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CHAPTER

STATICS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

Distributed Forces:

Moments of Inertia

Ninth

Contents

Introduction

Moments of Inertia of an Area

Moment of Inertia of an Area by Int

egration

Polar Moment of Inertia

Radius of Gyration of an Area

Sample Problem 9.1

Sample Problem 9.2

Parallel Axis Theorem

Moments of Inertia of Composite A

reas

Sample Problem 9.4

Sample Problem 9.5

Product of Inertia

Principal Axes and Principal

Moments of Inertia

Sample Problem 9.7

Mohrs Circle for Moments and

Products of Inertia

Sample Problem 9.8

Moment of Inertia of a Mass

Parallel Axis Theorem

Moment of Inertia of Thin Plates

Moment of Inertia of a 3D Body by

Integration

Moment of Inertia of Common

Geometric Shapes

Sample Problem 9.12

Moment of Inertia With Respect to an

Arbitrary Axis

Ellipsoid of Inertia. Principle Axes of

Axes of Inertia of a Mass

9- 2

Ninth

Introduction

Previously considered distributed forces which were proportional to

the area or volume over which they act.

- The resultant was obtained by summing or integrating over the

areas or volumes.

- The moment of the resultant about any axis was determined by

computing the first moments of the areas or volumes about that

axis.

Will now consider forces which are proportional to the area or volume

over which they act but also vary linearly with distance from a given

axis.

- It will be shown that the magnitude of the resultant depends on the

first moment of the force distribution with respect to the axis.

- The point of application of the resultant depends on the second

moment of the distribution with respect to the axis.

Current chapter will present methods for computing the moments and

products of inertia for areas and masses.

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9- 3

Ninth

Moment of Inertia of an Area

proportional to the elemental areas A on which they

act and also vary linearly with the distance of A

from a given axis.

Example: Consider a beam subjected to pure bending.

Internal forces vary linearly with distance from the

neutral axis which passes through the section centroid.

F kyA

R k y dA 0

M k y 2 dA

y dA Qx first moment

2

y dA second moment

submerged circular gate.

F pA yA

R y dA

M x y 2 dA

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9- 4

Ninth

Moment of Inertia of an Area by Integration

Second moments or moments of inertia of

an area with respect to the x and y axes,

I x y 2 dA

I y x 2 dA

choosing dto be a thin strip parallel to

one of the coordinate axes.

For a rectangular area,

2

I x y dA y 2 bdy 13 bh 3

0

be applied to strips parallel to the axes,

dI x 13 y 3 dx

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

dI y x 2 dA x 2 y dx

9- 5

Ninth

Polar Moment of Inertia

The polar moment of inertia is an important

parameter in problems involving torsion of

cylindrical shafts and rotations of slabs.

J 0 r 2 dA

The polar moment of inertia is related to the

rectangular moments of inertia,

J 0 r 2 dA x 2 y 2 dA x 2 dA y 2 dA

I y Ix

9- 6

Ninth

Radius of Gyration of an Area

Consider area A with moment of inertia

Ix. Imagine that the area is

concentrated in a thin strip parallel to

the x axis with equivalent Ix.

I

I x k x2 A

kx x

A

kx = radius of gyration with respect

to the x axis

Similarly,

Iy

k y2 A

ky

J O kO2 A kO

Iy

A

JO

A

kO2 k x2 k y2

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9- 7

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.1

SOLUTION:

A differential strip parallel to the x axis is chosen for

dA.

dI x y 2 dA

dA l dy

For similar triangles,

inertia of a triangle with respect

to its base.

l h y

b

h

l b

h y

h

dA b

h y

dy

h

h

h y

bh 2

I x y dA y b

dy hy y 3 dy

h

h0

0

2

4 h

y

y

h

h 3

4

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

bh3

I x

12

9- 8

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.2

SOLUTION:

An annular differential area element is chosen,

dJ O u 2 dA

dA 2 u du

r

J O dJ O u 2 u du 2 u 3du

2

JO

a) Determine the centroidal polar

moment of inertia of a circular

area by direct integration.

4

r

2

JO I x I y 2I x

determine the moment of inertia

of a circular area with respect to a

diameter.

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

4

r 2I x

2

I diameter I x

4

r

4

9- 9

Ninth

Parallel Axis Theorem

Consider moment of inertia I of an area A

with respect to the axis AA

I y 2 dA

The axis BB passes through the area centroid

and is called a centroidal axis.

I y 2 dA y d 2 dA

y 2 dA 2d y dA d 2 dA

I I Ad 2

9 - 10

Ninth

Parallel Axis Theorem

Moment of inertia IT of a circular area with

respect to a tangent to the circle,

I T I Ad 2 14 r 4 r 2 r 2

54 r 4

centroidal axis,

I AA I BB Ad 2

I BB I AA Ad

1 bh 3

12

2

1

1

2 bh 3 h

1 bh 3

36

9 - 11

Ninth

Moments of Inertia of Composite Areas

The moment of inertia of a composite area A about a given axis is

obtained by adding the moments of inertia of the component areas

A1, A2, A3, ... , with respect to the same axis.

9 - 12

Ninth

Moments of Inertia of Composite Areas

9 - 13

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.4

SOLUTION:

Determine location of the centroid of

composite section with respect to a

coordinate system with origin at the

centroid of the beam section.

beam is increased by attaching a plate

to its upper flange.

Determine the moment of inertia and

radius of gyration with respect to an

axis which is parallel to the plate and

passes through the centroid of the

section.

determine moments of inertia of beam

section and plate with respect to

composite section centroidal axis.

Calculate the radius of gyration from the

moment of inertia of the composite

section.

9 - 14

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.4

SOLUTION:

Determine location of the centroid of composite section

with respect to a coordinate system with origin at the

centroid of the beam section.

Section

A, in 2

y , in. yA, in 3

Plate

6.75

7.425 50.12

Beam Section 11.20

0

0

A 17.95

yA 50.12

Y A yA

yA 50.12 in 3

2.792 in.

2

A

17.95 in

9 - 15

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.4

Apply the parallel axis theorem to determine moments of

inertia of beam section and plate with respect to composite

section centroidal axis.

I x, beam section I x AY 2 385 11.20 2.792 2

472.3 in 4

1 9

I x, plate I x Ad 2 12

145.2 in 4

I x I x, beam section I x, plate 472.3 145.2

I x 618 in 4

Calculate the radius of gyration from the moment of inertia

of the composite section.

k x

I x 617.5 in 4

A 17.95 in 2

k x 5.87 in.

9 - 16

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.5

SOLUTION:

Compute the moments of inertia of the

bounding rectangle and half-circle with

respect to the x axis.

of the shaded area with respect to

the x axis.

obtained by subtracting the moment of

inertia of the half-circle from the moment

of inertia of the rectangle.

9 - 17

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.5

SOLUTION:

Compute the moments of inertia of the bounding

rectangle and half-circle with respect to the x axis.

Rectangle:

I x 13 bh3 13 240 120 138.2 106 mm 4

Half-circle:

moment of inertia with respect to AA,

I AA 18 r 4 18 90 4 25.76 106 mm 4

moment of inertia with respect to x,

4r 4 90

a

38.2 mm

3

3

b 120 - a 81.8 mm

A 12 r 12 90

2

7.20 106 mm 4

moment of inertia with respect to x,

92.3 106 mm 4

9 - 18

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.5

The moment of inertia of the shaded area is obtained by

subtracting the moment of inertia of the half-circle from

the moment of inertia of the rectangle.

Ix

92.3 106 mm 4

I x 45.9 106 mm 4

9 - 19

Ninth

Product of Inertia

Product of Inertia:

I xy xy dA

axis of symmetry, the product of inertia is

zero.

I xy I xy x yA

9 - 20

Ninth

Principal Axes and Principal Moments of Inertia

The change of axes yields

Ix I y Ix I y

I x

cos 2 I xy sin 2

2

2

Ix I y Ix I y

I y

cos 2 I xy sin 2

2

2

Ix Iy

I xy

sin 2 I xy cos 2

2

Given I x y 2 dA I y x 2 dA

I xy xy dA

we wish to determine moments

and product of inertia with

respect to new axes x and y.

Note: x x cos y sin

y y cos x sin

parametric equations for a circle,

I x I ave 2 I x2y R 2

I ave

Ix I y

2

Ix I y

2

I xy

R

2

same circle.

9 - 21

Ninth

Principal Axes and Principal Moments of Inertia

At the points A and B, Ixy = 0 and Ix is

a maximum and minimum, respectively.

I max,min I ave R

tan 2 m

2 I xy

Ix Iy

angles, 90o apart which correspond to

the principal axes of the area about O.

I x I ave 2 I x2y R 2

I ave

Ix I y

2

Ix Iy

2

I xy

R

2

of inertia of the area about O.

9 - 22

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.6

SOLUTION:

Determine the product of inertia using

direct integration with the parallel axis

theorem on vertical differential area strips

Apply the parallel axis theorem to

evaluate the product of inertia with respect

to the centroidal axes.

the right triangle (a) with respect

to the x and y axes and

(b) with respect to centroidal axes

parallel to the x and y axes.

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 - 23

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.6

SOLUTION:

Determine the product of inertia using direct integration

with the parallel axis theorem on vertical differential

area strips

x

x

y h 1 dA y dx h 1 dx

b

b

xel x

yel 12 y 12 h 1

b

b

I xy dI xy xel yel dA x

0

12

x

h 1 dx

b

x 2 x3 x 4

x

2 x x

h

2 dx h

2

2

b

4

3b 8b

2b

0

I xy

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

b

0

1 b 2h 2

24

9 - 24

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.6

Apply the parallel axis theorem to evaluate the

product of inertia with respect to the centroidal axes.

x 13 b

y 13 h

I xy I xy x yA

I xy

1 b2h2

24

13 h 12 bh

13 b

1 b 2h 2

I xy 72

9 - 25

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.7

SOLUTION:

Compute the product of inertia with

respect to the xy axes by dividing the

section into three rectangles and applying

the parallel axis theorem to each.

Determine the orientation of the

principal axes (Eq. 9.25) and the

principal moments of inertia (Eq. 9. 27).

For the section shown, the moments of

inertia with respect to the x and y axes

are Ix = 10.38 in4 and Iy = 6.97 in4.

Determine (a) the orientation of the

principal axes of the section about O,

and (b) the values of the principal

moments of inertia about O.

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 - 26

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.7

SOLUTION:

Compute the product of inertia with respect to the xy axes

by dividing the section into three rectangles.

Apply the parallel axis theorem to each rectangle,

I xy I xy x yA

axes parallel to the xy axes is zero for each rectangle.

Rectangle Area, in 2

x , in. y , in.

I

1.5 1.25 1.75

II

1.5

0

0

III

1.5 1.25 1.75

x yA, in 4

3.28

0

3.28

x yA 6.56

I xy x yA 6.56 in 4

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 - 27

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.7

Determine the orientation of the principal axes (Eq. 9.25)

and the principal moments of inertia (Eq. 9. 27).

tan 2 m

2 I xy

Ix I y

2 6.56

3.85

10.38 6.97

I x 10.38 in

I y 6.97 in 4

I xy 6.56 in

I max,min

Ix I y

2

Ix I y

2

I xy

10.38 6.97

10.38 6.97

2

2

6.56 2

I a I max 15.45 in 4

I b I min 1.897 in 4

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 - 28

Ninth

Mohrs Circle for Moments and Products of Inertia

The moments and product of inertia for an area

are plotted as shown and used to construct

Mohrs circle,

I ave

Ix I y

2

Ix I y

2

I xy

R

2

analytically determine the moments and product of

inertia for any other rectangular axes including the

principal axes and principal moments and products

of inertia.

9 - 29

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.8

SOLUTION:

Plot the points (Ix , Ixy) and (Iy ,-Ixy).

Construct Mohrs circle based on the

circle diameter between the points.

Based on the circle, determine the

orientation of the principal axes and the

principal moments of inertia.

The moments and product of inertia

with respect to the x and y axes are Ix =

7.24x106 mm4, Iy = 2.61x106 mm4, and

Ixy = -2.54x106 mm4.

moments and product of inertia with

respect to the xy axes.

principal axes about O, (b) the values of

the principal moments about O, and (c)

the values of the moments and product

of inertia about the x and y axes

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 - 30

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.8

SOLUTION:

Plot the points (Ix , Ixy) and (Iy ,-Ixy). Construct Mohrs

circle based on the circle diameter between the points.

OC I ave 12 I x I y 4.925 106 mm4

CD 12 I x I y 2.315 106 mm 4

R

I x 7.24 106 mm 4

I y 2.61 106 mm 4

I xy 2.54 106 mm4

principal axes and the principal moments of inertia.

tan 2 m

DX

1.097 2 m 47.6

CD

m 23.8

I max OA I ave R

I min OB I ave R

9 - 31

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.8

Based on the circle, evaluate the moments and product

of inertia with respect to the xy axes.

The points X and Y corresponding to the x and y axes

are obtained by rotating CX and CY counterclockwise

through an angle 2(60o) = 120o. The angle that CX

forms with the x axes is = 120o - 47.6o = 72.4o.

I x ' OF OC CX cos I ave R cos 72.4o

I x 5.96 106 mm 4

I y ' OG OC CY cos I ave R cos 72.4o

I y 3.89 106 mm 4

I xy ' FX CY sin R sin 72.4o

OC I ave 4.925 106 mm 4

I xy 3.28 106 mm 4

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 - 32

Ninth

Moment of Inertia of a Mass

Angular acceleration about the axis AA of the

small mass m due to the application of a

couple is proportional to r2m.

r2m = moment of inertia of the

mass m with respect to the

axis AA

For a body of mass m the resistance to

rotation about the axis AA is

I r12 m r22 m r32 m

r 2 dm mass moment of inertia

The radius of gyration for a concentrated

mass with equivalent mass moment of inertia

is

I

I k 2m

k

m

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 - 33

Ninth

Moment of Inertia of a Mass

Moment of inertia with respect to the y coordinate

axis is

I y r 2 dm z 2 x 2 dm

Similarly, for the moment of inertia with respect to

the x and z axes,

I z x 2 y 2 dm

I x y 2 z 2 dm

In SI units,

I r 2 dm kg m 2

lb s 2 2

2

I slug ft

ft lb ft s 2

ft

9 - 34

Ninth

Parallel Axis Theorem

For the rectangular axes with origin at O and parallel

centroidal axes,

y 2 z 2 dm 2 y y dm 2 z z dm y 2 z 2 dm

I x I x m y 2 z 2

I y I y m z 2 x 2

I z I z m x 2 y 2

I x y 2 z 2 dm y y 2 z z 2 dm

axis,

I I md 2

9 - 35

Ninth

Moments of Inertia of Thin Plates

For a thin plate of uniform thickness t and homogeneous

material of density , the mass moment of inertia with

respect to axis AA contained in the plate is

I AA r 2 dm t r 2 dA

t I AA,area

contained in the plate,

I BB t I BB,area

I CC t J C ,area t I AA,area I BB,area

I AA I BB

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 - 36

Ninth

Moments of Inertia of Thin Plates

For the principal centroidal axes on a rectangular plate,

121 a 3b 121 ma 2

1 ab 3 1 mb 2

I BB t I BB,area t 12

12

1 m a 2 b 2

I CC I AA,mass I BB,mass 12

I AA t I AA,area t

I AA I BB t I AA,area t 14 r 4 14 mr 2

I CC I AA I BB 12 mr 2

9 - 37

Ninth

Moments of Inertia of a 3D Body by Integration

Moment of inertia of a homogeneous body

is obtained from double or triple

integrations of the form

I r 2 dV

For bodies with two planes of symmetry,

the moment of inertia may be obtained

from a single integration by choosing thin

slabs perpendicular to the planes of

symmetry for dm.

The moment of inertia with respect to a

particular axis for a composite body may

be obtained by adding the moments of

inertia with respect to the same axis of the

components.

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 - 38

Ninth

Moments of Inertia of Common Geometric Shapes

9 - 39

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.12

SOLUTION:

With the forging divided into a prism and

two cylinders, compute the mass and

moments of inertia of each component

with respect to the xyz axes using the

parallel axis theorem.

Add the moments of inertia from the

components to determine the total moments

of inertia for the forging.

Determine the moments of inertia

of the steel forging with respect to

the xyz coordinate axes, knowing

that the specific weight of steel is

490 lb/ft3.

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 - 40

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.12

cylinders a 1in., L 3in., x 2.5in., y 2in. :

SOLUTION:

Compute the moments of inertia

of each component with respect

to the xyz axes.

I x 12 ma 2 my 2

12 0.0829

2.59 103 lb ft s 2

1 m 3a 2 L2 mx 2

I y 12

2 123 2

1 0.0829 3 1

12

12

0.0829

212.5 2

4.17 103 lb ft s 2

each cylinder :

V 490 lb/ft 1 3 in

m

g

1728 in 3 ft 3 32.2 ft s 2

m 0.0829 lb s 2 ft

1 m 3a 2 L2 m x 2 y 2

I y 12

2 123 2

1 0.0829 3 1

12

12

212.5 2 122 2

0.0829

6.48 103 lb ft s 2

9 - 41

Ninth

Sample Problem 9.12

prism (a = 2 in., b = 6 in., c = 2 in.):

126 2 122 2

1 m b 2 c 2 1 0.211

I x I z 12

12

4.88 103 lb ft s 2

122 2 122 2

1 m c 2 a 2 1 0.211

I y 12

12

0.977 103 lb ft s 2

Add the moments of inertia from the

components to determine the total moments of

inertia.

I x 4.88 103 2 2.59 103

prism :

V

490 lb/ft 3 2 2 6 in 3

m

g

1728 in 3 ft 3 32.2 ft s 2

m 0.211 lb s 2 ft

I x 10.06 103 lb ft s 2

I y 9.32 103 lb ft s 2

I z 17.84 103 lb ft s 2

9 - 42

Ninth

Moment of Inertia With Respect to an Arbitrary Axis

IOL = moment of inertia with respect to axis OL

2

2

I OL p dm r dm

components and expanding yields

I OL I x 2x I y 2y I z 2z

2 I xy x y 2 I yz y z 2 I zx z x

The definition of the mass products of inertia of a

mass is an extension of the definition of product of

inertia of an area

I xy xy dm I xy mx y

I yz yz dm I yz myz

I zx zx dm I zx mz x

2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 - 43

Ninth

Ellipsoid of Inertia. Principal Axes of Inertia of a Mass

Assume the moment of inertia of a body has been

computed for a large number of axes OL and that point

Q is plotted on each axis at a distance OQ 1 I OL

The locus of points Q forms a surface known as the

ellipsoid of inertia which defines the moment of inertia

of the body for any axis through O.

x,y,z axes may be chosen which are the principal

axes of inertia for which the products of inertia are

zero and the moments of inertia are the principal

moments of inertia.

9 - 44

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