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Advance Research

Dr. Qamruz Zaman
Associate Professor
Dept: of Statistics
University of Peshawar.

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Course Outline
• Chapter -1: Perception of Research
• Chapter -2: Problem
• Chapter -3: Hypothesis
• Chapter -4: Research Planning and Sampling
• Chapter -5: Survey Method
• Chapter -6: Experimental Method
• Chapter -7: Case Study Method
• Chapter -8: Design of Experiments
• Chapter -9: Tools of Research
• Chapter -10: SPSS

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• Neuman, W. L. (2000). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative
Approaches. Boston: Allyen and Bacon.
• Zikmund, W. G. (2003). Business Research Methods. Mason, Ohio: South
• Sekaran, U. (2004). Research Methods for Business New York: John Wiley &

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• Research is an art of scientific investigation which refers to a search for knowledge.

• It can also be defined as “A scientific and systemic search for pertinent information
on a specific issue/problem”.

• Systematized effort to gain new knowledge is also called research (Redman and
Morey, 1923).

• Research is actually a journey of discovery.

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The main aim of research is to find out the hidden truth which has not been discovered
previously. In general, each research has/have its own specific objective (s), but it can be
categorized into the following broad groups.
(a). To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insight into it (studies
with this object in view are called exploratory or formulative research studies).

(b). To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a

group (studies with this object in view are called termed as descriptive research

© To find out the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated
with something else/others (such studies are called diagnostic research studies).

(d). To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables (studies with this
object in view are known as hypothesis testing research studies).

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It is often asked that why the peoples conduct research? This question is of fundamental
importance and some of the possible motives of research may either be one or more of
the following:
1. Desire to get a research degree (certificate) along with its consequential benefits.
2. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems i.e. concern over
practical problems initiates research.
3. Desire to get intellectual joy.
4. Desire to be of service to society
5. Desire to get respectability

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Research can be broadly categorized into:

(1) Theoretical Research and

(2) Applied Research

Theoretical research is based upon the development of new theory or methods.

On the other hand, applied research is based upon the collected data by using the existing

methods of data analysis, test the hypothesis related with the required objectives.

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The basic types of research are as follow:

1. Applied vs. Fundamental Research

2. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research

3. Conceptual vs. Empirical Research

4. Other Types of Research

It includes the following:

(a). Laboratory research or filed setting research or simulation research

(b). Clinical or diagnostic research

(c). Historical research etc.

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Applied vs. Fundamental Research

Research can either be applied (or action) research or fundamental (basic or pure)

research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a

society or an industrial/business organization.

Whereas, fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the

formulation of a theory. Simply, “gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is called ‘pure

or basic’ research; while research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure

mathematics are examples of fundamental research.

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Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable

to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. On the other hand, Qualitative

research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e. a phenomenon relating or

involving quality or kind. Qualitative research includes, word association tests, sentence

completion tests, story completion tests, and similar other projective techniques. Also,

attitude or opinion research i.e. research designed to find out how people fell or what they

think about a particular subject or institution are the examples of qualitative research.

Qualitative research is especially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to

discover the underlying motives of human behaviour. Through such research one can

analyze the various factors which motivate the people to behave in a particular manner of

which make people like or dislike a particular thing.

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Conceptual vs. Empirical Research

Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally

used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret the existing

ones. On the other hand, empirical research relies on experience or observation alone,

often without due regard for system and theory. It is data-based research, coming up

with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment.

Empirical research is appropriate when proof is sought that certain variables affect

other variables in some way.

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Significance of Research

Following are the significance of conducting a research:

1. Research includes scientific thinking and it promotes the development of logical
habits of thinking and organizations.

2. Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic
system. Through research, one can devise alternative policies and can as well
examine the consequences of each of these alternatives.

3. Decision making may not be a part of research, but research certainly facilitates the
decisions of the policy makers.

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Significance of Research

5. Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning
problems of business and industry. Operational research refers to the application
of mathematical, logical and analytical techniques to the solution of business
problems of cost minimization or of profit maximization or what can be termed as
optimization problems.

6. Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships

and in seeking answers to various social problems. Because of its social
orientation, it is increasingly being looked to for practical guidance in solving
immediate problems of human relations.

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Significance of Research

In addition to above, the significance of research can also be understood keeping in

view the following points:
(i). To those students who are to write a master’s or PhD thesis, research may
mean a careerism or a way to attain a high position in the social structure.
(ii). To professionals, research may mean a source of livelihood.
(iii). To philosophers and tinkers, research may mean the outlet for new ideas and
(iv). To literary men and women, research may mean the development of new styles
and creative work.
(v). To analyst and intellectuals, research may mean the generalization of new

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Criteria for a Good Research

The following criteria are needed (more or less) for conducting a good research.
• The purpose of a problem under study should be clearly defined and unambiguous as
• The research procedures used for conducting a study should be clearly
defined/described in detail to allow other researchers to repeat the same research for
verification of the existing theory/theories or to include other factors for checking
their usefulness.
• The procedural design should be carefully planned so as to get the results that are as
objective as possible. It can also be stated that “the procedural design should yield
the results according to the specified objectives”.
• The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design
and estimate their effects upon the findings.

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Criteria for a Good Research

• The researcher should use appropriate method for data analysis, and the analysis of
data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance.
• The researcher should completely report the limitations and advantage associated
with the procedural design and the methods used for data analysis.
• Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research and
limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis.
• The researcher should be an experienced person and have full background
knowledge of the problem under study. In addition, to have a good reputation in
research and is a person of integrity.

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