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Cellular Telephony

Designed to provide communications b/w


two moving units, called Mobile
Stations(MSs), or b/w one mobile unit and
one stationary unit, often called a Land
unit.
Each cellular service area is divided into
small regions called Cells.
Typical radius of a cell is 1 to 12 mi.
Each cell contains an antenna and is
controlled by a solar or AC powered
network station , called the Base
Station(BS).

Each Base Station is controlled by a


switching office, called a Mobile Switching
Center(MSC).
MSC coordinates communication b/w all the
base stations and the telephone central
office.
MSC is a computerized center that is
responsible for connecting calls, recording
call information, and billing.
Refer to Diagram

Public Switched Telephone


Network(PSTN)
The term PSTN describes the various
equipment and interconnecting facilities
that provide phone service to the public.
The PSTN is a network of computers and
other electronic equipments that convert
speech into digital data and provides a
multitude of sophisticated phone
features, data services, and mobile
wireless access.

At the core of the PSTN are digital


switches.
The term Switch describes the
ability to cross-connect a phone line
with many other phone lines and
switching from one connection to
another.
The PSTN is well known for providing
reliable communications to its
subscribers.

Wireline Vs Wireless Portion of


Mobile Networks
A Mobile Station is always in
connection/communication with a BS
while the phone is turned on, whether
or not a call is actually in progress.
This link between a Mobile Station(MS)
and the Base Station(BS) is often
called the Radio Link(RL).
The RL is the only wireless link in the
terrestrial mobile network.

Beyond the BS, the voice or data


traffic, originating at the MS, is
carried over Wireline Links, often to a
MSC(Mobile Switching Center), which
is directly connected to the wireline
(or fixed/Landline) telephone
network, often called the Public
Switched Telephone Network(PSTN).
Refer to Diagram

Mobile Originated(MO) Vs
Mobile Terminated (MT) calls
A mobile may initiate the establishment
of a call I.e. originate it, which connects it
to another phone(wireless/wireline). Such
calls are termed as Mobile
Originated(MO).
Alternatively a Mobile may serve as the
end point I.e. terminate a call
originated by another fixed/mobile phone.
That call is Mobile Terminated(MT).

Mobile Phone Numbers


All mobile phone numbers in India have the
prefix 9, 8 or 7.
All mobile phone numbers are 10 digits long.
The way to split the numbers is defined in the
National Numbering Plan 2003 as
XXXX-NNNNNN
where XXXX is the Network operator, NNNNNN
is the subscriber number.E,g 9419-123456
(BSNL J&K).
The mobile numbers and operators are subject
to change since mobile number Portability is
available in the most circles.

Fixed Landline Numbers


They are atmost 8 digits long(Usually in major
metros).
The total length of all Phone numbers(STD &
Phone Number) is constant at 10 digits in
India.
For example, 7513200000 signifies a STD
code I,e 751(Gwalior) and the phone number
3200000.
There is an operator-code for each telephone
number, which is the first digit in the Phone
Number. These are:

2 BSNL and MTNL


3 Reliance Communications
4 Bharti Airtel
6 Tata Indicom
The distribution of Telephone numbers in
India is mainly looked upon by
Department of Telecommunications(DoT).
To place a call from outside India,For Fixed
Line service +91-(STD Code)-(Telephone
Number).E,g +91-33-33331500(Kolkata).

Within India, when placing a call outside


your home district you have to prefix an
STD Code.
Dialing within a home district the calls are
directly placed using just telephone
numbers.
A prefix of 0+STD code is required to dial
from a landline phone in one STD code area
to another.
A prefix of 0+STD Code is required to dial
from a mobile phone in India to any
Landline number, irrespective of STD area.