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Managing Change Leadership There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct,

Managing Change

Managing Change Leadership There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct,
Managing Change Leadership There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct,

Leadership

Managing Change Leadership There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct,

There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things.

Machiavelli

Managing Change Management" versus Leadership 'Leadership' a road, a way, the path of a ship at

Managing Change

Management" versus Leadership

Managing Change Management" versus Leadership 'Leadership' a road, a way, the path of a ship at
Managing Change Management" versus Leadership 'Leadership' a road, a way, the path of a ship at

'Leadership'

a road, a way, the path of a ship at sea - a sense of direction.

'Management' (Latin manus) - a hand, handling a sword, a ship, a horse. 19thC corporatism and industrialisation - managerial agents

What do managers and leaders do? (Zaleznik 1977)

Managers focus attention & energy on how things get done their role in events that occur or in a decision-making process. Leaders more concerned with ideas relating to others in more intuitive, empathetic ways what events and decisions mean to people

Managing Change Classical management Managers plan, organise, direct, control resources to achieve objectives. follow formal policies,

Managing Change

Classical management

Managing Change Classical management Managers plan, organise, direct, control resources to achieve objectives. follow formal policies,
Managing Change Classical management Managers plan, organise, direct, control resources to achieve objectives. follow formal policies,

Managers plan, organise, direct, control resources to achieve objectives.

follow formal policies, rules &procedural regulations of their employing organisation (administration > management?)

handle and physically direct resources:

money, materials, machinery, equipment, space, facilities, information and technology use of time people

Telling people what to do and how to do it more than vision and giving a sense of direction?

Managing Change Leadership 'messages' Managers have 'subordinates' and communicate enable others to understand information, instructions or

Managing Change

Leadership 'messages'

Managing Change Leadership 'messages' Managers have 'subordinates' and communicate enable others to understand information, instructions or
Managing Change Leadership 'messages' Managers have 'subordinates' and communicate enable others to understand information, instructions or

Managers have 'subordinates' and communicate enable others to understand information, instructions or ideas seek order and control Leaders have followers. They envision, influence, inspire. tolerate, promote creativity and imagination Bring order from chaos influence people towards objectives and desire to achieve gain voluntary commitment over compliance win hearts and minds

Managing Change Bennis (1989) Managers Managers Leaders Leaders   Administer and copy Administer and copy
Managing Change Bennis (1989) Managers Managers Leaders Leaders   Administer and copy Administer and copy
Managing Change
Bennis (1989)
Managers
Managers
Leaders
Leaders
 
Administer and copy
Administer and copy
 
Innovation and originality
Innovation and originality
 
Maintain
 
Maintain
Develop
Develop
 
Focus on systems & structure
Focus on systems & structure
 
Focus on people
Focus on people
 
Rely on control
Rely on control
 
Inspire trust
Inspire trust
 
Short-range view - bottom line
 
Short-range view - bottom line
Long-range view - the horizon
Long-range view - the horizon

Ask how and when

Ask how and when

Ask what and why

Ask what and why

Accept the status quo

Accept the status quo

Classic good soldier

Classic good soldier

Do things right

Do things right

Challenge the status quo

Challenge the status quo

Own person

Own person

Do the right things

Do the right things

'the liberation of talent rather than restraint by rule’ Leaders aim at 'winning

'the liberation of talent rather than restraint by rule’ Leaders aim at 'winning

hearts and minds'. Mere managers aim at optimising the use of 'resources'.

hearts and minds'. Mere managers aim at optimising the use of 'resources'.

(Peters & Austin, 1985).

(Peters & Austin, 1985).

Managing Change Leadership & organisational effectiveness Common-sense + research link between manager- leadership behaviour & subordinate

Managing Change

Leadership & organisational effectiveness

Managing Change Leadership & organisational effectiveness Common-sense + research link between manager- leadership behaviour & subordinate
Managing Change Leadership & organisational effectiveness Common-sense + research link between manager- leadership behaviour & subordinate

Common-sense + research link between manager- leadership behaviour & subordinate performance.

belief that business success has much to do with 'leadership'.

management development programmes emphasise manager and leadership style.

Can leadership and problem-solving skills really be developed from

simulated experienced in a field (outward bound approach)? assessment centre activity (workshop-like selection & development)? coaching and mentoring going on a leadership course? Reading a book, watching the TV? Playing rugby or football?

Managing Change Practitioners, academia and recipes a mix of traditional and behavioural science approaches few analytical

Managing Change

Practitioners, academia and recipes

Managing Change Practitioners, academia and recipes a mix of traditional and behavioural science approaches few analytical
Managing Change Practitioners, academia and recipes a mix of traditional and behavioural science approaches few analytical

a mix of traditional and behavioural science approaches

few analytical studies of leadership offer much to the practical manager (Adair)

academic doubts textbooks tend to

Report 'theories'

Some query the validity of particular approaches

Imply prescriptions

An industry selling

prescriptive 'leadership development' and interpersonal skills

packages: motivating, listening, participative problem solving,

assertiveness and transforming skills

Managing Change Leadership behaviour & effect on performance. Change involving 'people' is associated with leadership What

Managing Change

Leadership behaviour & effect on performance.

Managing Change Leadership behaviour & effect on performance. Change involving 'people' is associated with leadership What
Managing Change Leadership behaviour & effect on performance. Change involving 'people' is associated with leadership What

Change involving 'people' is associated with leadership What competencies can be meaningfully described as 'leadership'? Managers & politicians generalise - 'we know it when we see it'. Correlate the skills and success of particular personalities.

Mayo and Hawthorne experiments (Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939) 'permissive' leadership behaviour leads to greater output

Kurt Lewin (1939)

Autocratic, Laissez faire, Democratic leader styles & the behaviour/performance of youth groups

language & 'model' linking styles --> subordinate performance

Managing Change Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference Chris Jarvis Unitary One set of values, beliefs,

Managing Change

Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference

Managing Change Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference Chris Jarvis Unitary One set of values, beliefs,
Managing Change Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference Chris Jarvis Unitary One set of values, beliefs,

Chris Jarvis

Unitary

Managing Change Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference Chris Jarvis Unitary One set of values, beliefs,

One set of values, beliefs, commitments Shared understanding & commitment to objectives One source of leadership Team members - All pulling in the same direction Potential for harmony is assumed if leader communicates well Disagreements the result of misunderstanding Dissidents – "rabble" hypothesis

Managing Change Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference Chris Jarvis Unitary One set of values, beliefs,

Alan Fox – Research Paper to

Alan Fox – Research Paper to

Donovan Commission 1968

Donovan Commission 1968

9

Managing Change Change the people in post Selection and job change can profoundly effect organisational effectiveness.

Managing Change

Change the people in post

Managing Change Change the people in post Selection and job change can profoundly effect organisational effectiveness.
Managing Change Change the people in post Selection and job change can profoundly effect organisational effectiveness.

Selection and job change can profoundly effect organisational

effectiveness. Peters and Waterman (1982)

' Hewlett-Packard Way' & 'MbWA’ (Management by walk about)

Pascale & Athos (1982) compare 'styles' and effect

compared the styles and management practices of

founder of Matsushita (National Panasonic)

American CEOs

'good' and 'bad' leadership styles

Konosuke Matsushita & E. Carlson - United Airlines ('good')

Harold Geneen at ITT (short-term effective, long-term bad).

Margaret Thatcher vs. Tony Blair?

Managing Change How do different 'styles' affect an organisation? wide ranging question open to question difficult

Managing Change

How do different 'styles' affect an organisation?

Managing Change How do different 'styles' affect an organisation? wide ranging question open to question difficult
Managing Change How do different 'styles' affect an organisation? wide ranging question open to question difficult

wide ranging question

open to question

difficult to research - what are the variables?

difficult to

separate fact from fiction

attribute cause and effect in different contexts and

organisational settings over time

ambiguity of measures of organisational performance

gap between perception of practitioners and behavioural

scientists

Focus

Behaviour

Focus Behaviour Managing Change Typology of leadership theory Sometimes misleading to group as 'schools'. Nuances in

Managing Change

Typology of leadership theory

Focus Behaviour Managing Change Typology of leadership theory Sometimes misleading to group as 'schools'. Nuances in
Focus Behaviour Managing Change Typology of leadership theory Sometimes misleading to group as 'schools'. Nuances in

Sometimes misleading to group as 'schools'. Nuances in original works

Yet three variables to leadership situations :

leader followers

context/situation in which L/F find themselves

The Person

trait theory

trait theory

variable of

variable of

leader

leader

contingency

contingency

theory

theory

situation & L-F

situation & L-F

relationship

relationship

centred

style theory

style theory

variable of

variable of

leader

leader

group

group

dynamics +

dynamics +

VDL

VDL

the followers

the followers

universal

universal

specific

specific toto situation

situation

Breadth of

Breadth

of application

application

Managing Change Leadership traits approach everyday wisdom on common traits. can anyone agree? do some 'qualities'

Managing Change

Leadership traits approach

Managing Change Leadership traits approach everyday wisdom on common traits. can anyone agree? do some 'qualities'
Managing Change Leadership traits approach everyday wisdom on common traits. can anyone agree? do some 'qualities'

everyday wisdom on common traits. can anyone agree?

do some 'qualities' indicate potential & differentiate the 'effective from the ineffective'

Wide range of trait descriptors & variety of 'leaders' (heroes and villains) - difficult to agree on one list

Managing Change Cartwright and Zander (1968) Effective leaders are often Effective leaders are often  

Managing Change

Cartwright and Zander (1968)

Managing Change Cartwright and Zander (1968) Effective leaders are often Effective leaders are often  
Managing Change Cartwright and Zander (1968) Effective leaders are often Effective leaders are often  

Effective leaders are often

Effective leaders are often

more intelligent, dependable,

more intelligent, dependable,

responsible, active and

responsible, active and

participative socially

participative socially

with higher socioecon. status

with higher socioecon. status

act more often in different

act more often in different

ways, or the same way to

ways, or the same way to

different degrees in some

different degrees in some

activities?

activities?

give out & ask for more

give out & ask for more

information

information

make more frequent

make more frequent

interpretations of events

interpretations of events

psychometric tests for

psychometric tests for

assessment and selection.

assessment and selection.

of ... ITT ITT Harold Geneen Harold Geneen Nature over nurture Nature over nurture leadership explain
of
...
ITT
ITT
Harold Geneen
Harold Geneen
Nature over nurture
Nature over nurture
leadership
explain entirely how
out of … innate character
out of … innate character
and
and
&
&
leadership
explain entirely how
instinctual than premeditated
instinctual than premeditated
lead and inspire others
lead and inspire others
one's everyday
Leadership is learned, although I
Leadership is learned, although I
...
of
somehow through
somehow through
one's everyday
quality of that
quality of that
personality…
personality…
life
The
is
is
..
..
the
the
more
comes
….
….
cannot
cannot
ability
ability
more
nature
to
to
experiences
experiences
acquired
acquired
comes
The
life
nature
the
the
&
&
Managing Change Exercise Think of three managers you have known. List the qualities of those you

Managing Change

Exercise

Managing Change Exercise Think of three managers you have known. List the qualities of those you
Managing Change Exercise Think of three managers you have known. List the qualities of those you

Think of three managers you have known. List the qualities

of those you rate as being more effective managers

Do a separate list for three less effective ones.

What factors, or qualities, recur on each list?

Select four leaders from national or organisational life and

list their qualities. Which ones keep recurring?

What factors match those for your effective managers?

Managing Change Limitations of 'traits' approach when leaders behave towards followers in different ways, how much

Managing Change

Limitations of 'traits' approach

Managing Change Limitations of 'traits' approach when leaders behave towards followers in different ways, how much
Managing Change Limitations of 'traits' approach when leaders behave towards followers in different ways, how much

when leaders behave towards followers in different ways, how much is cause, how much is effect?

non-leaders often possess the same traits as leaders. Impossible to compile a list of universal traits.

Bird 1940 identified 79 different traits from 'the literature'.

Only 5% common to => 4 studies

Conclusion? Consider the situation that leadership occurs in.

Managing Change The group dynamics (group process) approach leadership as a function of organisation not the

Managing Change

The group dynamics (group process) approach

Managing Change The group dynamics (group process) approach leadership as a function of organisation not the
Managing Change The group dynamics (group process) approach leadership as a function of organisation not the

leadership as a function of organisation not the individual.

small task groups not whole organisation

three common functional behaviours:

accomplish the task

social & emotional needs of group

social & emotional needs of individual members.

failure in one affects the other two (performance & satisfaction).

Leader contributions?

Structuring - integrating

Calming, supporting

Controlling

But one 'leader' may not necessarily perform all

roles from 'trouble-shooters' to 'counsellors' - Belbin roles

'Cometh the hour, cometh the man'.

Managing Change Adair: Action-centred leadership Task Task functions functions Group Group maintenance maintenance Individual Individual needs

Managing Change

Adair: Action-centred leadership

Managing Change Adair: Action-centred leadership Task Task functions functions Group Group maintenance maintenance Individual Individual needs
Managing Change Adair: Action-centred leadership Task Task functions functions Group Group maintenance maintenance Individual Individual needs

Task

Task

functions

functions

Group

Group

maintenance

maintenance

Individual

Individual

needs

needs

functional emphasis

functional emphasis

based on task situation

based on task situation

and socio-emotional

and socio-emotional

needs

needs

Aware Aware of of group group

processes, people in

processes, people in

group, nuances of

group, nuances of

behaviour, interpersonal

behaviour, interpersonal

skills

skills

Managing Change Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) Model (Danserau 1975) Leader may use different style for member

Managing Change

Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) Model (Danserau 1975)

Managing Change Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) Model (Danserau 1975) Leader may use different style for member
Managing Change Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) Model (Danserau 1975) Leader may use different style for member

Leader may use different style for member (idiosyncrasies)

Social exchange - leader-member relationships (dyads)

Group = a set of vertical linkages

Two sub-groups of relationships

In-group members

For the leader - reliable, effort, initiative, open, trust and

confidence, autonomy

Out-group members

Calculative, do contract only, distant, tension dyad

Leadership - a negotiated VDL role

Managing Change Anthony Jay (1975) - Propositions Cohesive groups or teams working as a social unit

Managing Change

Anthony Jay (1975) - Propositions

Managing Change Anthony Jay (1975) - Propositions Cohesive groups or teams working as a social unit
Managing Change Anthony Jay (1975) - Propositions Cohesive groups or teams working as a social unit

Cohesive groups or teams working as a social unit (a 'ten

group') achieve more than individuals in isolation. Based on

Anecdotal, experiential evidence

analogy with primitive tribes & animal behaviour Morris (1967,

1969), Ardrey (1961, 1967, 1970).

Share common patterns with baboons, chickens, lions?

Leadership is not a personal quality.

Some have innate tendency and drive for high-status

dominance but this is one factor only

become leader only in relation to specific group & task

group leader emerges because the group thinks that he/she

can best help the group

Managing Change Critique of Group Dynamics approach If leadership behaviour is situationally and group related what

Managing Change

Critique of Group Dynamics approach

Managing Change Critique of Group Dynamics approach If leadership behaviour is situationally and group related what
Managing Change Critique of Group Dynamics approach If leadership behaviour is situationally and group related what

If leadership behaviour is situationally and group related what

happens when the situation or group changes?

Does the organisation function sub-optimally?

But

we comprehend how leaders may relate to followers & situations

ignores wider organisational demands on leader and group.

Managing Change The leadership style approach Hawthorne experiments origin Leader 'style' affects morale and output. Relay

Managing Change

The leadership style approach

Managing Change The leadership style approach Hawthorne experiments origin Leader 'style' affects morale and output. Relay
Managing Change The leadership style approach Hawthorne experiments origin Leader 'style' affects morale and output. Relay

Hawthorne experiments origin

Leader 'style' affects morale and output.

Relay Assembly room - increased output caused by

'permissive' management of researchers

Bank Wiring room - links management style and employee

attitudes and behaviour

Kurt Lewin et al 1939 - adult leaders in boys' hobby club

Autocratic, laissez faire, democratic leaders and follower

behaviour

Democratic style reflects dominant social values

Impetus for further study - Michigan and Ohio State

Managing Change Ohio State studies (two factor-theory) two (independent) L-dimensions Flieshman 1953 Flieshman 1953 Stogdill (1948,

Managing Change

Ohio State studies (two factor-theory)

Managing Change Ohio State studies (two factor-theory) two (independent) L-dimensions Flieshman 1953 Flieshman 1953 Stogdill (1948,
Managing Change Ohio State studies (two factor-theory) two (independent) L-dimensions Flieshman 1953 Flieshman 1953 Stogdill (1948,

two (independent) L-dimensions

Flieshman 1953

Flieshman 1953

Stogdill (1948, 1956)

Stogdill (1948, 1956)

initiating structure (task centred)

consideration (interpersonal relationships)

"measure" perceptions & style preferences in various settings

---> inventories & development prescriptions

effectiveness reflects

task completion

member satisfaction

High task supervisors - productive but high turnover, lower morale

High consideration supervisors - high morale, low productivity

Over-generalised conclusions

ideal leader = high on initiation + consideration.

participative styles preferred

Managing Change Ohio State findings - balancing initiation & consideration crews & superiors rate aircraft commanders

Managing Change

Ohio State findings - balancing initiation & consideration

Managing Change Ohio State findings - balancing initiation & consideration crews & superiors rate aircraft commanders
Managing Change Ohio State findings - balancing initiation & consideration crews & superiors rate aircraft commanders

crews & superiors rate aircraft commanders by:

technical competence effectiveness in working with other crew members performance under stress conformity to standard operating procedures overall effectiveness as crew members

Crews & senior officers differed in perception of commander styles & effectiveness

Superiors judge leader competence in terms of formal & traditional standards high initiating & low or indifferent consideration.

Subordinates give less significance to initiating. High satisfaction under 'considerate' commanders (seen as more competent).

Managing Change Linking Pin (Likert) Effective leaders fulfil group needs & functions in a situation Frustration,

Managing Change

Linking Pin (Likert)

Managing Change Linking Pin (Likert) Effective leaders fulfil group needs & functions in a situation Frustration,
Managing Change Linking Pin (Likert) Effective leaders fulfil group needs & functions in a situation Frustration,

Effective leaders fulfil group needs & functions in a situation

Frustration, low productivity, absentees & turnover if formal-L can’t perform all these.

Formal tasks. instrumental competencies & motives

technical know-how, innovation, sense of achievement, concern for quality & customer care

Affiliation interaction, support & expressive needs Weak formal-L. Informal alternative emerges

oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo
oo
oo
oo
oo
oo
oo
oo
oo
oo

If L-behaviour best fits group situation, what if this changes?

Can formal leader adapt?

will group, dept, nation (led by alternative) perform optimally?

Managing Change Critique of Ohio State Studies Did not use peer group evaluation by commanders or

Managing Change

Critique of Ohio State Studies

Managing Change Critique of Ohio State Studies Did not use peer group evaluation by commanders or
Managing Change Critique of Ohio State Studies Did not use peer group evaluation by commanders or

Did not use peer group evaluation by commanders or non-evaluative measures of performance.

output measures can often be favourably affected in the short term by authoritarian leadership.

Usual problems of social research

Hawthorne effect

Abstracted empiricism

likelihood that a change in performance is related to

more than one variable

Concern for people

Concern for people Managing Change Michigan Leadership Studies programmes for changing style & org. culture 'proprietary'

Managing Change

Michigan Leadership Studies

Concern for people Managing Change Michigan Leadership Studies programmes for changing style & org. culture 'proprietary'
Concern for people Managing Change Michigan Leadership Studies programmes for changing style & org. culture 'proprietary'

programmes for changing style

& org. culture

'proprietary' approaches to

assessment & training

Diagnosis and treatment

Blake - Mouton Managerial

Grid (1968)

Extended with contingency

focus

Tannenbaum 1958

Reddin (1970)

Hersey &Blanchard (1977)

Managerial Grid

Managerial

Grid

1.9

1.9

9.9.

9.9.

the ideal

the ideal

one-best style

one-best style

1.1

1.1

5.5.
5.5.

9.1.

9.1.

Low Low High High
Low
Low
High
High

Concern for

Concern

for production

production

Managing Change Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum Boss-centred Boss-centred Follower-centred Follower-centred use of authority by use of authority by

Managing Change

Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum

Managing Change Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum Boss-centred Boss-centred Follower-centred Follower-centred use of authority by use of authority by
Managing Change Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum Boss-centred Boss-centred Follower-centred Follower-centred use of authority by use of authority by
Boss-centred Boss-centred Follower-centred Follower-centred use of authority by use of authority by leader leader decision making
Boss-centred
Boss-centred
Follower-centred
Follower-centred
use of authority by
use of authority by
leader
leader
decision making &
decision making &
action freedom for
action freedom for
followers
followers
Tells
Tells
Sells
Sells
Suggests
Suggests
Consults
Consults
Joins
Joins
Delegates
Delegates Abdicates
Abdicates

Chris Jarvis

Continuum based on situational factors:

Continuum based on situational factors:

value system, wants, confidence, willingness.

value system, wants, confidence, willingness.

28

Managing Change Exercise Review your experiences of working under different leadership styles. Advantages & disadvantages of

Managing Change

Exercise

Managing Change Exercise Review your experiences of working under different leadership styles. Advantages & disadvantages of
Managing Change Exercise Review your experiences of working under different leadership styles. Advantages & disadvantages of

Review your experiences of working under

different leadership styles. Advantages &

disadvantages of a shift to a more

'participative' style?

What departments in your organisation

appear to operate with different 'leadership

cultures'? Account for the differences.

Managing Change Critique of style theories Universality of the style approach? Ambiguous evidence for usefulness of

Managing Change

Critique of style theories

Managing Change Critique of style theories Universality of the style approach? Ambiguous evidence for usefulness of
Managing Change Critique of style theories Universality of the style approach? Ambiguous evidence for usefulness of

Universality of the style approach? Ambiguous evidence for usefulness of ' style' theories

Style changes often assoc. with changes in org. structure + other mgt competencies .

Fiedler (1967) questions whether participative, considerate styles are better than trad. authoritarian or directive.

Ineffective L-training - weak transfer of behaviour change from directive to participative.

Organisational & work pressures - own & other people's expectations.

Managing Change Contingency approach - Fiedler (1967) Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that

Managing Change

Contingency approach - Fiedler (1967)

Managing Change Contingency approach - Fiedler (1967) Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that
Managing Change Contingency approach - Fiedler (1967) Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that
Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that ---> high task performance by that --->
Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour
Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour
that ---> high task performance by
that ---> high task performance by
group. Depends on
 Respected leaders have
group. Depends on
personal power. No need to
use position power (authority)
 preferred style of leader
preferred style of leader
 High structure? non-
 group situation as much as leader
group situation as much as leader
compliance? Easy
contextual variables
contextual variables
intervention. Unstructured,
hard measure? Cannot easily
1. Quality of L-member relations
enforce. Less power
1. Quality of L-member relations
2. Work structure (high to low)
 extent of formal authority over
2. Work structure (high to low)
rewards and sanctions Power
3. Leader position power
3. Leader position power
is not just dependent leader-
follower relationships.
Managing Change Fielder development prescription Measure preferred style Measure preferred style     least

Managing Change

Fielder development prescription

Managing Change Fielder development prescription Measure preferred style Measure preferred style     least
Managing Change Fielder development prescription Measure preferred style Measure preferred style     least
Measure preferred style Measure preferred style     least preferred co-worker LPC least preferred
Measure preferred style
Measure preferred style
least preferred co-worker LPC
least preferred co-worker LPC
instrument
instrument
8 scales e.g. cooperative-
8 scales e.g. cooperative-
uncooperative, friendly-unfriendly,
uncooperative, friendly-unfriendly,
supportive-hostile
supportive-hostile
High LPC - relationships oriented
High LPC - relationships oriented
Low LPC - task oriented
Low LPC - task oriented
- External circumstances affect L
- External circumstances affect L
ability to influence
ability to influence
- Change leader (personality?) to
- Change leader (personality?) to
fit situation or restructure to
fit situation or restructure to
reflect strengths?
reflect strengths?

Re-structure the work - How?

position power - depending on L.

assessment, give subordinates near-

equal 'rank' (experts) or assign several

ranks below

Loosen or tighten communication

and decision-making

leader-member relations - leader can

be similar or dissimilar to members

(social, educational or ethnic

background, values or attitudes)

A history of harmony or conflict?

Assign a leader whose style fits group

Fiedler and Garcia 1987 pp 49-55

See Chapter 13 Rollinson

Managing Change Fiedler: leader-members, task structures, position power Leader- Task structure Position More effective Favourableness member

Managing Change

Fiedler: leader-members, task structures, position power

Managing Change Fiedler: leader-members, task structures, position power Leader- Task structure Position More effective Favourableness member
Managing Change Fiedler: leader-members, task structures, position power Leader- Task structure Position More effective Favourableness member
 

Leader-

Task structure

Position

More effective

Favourableness

member

power

leadership style

Relations

 
  • 1 Good

Structured

Strong

Task centred

Good

 
  • 2 Good

Structured

Weak

Task centred

Good

 
  • 3 Good

Unstructured

Weak

Task centred

Good

 
  • 4 Good

Unstructured

Weak

Relationship-oriented

Moderate

 
  • 5 Poor

Structured

Strong

Relationship-oriented

Moderate

 
  • 6 Poor

Structured

Weak

Relationship-oriented

Moderate

 
  • 7 Poor

Unstructured

Strong

Relationship-oriented

Weak

 
  • 8 Poor

Unstructured

Weak

Task centred

Weak

Managing Change Implications and critique of Fielder If Fielder is right don’t try to change people

Managing Change

Implications and critique of Fielder

Managing Change Implications and critique of Fielder If Fielder is right don’t try to change people
Managing Change Implications and critique of Fielder If Fielder is right don’t try to change people

If Fielder is right don’t try to change people arrange task & power to fit situation

But

select leaders & identify preferred styles. Diagnose situation and change it for - best fit leader-match concept

can a manager really choose a style, change 'personality' and a virtuoso with different styles?

Leadership training targets this. Are they training pigs to fly? LPC scores may indicate attitudes or personality but not actual behaviour Task performance is sole criterion for evaluating effectiveness (neglects follower satisfaction)

L-processes are more sophisticated than this theory. Mixed evidence on validity - other variables ignored

However

a deeper study which breaks the 'one-best-style' view and addresses contextual variables

Managing Change Exam Questions Evaluate the significance of Fiedler's 'social engineering' approach to the development of

Managing Change

Exam Questions

Managing Change Exam Questions Evaluate the significance of Fiedler's 'social engineering' approach to the development of
Managing Change Exam Questions Evaluate the significance of Fiedler's 'social engineering' approach to the development of

Evaluate the significance of Fiedler's 'social engineering'

approach to the development of thinking on leadership and

manager development practice.

Evaluate how the Fiedler 'contingency and social

engineering approach' to leadership could work in any

organisation known to you.

Managing Change Reddin's 3-D model (a style-contingency approach) Developer Developer Manager Manager executive executive Bureaucrat Bureaucrat
Managing Change Reddin's 3-D model (a style-contingency approach) Developer Developer Manager Manager executive executive Bureaucrat Bureaucrat

Managing Change

Reddin's 3-D model (a style-contingency approach)

Managing Change Reddin's 3-D model (a style-contingency approach) Developer Developer Manager Manager executive executive Bureaucrat Bureaucrat

Developer

Developer

Manager

Manager

executive

executive

Bureaucrat

Bureaucrat

Benevolent

Benevolent

autocrat

autocrat

High High Effectiveness Effectiveness Related Related Integrated Integrated Low Low Missionary Missionary Compromiser Compromiser Separated Separated
High
High
Effectiveness
Effectiveness
Related
Related
Integrated
Integrated
Low
Low
Missionary
Missionary Compromiser
Compromiser
Separated
Separated
Dedicated
Dedicated
Low
Low
High
High
Deserter
Deserter
Autocrat
Autocrat
Task
Task
Relationships
Low
High

Is Blake - Mouton (1968) 9.9 style ideal?

style is more/less effective in situation

Managing Change Situational leadership model (Hersey & Blanchard 1977, 1982) A contingency approach with follower maturity

Managing Change

Situational leadership model (Hersey & Blanchard 1977, 1982)

Managing Change Situational leadership model (Hersey & Blanchard 1977, 1982) A contingency approach with follower maturity
Managing Change Situational leadership model (Hersey & Blanchard 1977, 1982) A contingency approach with follower maturity

A contingency approach with

follower maturity as critical

situational variable for L-

effectiveness.

two major dimensions

task style

relationship style

Four styles

telling, selling, participating,

delegating.

follower maturity

degree of achievement

motivation

willingness to take on

responsibility

education or experience

Theoretically weak

Theoretically weak

no

no

proper rationale for the

proper rationale for the

hypothesised relationships

hypothesised relationships

Maturity - an over-simplified

Maturity - an over-simplified

factor - lacks empirical support

factor - lacks empirical support

(Yukl, 1981; Graeff, 1983;

(Yukl, 1981; Graeff, 1983;

Blank et al, 1990).

Blank et al, 1990).

Managing Change Path-goal theory (contingency approach) Main idea Effective-L smooths subordinates' path goals using appropriate style,

Managing Change

Path-goal theory (contingency approach)

Managing Change Path-goal theory (contingency approach) Main idea Effective-L smooths subordinates' path goals using appropriate style,
Managing Change Path-goal theory (contingency approach) Main idea Effective-L smooths subordinates' path goals using appropriate style,

Main idea

Effective-L smooths subordinates' path goals using

appropriate style, contingent on situational variables

differs from Fiedler

various styles - directive, supportive, participative and

achievement-oriented - can be used by the same leader in

different situations to

influence subordinates' perceptions of the situational factors

motivate by focusing on payoffs

coaching and direction

clarifying goals and expectancies

reducing frustrations/barriers.

the research is not conclusive

House & Mitchell 1974

House & Mitchell 1974

Based on expectancy

Based on expectancy

 

theory of motivation

theory of motivation

Managing Change Problems with contingency theories what causes what in real life? As with style theories,

Managing Change

Problems with contingency theories

Managing Change Problems with contingency theories what causes what in real life? As with style theories,
Managing Change Problems with contingency theories what causes what in real life? As with style theories,

what causes what in real life?

As with style theories, it is difficult to understand why there

should be a favourable climate towards the leader in some

groups.

It could be argued that 'permissive' leadership is the result,

rather than the cause, of group effectiveness.

Managing Change Social learning theory and leadership a model for continuous interaction between the environment (macro

Managing Change

Social learning theory and leadership

Managing Change Social learning theory and leadership a model for continuous interaction between the environment (macro
Managing Change Social learning theory and leadership a model for continuous interaction between the environment (macro

a model for continuous interaction between the environment

(macro variables + subordinates and the leader's behaviour,

perceptions and cognitions.

leader & subordinates/followers have negotiable, interactive

relationship

They learn how they can modify or influence each other's

behaviour by giving or holding back desired rewards

Davis and Luthans, 1980

Sims and Lorenzi, The New Leadership Paradigm, Sage, 1992

Managing Change Why the persistent search ? exercising effective-L is becoming more and more difficult economic

Managing Change

Why the persistent search ?

Managing Change Why the persistent search ? exercising effective-L is becoming more and more difficult economic
Managing Change Why the persistent search ? exercising effective-L is becoming more and more difficult economic

exercising effective-L is becoming more and more difficult

economic shifts Pacific Rim and China etc.

political change South Africa, Soviet Union, Italy, Japan and

Europe

less natural goodwill and traditional deference towards leaders

Many skills and techniques of today's senior executives are

being superseded.

Competition & changing markets, products, technologies

and expectations dictate adaptability and innovation in

strategic decision making, marketing, organisation - and

leadership

Managing Change Are successful leaders redefining their role? projecting a particular ethos and culture powerful vision

Managing Change

Are successful leaders redefining their role?

Managing Change Are successful leaders redefining their role? projecting a particular ethos and culture powerful vision
Managing Change Are successful leaders redefining their role? projecting a particular ethos and culture powerful vision

projecting a particular ethos and culture

powerful vision of where their companies or their societies are

heading.

E.g. Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohamed's vision of Malaysia in

the year 2020

former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew's vision of Singapore as The

Switzerland of the East by 1999.

What does this imply for leadership behaviour?

Managers and senior executives who are successful leaders will

not only respond to change positively but also actively create

change.

Leaders with a particular drive, a desire to bring order out of

chaos, or, if something is too cosy, to create chaos in order to

bring change.

Managing Change Transformational leadership theory results and to fulfil and to fulfil achieve achieve bridges bridges

Managing Change

Transformational leadership theory

Managing Change Transformational leadership theory results and to fulfil and to fulfil achieve achieve bridges bridges
Managing Change Transformational leadership theory results and to fulfil and to fulfil achieve achieve bridges bridges
results and to fulfil and to fulfil achieve achieve bridges bridges studies studies small group results
results
and to fulfil
and to fulfil
achieve
achieve
bridges
bridges
studies
studies
small group
results
and
and
&
&
 
 
 
fresh thinking?
creates conditions for
shakers’ who transform
shakers’ who transform
transformational leader
transformational leader
organisations
organisations
fresh thinking?
creates conditions for
leadership by ’movers
leadership by ’movers
followers to want to
followers to want to
themselves.
themselves.
small group
 Context? late-20 th C national & global pol-econ. change  Contributors: Downton (1973), Burns (1978),
 Context? late-20 th C national &
global pol-econ. change
 Contributors: Downton
(1973), Burns (1978), Bass
(1985), Bennis & Nanus (1985),
Tichy & Devanna (1986)
 Bass surveyed 70 execs
"In your careers, who
transformed you in Burns'
terms (raised awareness, move
up Maslow hierarchy …. to
transcend self-interest).
 Answer: usually an
organisational superior.
Managing Change From Laissez faire to Transactional Laissez-faire not really leaders at all, avoid intervention, weak

Managing Change

From Laissez faire to Transactional

Managing Change From Laissez faire to Transactional Laissez-faire not really leaders at all, avoid intervention, weak
Managing Change From Laissez faire to Transactional Laissez-faire not really leaders at all, avoid intervention, weak

Laissez-faire not really leaders at all, avoid intervention, weak follow

up, passivity, potential for confusion

Transactional leaders

Management by exception

Passive: set standards/objectives, wait for, react to, reluctant

intervention. Status quo

Active: standards/objectives, monitor, correct, look for error,

enforce rules/procedures. Low initiative and risk-taking

constructive transactions, contingent rewards

agree standards/objectives, feedback, rewards for achievement.

outcome: performance that meets expectations.

simplified in One-Minute Manager (Blanchard & Johnson 1982)

Airport business library

Managing Change Transactional leadership in perspective Mixed evidence - it may be desirable, even necessary. Contingent

Managing Change

Transactional leadership in perspective

Managing Change Transactional leadership in perspective Mixed evidence - it may be desirable, even necessary. Contingent
Managing Change Transactional leadership in perspective Mixed evidence - it may be desirable, even necessary. Contingent

Mixed evidence - it may be desirable, even necessary. Contingent rewards underpin PRP

laissez-faire and transactional in directive, consultative, participative & delegative styles

directive + Mgt by Exception 'These are the rules and this is how you've broken them'. participative + Mgt by exception 'Let's work out together the rules to identify mistakes'

Weaknesses Carrot/stick rewards, emphasis on plans, targets, systems, controls management > leadership fails to develop, motivate, bring to full potential (Bass)

Managing Change The transformational leader (Bass’s four 'I's) promotes follower desire for achievement & self-development. teams,

Managing Change

The transformational leader (Bass’s four 'I's)

Managing Change The transformational leader (Bass’s four 'I's) promotes follower desire for achievement & self-development. teams,
Managing Change The transformational leader (Bass’s four 'I's) promotes follower desire for achievement & self-development. teams,

promotes follower desire for achievement & self-development.

teams, esprit de corps, autonomy, synergy, belief, value

Four 'I's. lndividualised consideration (IC) Intellectual stimulation (IS) Inspirational motivation (IM) ldealised influence (charisma) (II)

Managing Change Individualised consideration and Intellectual stimulation IC identifying individuals' needs & abilities, opportunities to learn,

Managing Change

Individualised consideration and Intellectual stimulation

Managing Change Individualised consideration and Intellectual stimulation IC identifying individuals' needs & abilities, opportunities to learn,
Managing Change Individualised consideration and Intellectual stimulation IC identifying individuals' needs & abilities, opportunities to learn,

IC

identifying individuals' needs & abilities, opportunities to

learn, delegating, coaching and giving developmental

feedback. Spend time with individuals e.g. mentoring.

IS

question status quo, encourage imagination, creativity,

logical thinking and intuition.

unorthodoxy in character, symbolise innovation.

Compare UK motorcycles & Swiss watch market to Sony

Managing Change Inspirational motivation & ldealised influence Inspirational motivation clear vision, problems as opportunities, language &

Managing Change

Inspirational motivation & ldealised influence

Managing Change Inspirational motivation & ldealised influence Inspirational motivation clear vision, problems as opportunities, language &
Managing Change Inspirational motivation & ldealised influence Inspirational motivation clear vision, problems as opportunities, language &

Inspirational motivation

clear vision, problems as

opportunities, language & symbols

I had a dream … ...

Ask not what America can do

for you. Ask what you can do ..

go the extra mile. Iacocca at

Chrysler.

ldealised influence

Confident in communicating a

virtuous vision

the buck stops here'. Purpose,

persistence, trust, accomplishment

over failure. Respected for

personal ability

Leadership

Leadership

..

..

the priceless

the priceless

gift you earn from those who

gift you earn from those who

work for you. I have to earn

work for you. I have to earn

the right to that gift, and

the right to that gift, and

continuously re-earn (it).

continuously re-earn (it).

John Harvey-Jones (ICI)

John Harvey-Jones (ICI)

  Gandhi, Luther King, Gandhi, Luther King, Thatcher, Blair Thatcher, Blair   Hitler, Jim
 
Gandhi, Luther King,
Gandhi, Luther King,
Thatcher, Blair
Thatcher, Blair
 
Hitler, Jim Jones
Hitler, Jim Jones
Managing Change Bass's model effective effective   LF LF Learn TL!! Learn TL!! LF LF

Managing Change

Bass's model

Managing Change Bass's model effective effective   LF LF Learn TL!! Learn TL!! LF LF
Managing Change Bass's model effective effective   LF LF Learn TL!! Learn TL!! LF LF

effective

effective

  LF LF Learn TL!! Learn TL!! LF LF LF LF   4 x
 
LF
LF
Learn TL!!
Learn TL!!
LF
LF
LF
LF
 
4 x I
Avolio-Bass training
Avolio-Bass training
4 x I
package
package
CR
CR
MbEx-A
MbEx-A
passive
passive
active
active
MbEx-P
MbEx-P
Encouraging TL will
Encouraging TL will
LF
LF
 
project confidence, commitment
project confidence, commitment
& competence
& competence
 
attract quality staff to the mission
attract quality staff to the mission
& challenge
& challenge
ineffective
ineffective
 
develop people more fully to
develop people more fully to
respond better to competition &
respond better to competition &
change
change
Managing Change Motorola's six-sigma programme. 6 6 Σ Σ Transformational leadership application defect-free parts within six

Managing Change

Motorola's six-sigma programme.

Managing Change Motorola's six-sigma programme. 6 6 Σ Σ Transformational leadership application defect-free parts within six
Managing Change Motorola's six-sigma programme. 6 6 Σ Σ Transformational leadership application defect-free parts within six

66ΣΣ

Transformational leadership application

defect-free parts within six standard deviations

concepts, symbols and vision for world-class quality

IS, IM, IC in promoting awareness, responsibility and self-monitoring.

Managing Change Is transformational leadership cross-cultural? ‘exporting participative management or Theory Y from the USA to

Managing Change

Is transformational leadership cross-cultural?

Managing Change Is transformational leadership cross-cultural? ‘exporting participative management or Theory Y from the USA to
Managing Change Is transformational leadership cross-cultural? ‘exporting participative management or Theory Y from the USA to

‘exporting participative management or Theory Y from the USA

to authoritarian cultures is like 'preaching Jeffersonian

democracy to managers who believe in the divine right of

kings'.

Haire, Ghiselli and Porter 1966

Leadership - a universal phenomenon?

context and culture influences

Bass presents evidence from studies in Italy, Sweden, Canada,

New Zealand, India, Japan and Singapore

suggests that the model needs only fine-tuning across cultures

Managing Change Motivated in spite of leader? Do we really need 'em? 1970s dissatisfaction with leadership

Managing Change

Motivated in spite of leader? Do we really need 'em?

Managing Change Motivated in spite of leader? Do we really need 'em? 1970s dissatisfaction with leadership
Managing Change Motivated in spite of leader? Do we really need 'em? 1970s dissatisfaction with leadership

1970s dissatisfaction with leadership theory and research

in explaining effect on motivation &performance

'Substitutes' theory of leadership (Kerr & Jermier 1978)

Are there substitutes for leadership making L-behaviour

unnecessary e.g.

'Professional', competent people do not need 'leadership' to

perform well and to be motivated. Depends on

the individuals, the work, the organisation and its

structure, feedback, intrinsic job satisfaction, group

cohesion, weak authority or remoteness of the leader

Replace/counteract leader behaviour in determining

member performance and satisfaction.