencephalography (MEG), and
electroencephalography (EEG).

ECOG

MASALAH KETIKA BCI DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI ALAT


INPUT
Kemampuan otak tidak terbatas
BCI mempunyai keterbatasan

Otak terus berkembang dengan waktu

BCI perlu di program ulang setiap waktu

Otak memiliki kemampuan untuk multitasking


Jika menggunakan BCI, pengguna harus berfokus pada tugas tertentu
Pengaruh frekuensi pada otak
Kecepatan otak dalam menerima sinyal

THE FUTURE OF BCI


TECHNOLOGY
A. Direct Control
From a clinical standpoint, there
are populations of patients who
would greatly benefit from the
ability to consciously control their
own movements (e.g.,
wheelchairs, limbs) and devices in
the world around them (lights,
radios, televisions, espresso
machines, computers, phones

B. Indirect Control
indirect-control application accesses the
neural correlates associated with the
users perceived Berror[ to influence the
robotic controllers choice of manipulation
strategy, but does not engage the
operator directly in the control task
c. Communication
Early communication BCIs were designed
to enable a clinical population with little to
no communications capability to generate
text

D. Brain Process Modification


BCI technologies can also provide the potential for users
to actively modify their own brain processes or states
E. Mental State Detection
One of the recent common themes in BCIs is the detection
and use of mental states, as opposed to specific instances
of neural processing such as an ERP, to modify a syste
F. Opportunistic State-Based Detection
Neural state monitoring could be used in combination
with pervasive intelligence to opportunistically change the
environment

NEUROGADGET

Neurogadget.comis the first independent website dedicated to


brain-computer interfaces (BCI), thought-controlled applications,
mind-controlled games, bionic implants and various related topics.
Wegather and summarise the latest news, and write original
content related.Since our launch in 2010 we have become one of
the leading sources of BCI news. Our posts are frequently cited by
others, including the market leader BCI companies.

THINKGEAR AM

TGAM is the core of our brainwave sensing technology. The TGAM is


the worlds most popular EEG solution. Together with dry-electrode, it
senses the signals from the human brain, filters out extraneous noise
and electrical interference and converts to digital power. This brainpower can be used in games, applications, toys, and research

SPECIFICATION THINKGEAR AM

Features
Direct connect to dry electrode
One EEG channel + Reference +
Ground
Extremely low-level signal
detection
Advanced filter with high noise
immunity
RAW EEG at 512Hz
Dimensions
Size: 2.79cm x 1.52cm x 0.25cm
Weight (Max) 130mg
Price
US $ 55.00

eSense Brainwave Patterns


RAW EEG Signal
Attention
Meditation
Eye Blink
Delta, Theta, low apha, high alpha, low beta, high
beta and gamma waves
Specifications
512Hz sampling rate
3-100Hz frequency range
ESD Protection: 4kV Contact Discharge; 8kV Air
Max Power Consumption: 15mA @ 3.3V Operating
voltage 2.97 ~3.63V
UART (Serial):
1200, 9600, 57600 baud
8-bits
No parity
1 stop bit

MINDWAVE HEADSETS
The MindWave headset turns your computer into a
brain activity monitor. The headset safely measures
brainwave signals and monitors the attention levels of
individuals as they interact with math, memory and
pattern recognition applications. Ten apps are included
with experiences ranging from fun entertainment to
serious education. This headset is useful for OEMs
building games, educational applications or activities
for entertainment.
The MindWave family consists of MindWave and
MindWave Mobile today. The MindWave is designed for
PCs and Mac. MindWave Mobile, is also compatible with
mobile devices like the iPhone, iPad, and Android. If
you want a mobile compatible device, please check out
the MindWave Mobile. Both headset in the MindWave

SPECIFICATION MINDWAVE HEADSETS

1. Hardware Overview:
- Portable EEG brainwave
headset
- TGAM1 module, with TGAT1
ASIC
- Automatic wireless computer
pairing
- Static headset MAC address (ID)

Lightweight

- Single AAA battery


- 6-8 hours battery run time

Supports Mac OS X 10.5.8,


10.6.x,and 10.7.x

Wireless
Safe passive biosensors
8-hour AAA battery life
Includes bonus CD with 10
neuroscience apps
SupportsWindows XP / Vista / 7

NEUROSKY CARDIOCHIP
The NeuroSky CardoChip offers a low-noise design. Low
NoiseAmplifier and ADC are the main components of the
CardioChip analog front-end (AFE).
The CardioChip offers extremely low system noise
and programmable gain ensuring it can detect bio
signals and convert them into digital words using a
16bit ADC.
The AFE also contains a sensoroff detection circuit.
The heart of the BMD101 digital circuit is a powerful system
management unit. It is in charge of overall system
configuration, operation management, internal/external
communication, proprietary algorithm computation, and
power management.

SPECIFICATION THE NEUROSKY CARDIOCHIP


- Target Applications:
- Sensor Electrode, Sensor
Materials:
Mobile health and wellness
Silver-Silver Chloride (AgAgCl) Portable ECG, Heart rate and heart

Silver Coated Copper


Gold
Stainless Steel
Conductive Fabric
Conductive Rubber
- Clocking Scheme :
Built-in RC Oscillator
- Small Form Factor
SON8

- Low Power Consumption

rate variability (HRV) monitor

Single 3.3V (10%) Power


Supply with OnChip 1.2V
Regulator

Portable health condition monitor


(Stress Meter)

Low current consumption

Sports and training


Heart rate monitor for recreation
Heart rate or HRV guidance device
(fatigue meter for an athlete)
- Flexible Interface :
UART (57600 Baud Rate)

- ESD Protection with External


Diodes
8kV Air Discharge
4kV Contact Discharge
- Sensor Dimensions

Output raw data, real time heart rate, Recommended diameter of


sensor on or off flag.
Sensor is ~10mm

Muse : the brain sensing headband is a brain fitness


tool that helps do more with your mind by helping
you calm and settle your mind.
Muse is a comfortable, lightweight headband with 7
sensors designed to detect and measure your brain
activity, just as a heart monitor measures your pulse.
Muse uses 7 sensors to detect and measure your
brain activity. This activity is converted into
information you can track on your phone or tablet.
Muse training sessions can done in as little as 3
minutes a day, with audio and visual feedback of
your brains response in real time. This helps you
improve your mind, your concentration and your
focus each time you use Muse.

Muse Headband:
Flexible, adjustable, lightweight headband with 7
EEG sensors capable of reading 4 channels of
data two on the forehead and two at the top of
the ears
Produces bipolar readings using Fpz(center of
forehead) as the reference for TP9(left ear),
Fp1(left forehead), Fp2(right forehead),
TP10(right ear).
1 reference sensor at Fpz and 2 DRL sensors
on the forehead.

SPECIFICATION
An onboard 3axis accelerometer enables motion input for
games and for quantifying head movements.
Communicates over bluetooth and is compatible with iOS
(iPhone 4+, iPad 2+, iTouch 5+), Android 2.3+, Mac OS
(OSX 10.8+), Windows 7 & 8 and Ubuntu Linux LTS
releases.
Rechargeable lithiumion battery (charge via microUSB
jack, just like most cell phones). Lasts up to 5 hours of
use per charge. Typical lithiumion batteries last a
minimum of 500 charge cycles. Thus if you use Muse for
15 minutes a day, the battery should last at least 27
years.

The 7sensor montage enables estimation of


hemispheric asymmetries (with an emphasis on
the prefrontal lobe) and thus facilitates brain
Battery fuel gauge which measures the amount of
state discrimination that depends on asymmetry,
remaining battery.
such as emotional valence (positive vs. negative
emotions).
5 LEDs which display various states of operation
EEG signals are oversampled and then
downsampled to yield an output sampling rate of
220 Hz with 2uV (RMS) noise.
Active noise suppression is achieved with a
DRL REF feedback configuration using centrally

OpenBCI stands for open-source


brain-computer interface (BCI). The
OpenBCI Board is a versatile and
affordable analog-to-digital
converter that can be used to sample
electrical brain activity (EEG), muscle
activity (EMG), heart rate (EKG), and
more. It is compatible with any type
of electrode and is supported by an
ever-growing, open-source framework
of signal processing applications.

CONCLUSION
However, to reach their full potential, the development of
BCI technologies over the coming decades will have to
overcome a number of obstacles
In the far term, we envision a more holistic approach to
BCIs that merges critical brain, behavioral, task, and
environmental information obtained with advanced pervasive, multiaspect sensing technologies, sophisticated
analytical approaches, and enabled by advances in computational infrastructure such as extensions of cloud
technologies