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Understanding

Organisational Context 2e
Slides by Claire Capon

Chapter 3
Organisational behaviour
Approaches to organisational behaviour
Individuals in organisations
Groups in organisations
Leadership in organisations
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.1

Approaches to organisational
behaviour

Frederick Winslow Taylor


Elton Mayo
Peter Drucker
Douglas McGregor
Rosabeth Moss Kanter

Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.2

Frederick Winslow Taylor


Scientific management
People dislike work, but will
undertake it to earn a living
Respect fair supervision
Link pay and productivity
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.3

Elton Mayo

Human relations
Hawthorne studies
Extra breaks & time off work
Expected small increases in
productivity

Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.4

Elton Mayo
However productivity
continued to grow due to
attention paid to the workers
by the researchers
Called the Hawthorne effect
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.5

Peter Drucker
Management by objectives
Seven tasks of tomorrows
manager:
manage by objectives
take more risks
take strategic decisions
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.6

Peter Drucker
build an integrated team
communicate clearly & motivate
view and understand the
organisation as whole
understand the external
environment and its impact on the
organisation
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.7

Douglas McGregor
Theory X :
dislike work and avoid it
tight supervision required
autocratic manager

Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.8

Douglas McGregor
Theory Y:
regard work as normal
self motivating
manager develops cooperative relationship with
staff
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.9

Rosabeth Moss Kanter


The Change Masters
Organisations need systems,
practices, culture & rewards which
encourage people to be enterprising
& motivated
Value peoples problem solving,
enterprising and innovation skills
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.10

Individuals in organisations
Values
Attitudes
Perception

Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.11

Values
Values are guiding principles
which determine whether
behaviour acceptable or not
Terminal values are desired
outcomes e.g. high quality,
innovation
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.12

Values
Instrumental values are preferred
types of behaviour, e.g. being
accurate, helpful, creative
Unwritten values are shared norms,
beliefs and assumptions which
influence relations between staff and
between staff and other stakeholders
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.13

Attitudes
Job involvement - extent to which an
individual identifies with their job
Organisational commitment - degree
to which an individual is loyal to their
employer
Job satisfaction - reflects an
individuals attitude to their job
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.14

Perception
Distinctiveness - degree to which
an individual behaves differently
in different situations
Consensus - extent to which a
collection of individuals agree
Consistency - similarity in an
individuals behaviour
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.15

Perception
Internal attribution is given by
low agreement, high consistency
and low distinctiveness
External attribution is given if
agreement, consistency and
distinctiveness are all high
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.16

Groups in organisations
Group membership
Group development
Group performance

Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.17

Group membership
Command groups - determined
by the organisation and depend
on hierarchical relationships
Task groups - determined by the
organisation and do not depend
on hierarchical relationships e.g.
a project team
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.18

Group membership
Interest groups - informal
group which bands together
to achieve a common goal
Friendship group - informal
and based on shared /social
activity
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.19

Group development
Tuckman
Stage 1 -forming- relationships
within the group, ground rules
established
Stage 2 -storming- hostility and
conflict rise to the surface,
control & priorities established
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.20

Group development
Stage 3 - norming - co-operation
within the group and tasks allocated
Stage 4 - performing- flexibility and
openness help ensure tasks are
completed
Stage 5 - disbanding- group
members move onto new projects
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.21

Group performance
Roles - expected and perceived roles
may overlap
Status - social worth conferred on an
individual
Norms - define acceptable behaviour
in the groups, help establish
consistent behaviour and conduct
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.22

Group performance
Cohesiveness - increases if
group members have
common goals and approach
to work

Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.23

Leadership in organisations
Charismatic leadership
Visionary leadership
Team leadership

Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.24

Charismatic leadership
Charismatic leaders will:
be positive and self
confident in own ability;
present a clear vision
offering a better future for
the organisation;
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.25

Charismatic leadership
create an organisational
culture in which staff will be
self motivating and seek to
contribute to the
organisation.
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.26

Visionary leadership
Visionary leaders will:
create and communicate a
credible vision for the
organisation beyond its current
situation;
develop objectives and plan of
action to support the vision.
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.27

Team leadership
Team leaders will:
trust their team and share
information with them;
manage the teams relationship
with the dept or organisation in
which it is based and with other
stakeholders;
Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

3.28

Team leadership
help resolve problems and
conflicts within the team if
necessary;
negotiate for more or different
resources when necessary

Capon: Understanding Organisational Context 2nd edition Pearson Education 2004

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