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IMSP Biomathematics

Initiative

Mathematics and Biology


beyond the
usual …

A Brief Introduction to
Biomathematics
ief Introduction to
Biomathematics
Biomath as a field
Systems Biology
Experimental Biology
thematical Biology
Theoretical Biology

Computational Biology
Biostatistics
Biomathematics
•Computational Biomodeling/ Biocomputing
•Bioinformatics
ØCreation of Algorithms, Numerical Analysis and Simulation
Biomodeling
Finding Solutions
Analysis Mathematical biophysi
A LOOK INTO SYSTEMS
BIOLOGY
SIMULATION COMP . BIO
• Ecology Biomath
•Population dynamics
•Malthus (1798):

Verhulst (1838, 1845):


• P
0
P(t
)

P
K/2
0
P
0
• Ecology Biomath
•Interaction of Species
•Lotka-Volterra Predator-Prey Model:


• Ecology Biomath
•Population Model with Age Structure
•Leslie Matrix Model

(LESLIE MATRIX)
• Epidemiology Biomath
•Epidemics
•SIR Compartmental Model:

• �I �

S + I + R = 1

dS dI dR
= − ρ S I, = ρ S I − α I, =αI
dt dt dt
ENZYME KINETICS


Biomath

M ich a e lis - M e n te n
E n zy m e K in e tics
Mathematical Physiology


Biomath

MATHs needed

Any branch of Mathematics can be


applied in Biology; however…

the field of biology should


dictate the maths needed, not the
other way around.

“Biomathematics without biologists


is too theoretical.”
Discrete Math
• Combinatorics (e.g. Genome
Rearrangement)
• Graph Theory and Network Analysis
• Finite State Automata
• Boolean Networks
To p o lo g y a n d M o d e rn
A lg e b ra
• Knot Theory
• Algebraic
Statistics
(e.g.
Phylogeny)
• Fractals
O p e ra tio n s R e se a rch
• Optimization
• Evolutionary
Game
Theory
• Dynamic
Programmin
g (e.g. DNA
Sequence
Alignment)
Probability ; Stochastic
Process and Calculus
• Deterministic Models + Noise (e.g.
diffusion)
• Markov Chains
• Bayesian Networks
• Probabilistic Models (e.g. genetics)
D iffe re n ce E q u a tio n

Bifurcation and Chaos


Fib o n a cci
S e q u e n ce
dx / dt dy / dt
Differential Equations

Every biomathematician should be


good in ODEs, PDEs and DDEs.


• Model and Analysis of Dynamical
Systems
• Control of Systems
• MODEL PROCESSES AND CHANGE
(cycles, switching, kinetics, rhythms,
Input-Output, interaction,
dn / dt dP / dt
conduction, rate of growth/decay…
etc.)
ODEs

Solutions and Analysis of ODEs can be


done by:
1.Finding Explicit or Implicit Formula as
solution
2.Finding series solution
3.Numerical analysis
4.Representing solutions as graphs
5.Perturbation and stability analysis
6.Etc…
Perturbation & Stability
Analysis
Fin d S te a d y - sta te s ( E q u ilib riu m / C ritica l/ R e st
Po in ts)
If S te a d y -sta te , is it sta b le o r u n sta b le ?
Equilibrium Point Equilibrium Point
(unstable) (unstable)

Not in steady state

Equilibrium Point
(stable)
Harvesting in Countville
H a rve stin g a S in g le Po p u la tio n w ith a co n sta n t
yie ld Y 0 :

dN/dt

Y0
Y0=rK/4
increasin
g

Unstable!
0 N
INFINITE
RECOVERY
TIME
Some Open Problems
(Chemostat Equations)
n-species compete for k

complementary resources
• n=2 k=2 classic example
• n=3 k=2 competitive exclusion
• n>3 k=2 open problem
• n=4 k=3 co-existence may exist
• n=5 k=3 chaotic
• n=12 k=5 coexists in oscillatory
form or chaotic form
Romeo and Juliet
t) be Romeo’s ardor for Juliet, J(t) be Juliet’s ardor for Rome

dR/dt = aJ
dJ/dt = bR
IMSP Biomathematics
Initiative

Mathematics and Biology


beyond the
usual …

A Brief Introduction to
Biomathematics