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Baseband Digital Transmission

Outline

Digital Multiplexing

Multiplexers and Hierarchies Data Multiplexers

Data Formats/Line Codes and PSDs Synchronization techniques

Bit Synchronization Scramblers and PN sequence generator Frame Synchronization

Equalization Inter-symbol Interference

Digital multiplexing

TDM : Analog Signal Multiplexing

time interleaving of samples from two or more analog signals. based on low pass sampling theorem. periodic sampling and waveform preservation is required.

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Digital MUX (Binary MUX)

multiplexing on bit-by-bit basis- bits/digits interleaving multiplexing on word-by-word basis- byte/word interleaving

MUX must perform:

  • 1. Establish a frame as the smallest time interval containing at least one bit from every input.

  • 2. Assign to each input a number of unique frame.

bit slot within

a

  • 3. Insert

control

bits

synchronization.

for

frame

identification and

  • 4. Make allowance for any variations of the input bit rate.

Categories of Multiplexers

based on bit rate variation:

  • 1. Synchronous MUX

used for sources which are governed by one master clock. Eliminates the bit rate variation by pulse or bit stuffing. Maximum throughput efficiency.

  • 2. Asynchronous MUX

used for sources which operates in start/stop mode. here, sources produce bursts of characters/word with variable spacing between bursts.

word interleaving is done with start and stop bits that start and terminate the receiver clock.

3. Quasi-synchronous MUX

used for the sources whose bit rates are same and do not vary so much.

MUX HIERARCHY

  • 1. AT&T hierarchy in North America & japan

  • 2. CCITT hierarchy in Europe.

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Line Codes/Data Formats

Source Encoders: PCM, DPCM and DM

Encoding of quantized samples using digital (binary) code.

Conversion of analog waveforms into coded pulses (digital signal).

[Waveform Coding schemes]

Channel accepts only waveforms (ex.- electrical, EM wave).

Electrical representation of encoded binary streams is required for their transmission. [Line coding/transmission coding]

Assigning waveforms (electrical pulses) to digital data.

Line Codes- Baseband Modulation (Recall: A sub-block of channel encoder unit).

Desired Properties of a Line Code

Smaller transmission bandwidth Low transmission power Error detection and correction capability Favorable PSD

Zero PSD value is desired at f=0 Hz, because ac coupled devices are often used at the repeaters.

Transparency

should work for every possible sequence of data.

Types of Line codes

Power Spectral Density (PSD)

Synchronization techniques (C-523)

LPF Regenerat or Bit Frame Clock Sync Sync
LPF
Regenerat
or
Bit
Frame
Clock
Sync
Sync

Bit Synchronization

Open-loop bit synchronization Closed-loop bit synchronization

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Scramblers and PN sequence generator

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Frame Synchronization

Frame Synchronization <a href=www.entcengg.com 23 " id="pdf-obj-22-7" src="pdf-obj-22-7.jpg">