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Final Exam Review Notes

ENetwork version 4.0

Jan 08
 In addition to the end devices that people are
familiar with, networks rely on intermediary
devices to provide connectivity and to work
behind the scenes to ensure that data flows
across the network. Examples of intermediary
network devices are:
 Network Access Devices (Hubs, switches, and
wireless access points)
 Internetworking Devices (routers)
 Communication Servers and Modems
 Security Devices (firewalls)
 The Transport Layer provides reliable,
connection-oriented data communication
 In the figure, when the nslookup is issued, the default
DNS server configured for your host is displayed. In
this example, the DNS server is dns-sjk.cisco.com
which has an address of
 Telnet is a client/server protocol and it
specifies how a VTY session is established
and terminated.
 IP relies on the Transport layer for the segmentation
of data and the control necessary to reassemble
these pieces into the various communication streams.
Its primary responsibilities to accomplish this are:
 Tracking the individual communication between
applications on the source and destination hosts
 Segmenting data and managing each piece
 Reassembling the segments into streams of application
 Identifying the different applications
 Identifying the Applications
 In order to pass data streams to the proper
applications, the Transport layer must identify
the target application. To accomplish this, the
Transport layer assigns an application an
identifier. The TCP/IP protocols call this
identifier a port number. Each software
process that needs to access the network is
assigned a port number unique in that host.
This port number is used in the transport layer
header to indicate to which application that
piece of data is associated.
 Encapsulation at the Transport Layer
 Applications do not need to know the
operational details of the network in use. The
applications generate data that is sent from one
application to another, without regard to the
destination host type, the type of media over
which the data must travel, the path taken by
the data, the congestion on a link, or the size of
the network.
 The two most common Transport layer protocols of
TCP/IP protocol suite are Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
Port numbers of both are used by application layer
 User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
 UDP is a simple, connectionless protocol, described in
RFC 768.
 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
 TCP is a connection-oriented protocol, described in
RFC 793. TCP incurs additional overhead to gain
functions. Additional functions specified by TCP are the
same order delivery, reliable delivery, and windowing
and sequencing.
 For example, an HTTP web page request
being sent to a web server (port 80) running on
a host with a Layer 3 IPv4 address of would be destined to socket
 Well Known Ports (Numbers 0 to 1023) -
These numbers are reserved for services and
applications. They are commonly used for
applications such as HTTP (web server)
POP3/SMTP (e-mail server) and Telnet. By
defining these well-known ports for server
applications, client applications can be
programmed to request a connection to
that specific port and its associated

 Hierarchical Network layer addresses work in much

the same way as postal addresses. Layer 3
addresses supply the network portion of the address.
Routers forward packets between networks by
referring only to the part of the Network layer address
that is required to direct the packet toward the
destination network. By the time the packet arrives at
the destination host network, the whole destination
address of the host will have been used to deliver the
 Connectionless packet delivery may result in
packets arriving at the destination out of
sequence. If out-of-order or missing packets
create problems for the application using the
data, then upper layer services will have to
resolve these issues.
 The default gateway is configured on a host. On a
Windows computer, the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Properties tools are used to enter the default gateway
IPv4 address.
 The private address blocks are:
 to ( /8)
 to ( /12)
 to ( /
 With services to translate private addresses to
public addresses, hosts on a privately
addressed network can have access to
resources across the Internet. These services,
called Network Address Translation (NAT), can
be implemented on a device at the edge of the
private network.
 NAT allows the hosts in the network to
"borrow" a public address for communicating
to outside networks. While there are some
limitations and performance issues with NAT,
clients for most applications can access
services over the Internet without noticeable
 The number of hosts

 To calculate the number of hosts per network, we use the

formula of 2^n - 2 where n = the number of bits left for hosts.

 Applying this formula, (2^7 - 2 = 126) shows that each of

these subnets can have 126 hosts.

 For each subnet, examine the last octet in binary. The

values in these octets for the two networks are:

 Subnet 1: 00000000 = 0

 Subnet 2: 10000000 = 128
 The Data Link layer performs two basic
 Allows the upper layers to access the media
using techniques such as framing
 Controls how data is placed onto the media
and is received from the media using
techniques such as media access control and
error detection
 In CSMA/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD), the
device monitors the media for the presence of
a data signal. If a data signal is absent,
indicating that the media is free, the device
transmits the data. If signals are then
detected that show another device was
transmitting at the same time, all devices stop
sending and try again later. Traditional forms
of Ethernet use this method.
 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Radio
Frequency Interference (RFI) must be taken
into consideration when choosing a media
type for a LAN. EMI/RFI in an industrial
environment can significantly impact data
communications if the wrong cable is used.
 Use straight-through cables for connecting:
 Switch to router
 Computer to switch
 Computer to hub

 Use crossover cables for connecting:

 Switch to switch
 Switch to hub
 Hub to hub
 Router to router
 Computer to computer
 Computer to router
 Counting the Subnets
 Each subnet, as a physical network segment,
requires a router interface as the gateway for
that subnet.
 In addition, each connection between routers is
a separate subnet.
 With the devices directly connected via cable,
configure a terminal emulator with the proper
settings. For the purpose of this course, we
will usually use HyperTerminal because most
varieties of Windows have it.
 Open HyperTerminal, confirm the chosen
serial port number, and then configure the port
with these settings:
 Bits per second: 9600 bps
 Data bits: 8
 Parity: None
 Stop bits: 1
 Flow control: None
 The command to save the running
configuration to startup configuration file is:

 Router#copy running-config startup-config
 To provide additional security, use the enable
password command or the enable secret
command. Either of these commands can be
used to establish authentication before
accessing privileged EXEC (enable) mode.
 Always use the enable secret command, not
the older enable password command, if
possible. The enable secret command
provides greater security because the
password is encrypted.

 This entry tells us there are five telnet lines.

 Access will be permitted using “cisco” as the
 Set the clock rate if a DCE cable is
connected. Skip this step if a DTE cable is
 To configure an Ethernet interface follow these
 1. Enter global configuration mode.
 2. Enter interface configuration mode.
 3. Specify the interface address and subnet mask.
 4. Enable the interface.
 By default, interfaces are disabled. To enable an interface,
enter the no shutdown command from the interface
configuration mode.

 Router(config)#interface FastEthernet 0/0

 Router(config-if)#ip address ip_address netmask
 Router(config-if)#no shutdown
 Using the ping command is an effective way
to test connectivity. The test is often referred
to as testing the protocol stack, because the
ping command moves from Layer 3 of the
OSI model to Layer 2 and then Layer 1. Ping
uses the ICMP protocol to check for
 To test the connectivity of a host to its
connected router ping the host's default
gateway which should also be the interface
that it connects to the router.