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Synchronous Generator

Capability Curve
Sudarsanan.S
Graduate Engg. Trainee
Kalki communications Technologies
Introduction


Synchronous Machines

Generator Capability

Capability Curve

Importance
Synchronous Machines

Constant speed.


Operating Modes


Excitation
Synchronous Machines
Non-salient pole generator

• High speed (2 - 4 poles)


• Large power (100 - 400 MVA)
• Application
Synchronous Machines
Salient pole generator

• Small and mid-size power ( 0 - 100MVA)

• Mid size generators for emergency power


supply

• Large size generators in hydro-electric power


plants
Capability Curve
 Plot of Complex Power
 Stator And Rotor Heat Limit
 External Limits
Capability Curve - Importance
 Ensure Protection
 Construction of Generator
 Nature of Excitation Circuit
 System Condition
 Influence of Voltage and Power Regulation
 Rotor Acceleration
 Rotor and Stator Overheating
 Over voltage on Rotor
Synchronous Generator Capability Curve
Volts V =Rated Phase Voltage
B

I θ AB E =Generated Emf

A
volts
jX S
Ia =Armature Current
θ o
VΦ A Ra =Armature Resistance
I OA
A Xs =Sync.Reactance
 =Load Angle
The generator phasor diagram Xs =Xa+Xl
Xa =Armature Reactance
E=Vt+IaRa+IajXs =E 
Xl =Leakage Reactance
Ra<<0
E=Vt+IajXs =E|_
AB
cos θ =
XsIA
AB = X s I A cos θ
OA
sin θ = or OA = X s I A sin θ
XSIA
Real Power R eactive Po wer
P3Φ = 3VΦ I A cos θ Q 3Φ = 3VΦ I A sin θ

Apparent Power

S 32Φ = P32Φ +Q 23Φ


S 3 Φ = 3VΦ I A
Capability Curve-Construction
Phasor Diagram to Power Diagram
Volts
B
AB
Volt to Volt amp = 3Vo/Xs
I θ

A
volts Phasor Orgin = -Vo
jX S

o Power dia Orgin = -Vo*(3Vo/Xs)


θ VΦ A
I OA
A

The generator phasor diagram

3E AVΦ
DE =
Xs
I
A

3V P = 3VΦ I A cosθ
S=

θ 3V 2
x Q = 3VΦ I A sin θ

synchronous generator capability curve :


corresponding power units
The origin of the phasor diagram is at − VΦ on the
horizontal axis, so the origin on the power diagram is at
3VΦ VΦ2
Q3Φ = ( −VΦ) = −3
Xs XS
The field current is proportional to the machine’s flux, and
flux is proportional to Generated Emf E
3E AVΦ
DE =
Xs
The armature current Ia is proportional to XsIa ,and the
length corresponding to XsIa on the power diagram is

S = 3VΦ I A
Capability Curve-Non Salient Pole Generator

capability diagram of the turbo generator with xd = xq

Xd=Direct axis synchronous reactance,XsSino

Xq=Quadrature axis synchronous reactance,XsCoso


Capability Curve-Salient Pole Generator

Capability diagram of the Salient pole generator with xd = xq


Conclusion

Capability Curve

Thanks

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