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RF Network Design

Network Planning
1

Introduction
The high level life cycle of the RF network planning process can be
summarised as follows : To help the operator
to identify their RF
design requirement
Optional

Comparative
Analysis

Discuss and agree RF


design parameters,
assumptions and
objectives with the
customer

RF Design
requirement

Coverage requirement
Traffic requirement
Various level of design
(ROM to detail RF
design)

RF Design

Issuing of search ring


Cand. assessment
Site survey, design,
approval
Drive test (optional)

Site
Realisation

RF Design
Implementation

Frequency plan
Neighbour list
RF OMC data
Optimisation

Comparative Analysis
This is an optional step
This is intended to :

Help an existing operator in building/expanding their network


Help a new operator in identifying their RF network requirement,
e.g. where their network should be built

For the comparative analysis, we would need to :

Identify all network that are competitors to the customer


Design drive routes that take in the high density traffic areas of
interest
Include areas where the customer has no or poor service and the
competitors have service

Comparative Analysis
The result of the analysis should include : For an existing operator

All problems encountered in the customers network


All areas where the customer has no service and a competitor
does
Recommendations for solving any coverage and quality
problems

For a new operator

Strengths and weaknesses in the competitors network


Problem encountered in the competitors network

RF Network Design Inputs


The RF design inputs can be divided into :

Coverage requirements
Target coverage areas
Service types for the target coverage areas. These should
be marked geographically
Coverage area probability
Penetration Loss of buildings and in-cars

Capacity requirements
Erlang per subscriber during the busy hour
Quality of service for the air interface, in terms GoS
Network capacity

RF Network Design Inputs

Available spectrum and frequency usage restriction, if any

List of available, existing and/or friendly sites that should be


included in the RF design

Limitation of the quantity of sites and radios, if any

Quality of Network (C/I values)

Related network features (FH, DTX, etc.)

Coverage Design Inputs by BSNL

Coverage Thresholds

Indoor Coverage : Signal Level measured at street better than


65 dBm. Indoor coverage to be provided in commercial
complexes, hotels,technology parks etc.

In Car Coverage: Signal Level measured at street better than 75


dBm. In Car coverage to be provided in residential areas,
highways, tourist spots etc.

Outdoor Coverage : Signal level measured at street better than


85 dBm. All remaining areas to be covered with Outdoor
coverage.

These are general guidelines for planning , specific areas not


provided.

Capacity Design Inputs by BSNL

Frequency spectrum available 6.2 MHz (31 channels).

Average traffic per sub for RF design : 50 mErlang.

Synthesizer frequency hopping can be used.

GOS: 2%

Existing network Database

Total No. of sites with configuration

Site details eg location(Lat-Long), Antenna height


,azimuth, etc.

RF Network Design
There are 2 parts to the RF network design to meet the : Capacity requirement
Coverage requirement
For the RF Coverage Design

CW Drive
Testing

Propagation
Model

Digitised
Databases

RF
Coverage
Design

Customer
Requirements

Link
Budget

CW Drive Testing
CW drive test can be used for the following purposes :

Propagation model tuning


Assessment of the suitability of candidate sites, from both coverage and
interference aspect

CW drive test process can be broken down to :-

Test
Preparation

Equipment required
BTS antenna selection
Channel selection

Power setting
Drive route planning
Test site selection

Propagation
Test

Transmitter setup
Receiver setup

Drive test
Transmitter dismantle

Data
Processing

Measurement averaging
Report generation

10

CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation


The test equipment required for the CW drive testing :

Receiver with fast scanner


Example : HP7475A, EXP2000 (LCC) etc.
The receiver scanner rate should conform to the Lee Criteria of 36 to
50 sample per 40 wavelength

CW Transmitter
Example : Gator Transmitter (BVS), LMW Series Transmitter (CHASE),
TX-1500 (LCC) etc.

Base Station test antenna


DB806Y (Decibel-GSM900), 7640 (Jaybeam-GSM1800) etc.

Accessories
Including flexible coaxial cable/jumper, Power meter, extended
power cord, GPS, compass, altimeter

11

CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation


Base Station Antenna Selection

The selection depends on the purpose of the test

For propagation model tuning, an omni-directional antenna is


preferred

For candidate site testing or verification, the choice of antenna


depends on the type of BTS site that the test is trying to simulate.
For Omni BTS :
Omni antennas with similar vertical beamwidth
For sectorised BTS
Utilising the same type of antenna is preferred
Omni antenna can also be used, together with the special
feature in the post processing software like CMA (LCC)
where different antenna pattern can be masked on over the
measurement data from an omni antenna

12

CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation


Test Site Selection

For propagation model tuning, the test sites should be selected so


that : They are distributed within the clutter under study
The height of the test site should be representative or typical
for the specific clutter
Preferably not in hilly areas

For candidate site testing/verification, the actual candidate site


configuration (height, location) should be used.

For proposed greenfield sites, a cherry-picker will be used.

13

CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation


Frequency Channel Selection

The necessary number of channels need to be identified from the


channels available
With input from the customer

The channels used should be free from occupation


From the guard bands
Other free channels according to the up-to-date frequency plan

The channels selected will need to be verified by conducting a pre-test


drive
It should always precede the actual CW drive test to verify the exact
free frequency to be used
It should cover the same route of the actual propagation test
A field strength plot is generated on the collected data to confirm
the channel suitability

14

CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation


Transmit Power Setting

For propagation model tuning, the maximum transmit


power is used

For candidate site testing, the transmit power of the test


transmitter is determined using the actual BTS link
budget to simulate the coverage

On sites with existing antenna system, it is recommended


that the transmit power to be reduced to avoid
interference or inter-modulation to other networks.

The amount of reduction is subject to the possibility if


separating the test antenna from the existing antennas

15

CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation


Drive Route Determination

The drive route of the data collection is planned prior to the drive test
using a detail road map
Eliminate duplicate route to reduce the testing time

For propagation model tuning, each clutter is tested individually and the
drive route for each test site is planned to map the clutter under-study for
the respective sites.

It is important to collect a statistically significant amount of data, typically


a minimum of 300 to 400 data points are required for each clutter category

The data should be evenly distributed with respect to distance from the
transmitter

In practice, the actual drive route will be modified according to the latest
development which was not shown on the map. The actual drive route
taken should be marked on a map for record purposes.

16

CW Drive Testing - Propagation Test


Transmitter Equipment Setup

Test antenna location


Free from any nearby obstacle, to ensure free propagation in both
horizontal and vertical dimension
For sites with existing antennas, precaution should be taken to avoid
possible interference and/or inter-modulation

Transmitter installation

A complete set of 360 photographs of the test location (at the test
height) and the antenna setup should be taken for record

17

CW Drive Testing - Propagation Test


Scanning Receiver Setup - HP 7475A Receiver Example

HP 7475A Receiver

18

CW Drive Testing - Propagation Test


Scanning Receiver Setup

The scanning rate of the receiver should always be set to allow at least 36
sample per 40 wavelength to average out the Rayleigh Fading effect.

For example:
scanning rate = 100 sample/s

test frequency = 1800 MHz

therefore, to achieve 36 sample/40 wavelength, the max. speed is =

40 0.1667
18.52 m / s 66.67 km / h
36/100

It is recommended that : Beside scanning the test channel, the neighbouring cells is also
monitored. This information can be used to check the coverage overlap
and potential interference
Check the field strength reading close to the test antenna before
starting the test, it should approach the scanning receiver saturation

19

CW Drive Testing - Propagation Test


Drive Test

Initiate a file to record the measurement with an agreed naming


convention

Maintain the drive test vehicle speed according to the pre-set scanning
rate

Follow the pre-plan drive route as closely as possible

Insert marker wherever necessary during the test to indicate special


locations such as perceived hot spot, potential interferer etc.

Monitor the GPS signal and field strength level throughout the test, any
extraordinary reading should be inspected before resuming the test.

Dismantling Equipment

It is recommended to re-confirm the transmit power (as the pre-set


value) before dismantling the transmitter setup

20

Measurement Data Processing


Data Averaging

This can be done during the drive testing or during the data processing
stage, depending on the scanner receiver and the associated postprocessing software

The bin size of the distance averaging depends on the size of the
human made structure in the test environment

Report Generation

For propagation model tuning, the measurement data is exported into


the planning tool (e.g. Asset)

Plots can also be generated using the processing tool or using MapInfo

During the export of the measurement data, it is important to take care


of the coordinate system used, a conversion is necessary if different
coordinate systems are used.

21

Propagation Model
Standard Macrocell Model for Asset

Lp (dB) = K1 + K2 log(d) + K3 Hm + K4 log(Hm) + K5 log(Heff)

+ K6 log(Heff) log(d) + K7 Diffraction + Clutter factor

where Lp, Diffraction, Clutter factor are in dB

d, Hm, Heff are in m

It is based on the Okumura-Hata empirical model, with a number of additional


features to enhance its flexibility

Known to be valid for frequencies from 150MHz to 2GHz

Applies in condition : Base station height


: 30 - 200 m
Mobile height
: 1 - 10 m
Distance : 1 - 20 km

An optional second intercept and slope (K1, K2) for the creation of a two-piece
model with the slope changing at the specified breakpoint distance.

22

Morphology Class
Morphology Classification
Dense Urban

Urban

Dense Suburban
Light Suburban

Rural

Definition
A mixture of 8-15 storey commercial bldgs/residential
apartments/shopping complexes and 15-25 storey skyscrapers. Bldgs are
densely packed. Major roads are at least 4 lanes wide and minor roads are 2
lanes wide. There is very little or no trees.
A mixture of 4-6 storey shophouses densely packed and 6-15 storey
commercial bldgs/residential apartments/shopping complexes. Compared
to dense urban, the bldgs are not as tall or as densely packed. Major roads
are at least 4 lanes wide and minor roads are 2 lanes wide. There is very
little or no trees.
Typically 4 storey shophouses densely packed. There are occasional 6 to
12 storey bldgs. Usually a busy town in between cities. Roads are 2 to 4
lanes wide. Light foliage.
Typically less than 4 storey shophouses lined along highway/main road.
The shophouses form 1 or 2 tier from the road and the houses are not
densely packed. Usually at the outer fringe of a town. Light to moderate
foliage.
Along highway where there are isolated houses or open ground.

23

Link Budget
Link Budget Element of a GSM Network

BTS Antenna Gain


LNA
(optional)
Feeder Loss
ACE
Loss

Diversity
Gain

BTS Transmit
Power

BTS Receiver
Sensitivity

Max. Path Loss

Fade Margin

Penetration Loss
MS Antenna Gain,
Body and Cable Loss

Mobile Transmit
Power

24

Mobile Receiver
Sensitivity

Link Budget
BTS Transmit Power

Maximum transmit power

GSM900 and 1800 networks use radios with 46dBm maximum transmit power

ACE Loss

Includes all diplexers, combiners and connectors.

Depends on the ACE configuration

The ACE configuration depends on the number of TRXs and combiners used

No of
TRXs
1 or 2
1 or 2
3 or 4
3 or 4

Network

ACE Configuration

GSM900
GSM1800
GSM900
GSM1800

2 antennas per cell, diplexer


2 antennas per cell, diplexer
2 antennas per cell, diplexer + hybrid combiner
2 antennas per cell, diplexer + hybrid combiner

25

Downlink ACE
Loss (dB)
1.0
1.2
4.4
4.4

Link Budget
Mobile Transmit Power

GSM900 : Typical mobile class 4 (2W)

GSM1800 : Typical mobile class 1 (1W)


Class
1
2
3
4
5

GSM 900 (Watt/dBm)


8 / 39
5 / 37
2 / 33
0.8 / 29

GSM 1800 (Watt/dBm)


1 / 30
0.25 / 24
4 / 36
-

Mobile Receiver Sensitivity

The sensitivity of GSM900 and GSM1800 mobile = -102 dBm

26

Link Budget
Diversity Gain

Two common techniques used : Space


Polarisation

Reduce the effect of multipath fading on the uplink

Common value of 3 to 4.5 dB being used

BTS Receiver Sensitivity

Depends on the type of propagation environment model used, most


commonly used TU50 model

BTS : Receiver Sensitivity for GSM900 = -107 dBm

27

Link Budget
Feeder Loss

Depends on the feeder type and feeder length

The selection of the feeder type would depends on the feeder length,
I.e. to try to limit to feeder loss to 3 -4dB.

BTS Antenna Gain

Antenna gain has a direct relationship to the cell size

The selection of the antenna type depends on : The morphology classes of the targeted area and coverage
requirements
Zoning and Local authority regulations/limitations

Common antenna types used : 65, 90, omni-directional antennas with different gains

28

Link Budget
Slow Fading Margin
To reserve extra signal power to overcome potential slow
fading.
Depends on the requirement of coverage probability and the
standard deviation of the fading
A design can take into consideration : both outdoor and in-building coverage, which utilises a
combined standard deviation for indoor and outdoor
(Default value = 9dB)
Only outdoor coverage (Default value = 7dB)
Pathloss slope used, 45dB/dec (Dense Urban), 42dB/dec
(Urban),
38dB/dec
and
33dB/dec
Cell
Area
Combined(Suburban)
(outdoor &
Outdoor
slow fade (Rural)
margin
Coverage
Probability
(%)
85
90
95

indoor) slow fade margin


(dB)
DU
U
SU
RU
2
3
3
4
5
6
6
6
9
9
9
10

(dB)
DU
1
3
6

U
1
3
6

SU
2
4
7
29

RU
2
4
7

Link Budget
Penetration Loss

Penetration loss depends on the building structure and material


Penetration loss is included for in-building link budget
Typical value used for Asia-Pacific environment (if country specific
information is not available) : Dense Urban : 20 dB
Urban
: 18 dB
Suburban
: 15 dB
Rural
: 9 dB

Body Loss

Typical value of 3dB body loss is used

MS Antenna Gain

A typical mobile antenna gain of 2.2 dBi is used

30

Link Budget
Link Budget Example (GSM900)
UPLINK
MS Transmit Power
Cable Loss
MS Antenna Gain
Body Loss
Penetration Loss
Slow Fade Margin
Max. Path Loss
BTS Antenna Gain
LNA Gain
Feeder Loss
ACE Loss
Diversity Gain
BTS Receiver Sensitivity

33 dBm
0 dB
2.2 dBi
2 dB
W
X
Y
18 dBi
0 dB
2 dB
0 dB
4 dB
-107 dBm

DOWNLINK
BTS Transmit Power
ACE Loss
Feeder Loss
LNA Gain
BTS Antenna Gain
Max. Path Loss
Slow Fade Margin
Penetration Loss
Body Loss
MS Antenna Gain
Cable Loss
Diversity Gain
MS Receiver Sensitivity

31

46 dBm
Z
2 dB
0 dB
18 dBi
Y
X
W
2 dB
2.2 dBi
0 dB
0 dB
-102 dBm

Antenna
Antenna Selection

Gain

Beamwidths in horizontal and vertical radiated planes

VSWR

Frequency range

Nominal impedance

Radiated pattern (beamshape) in horizontal and vertical planes

Downtilt available (electrical, mechanical)

Polarisation

Connector types (DIN, N)

Height, weight, windload and physical dimensions

32

Antenna
The antenna selection process

Identify system specifications such as polarisation, impedance


and bandwidth

Select the azimuth or horizontal plane pattern to obtain the


needed coverage

Select the elevation or vertical plane pattern to be as narrow


as possible, consistent with practical limitations of size, weight
and cost

Check other parameters such as cost, power rating, size,


weight, mounting capabilities, wind loading, connector types,
aesthetics and reliability to ensure that they meet system
requirements

33

Antenna
System Specification

Impedance and frequency bandwidth is normally associated with the


communication system used

The polarisation would depends on if polarisation diversity is used

Horizontal Plane Pattern

Three categories for the horizontal plane pattern : Omnidirectional


Sectored (directional)
Narrow beam (highly directional)

Elevation Plane Pattern

Choosing the antenna with the smallest elevation plane beamwidth will give
maximum gain. However, beamwidth and size are inversely related

Electrical down tilt

Null filling

34

Nominal RF Design
Link Budget

Propagation
model

Coverage
requirements

Site radius

Nominal RF
Design
(coverage)

Maximum
path loss

Typical site
configuration
Transmit Power
Antenna configuration
(type, height, azimuth)
Site type (sector, omni)

Traffic
requirements

Standard hexagon site


layout
Friendly, candidate sites
Initial site survey inputs

Traffic
requirements

Recalculate the site


radius using the
number of sites from
the traffic requirement
Repeat the nominal
RF design

Coverage site
count
Traffic site
count

Traffic > Cov.


Cov. > Traffic

35

Nominal site
count

Nominal RF Design
Calculation of cell radius

A typical cell radius is calculated for each clutter environment

This cell radius is used as a guide for the site distance in the
respective clutter environment

The actual site distance could varies due to local terrain

Inputs for the cell radius calculation :

Maximum pathloss (from the link budget)

Typical site configuration (for each clutter environment)

Propagation model

36

Nominal RF Design
There are different level of nominal RF design :

Only using the cell radius/site distance calculated and placing


ideal hexagon cell layout

Using the combination of the calculated cell radius and the


existing/friendly sites from the customer

The site distance also depends on the required capacity


In most mobile network, the traffic density is highest within the CBD area
and major routes/intersections
The cell radius would need to be reduce in this area to meet the traffic
requirements
BASED ON THE SITE DISTANCE & THE COVERAGE REQUIREMENTS
CELL COUNT BASED ON COVERAGE IS CALCULATED.

37

Nominal RF Design
Cell count based on traffic is derived based on capacity inputs: Capacity requirements
GOS
Spectrum availability
Freq. Hopping techniques
If the total sites for the traffic requirement is more than the
sites required for coverage, the nominal RF design is repeated
using the number of sites from the traffic requirement

Recalculating the cell radius for the high traffic density areas

The calculation steps are : Calculate the area to be covered per site
Calculate the maximum cell radius
Calculate the site distance

38

Site Realisation
After completion of Nominal design based on cell count
( coverage & capacity requirements) , search rings for
each cell site issued.
Nominal design is done , with the existing network in
place(existing BTS). Existing site location remain
unchanged , azimuth , tilts as per the new design
requirements.
Based on the search ring form physical site survey is
undertaken.

39

Site
Realisation
Search Ring Form
BSNL Circle:Haryana

City / SSA:

Site Id:

Site Name:

Morphology Type:
Spheroid:

Krishna Nagar

Quasi Open , Industrial

WGS-84

Coordinates: (GPS) deg

min

sec

Latitude:

18

39

'

49.3

''N

Longitude:

73

47

'

36.7

''E

Site AGL (m):

30

Search Radius:50 m

Antenna Type:

65 deg Vertical polarised

Antenna Orientation(Deg)
Sector1

Sector2

350

120

Sector3
240

Search Ring Form


Site ID
Site Name
Latitude/Longitude
Project name
Issue Number and date
Ground height
Clutter environment
Preliminary configuration
Number of sector
Azimuth
Antenna type
Antenna height

Coverage Objectives:

Krishna Nagar, Jotiba Nagar, Shambaji Nagar, Yamuna Nagar

Comments

Issue Date:

Revision No. : R1.1

Name & signature of RF Coordinator

Location Map & SR radius


Search ring objective
Approvals

40

Site Realisation
Suitable
Y
Candidates?

Release of
Search Ring

Candidates
Approved?

Next
candidate

Problem
identifying
candidate

Caravan next
candidate

Exhausted
candidates

Y
Discuss
alternative with
customer

Exhausted
candidates

Driveby, RF
suggest possible
alternative

Issue design
change

All parties
agreed at
Caravan

Arranged
Caravan

Cell split
required

Candidate
approved?

Y
Y

Additional sites
required

41

Produce
Final RF
Design

Site Realisation
Candidate Assessment Report-Site Survey Forms

Site survey Forms for all suitable candidates for the search ring

For each candidates : Location (latitude/longitude)


Location map showing the relative location of the
candidates and also the search ring
Candidate information (height, owner etc)
Photographs (360 set, rooftop, access, building)
Possible antenna orientations
Possible base station equipment location
Information for any existing antennas
Planning reports/comments (restrictions, possibilities of
approval etc.)

42

Site Realisation-Site Survey Form


TECHNICAL SITE SURVEY FORM
Date

June 12, 2004


BSNL Circle

Bihar

Final RF Configuration Form

CITY / SSA
Site ID

BHPAT-09

BSNL/ NBSNL
Site Name

Patna 09

Owner Name
Address &

Contact No.

Construction

Container/Room

Tower Type

GBT / Rooftop

Bldg. Hgt

10 m.

Tower Hgt

6 m.

Antenna Ht

20 m.

Coordinate

LAT

26 21' 25.9"

LONG

85 48 ' 31.2"

GSM ANTENNA :
TYPE

AZ

M-TILT

SECTOR 1

AP909014-2

85

+1.9

SECTOR 2

AP909014-2

185

+0.7

SECTOR 3

AP909014-2

307

+1.3

Spheroid:

Candidate No.
Assess:

Accept/ Reject

Priority

Morphology/Clutter

Site Blockage if Any


Remark

Nokia Representative

Base Station configuration


Azimuth
Antenna height
Antenna type
Down tilt
Antenna location
Feeder type and
length
BTS type
Transmit power
Transceiver
configuration

BSNL Survey Team Representative

Name:

Name:

Signature:

Signature:

43

Traffic Engineering
Spectrum

Reuse factor

Available

Traffic
Requirement

Maximum number
of TRX per cell

Channel
loading

No of TCH
available

Subscriber
supported

Traffic offered

44

Traffic Engineering
Traffic Requirement
The Erlang per subscriber

Grade of Service (GoS)

GoS is expressed as the percentage of call attempts that are


blocked during peak traffic

Most cellular systems are designed to a blocking rate of 1% to


5% during busy hour

45

Traffic Engineering
Frequency Reuse

In designing a frequency reuse plan, it is necessary to develop a regular pattern on which


to assign frequencies

The hexagon is chosen because it most closely approximated the coverage produced by
an omni or sector site

Common reuse factor : 4/12, 7/21

46

Traffic Engineering
Channel Loading

As the number of TRX increases, the control channels required increases


accordingly

The following channel loading is used for conventional GSM network

For services such as cell broadcast, additional control channels might be required

Number of TRX
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Control Channels
Combined BCCH/SDCCH
1 BCCH, 1 SDCCH
1 BCCH, 2 SDCCH
1 BCCH, 2 SDCCH
1 BCCH, 3 SDCCH
1 BCCH, 3 SDCCH
1 BCCH, 3 SDCCH
1 BCCH, 3 SDCCH

Number of TCH
7
14
21
29
36
44
52
60

47

Traffic Engineering
After determining the number of TCH available and the traffic
requirements, the traffic offered is calculated using the Erlang B
table

For example, for a 2% GoS and 3 TRX configuration, the traffic offered
is 14 Erlang

If the traffic per subscriber is 50mE/subscriber, then the total


subscribers supported per sector = 280

For a uniform traffic distribution network, the number of sites


required for the traffic requirement
is :-rs
Total subscribe
Total sites
Subscriber supported per site

48

Traffic Engineering
Erlang B Table
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

1% 1.20% 1.50%
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.46
0.49
0.54
0.87
0.92
0.99
1.36
1.43
1.52
1.91
2
2.11
2.5
2.6
2.74
3.13
3.25
3.4
3.78
3.92
4.09
4.46
4.61
4.81
5.16
5.32
5.54
5.88
6.05
6.29
6.61
6.8
7.05
7.35
7.56
7.82
8.11
8.33
8.61
8.88
9.11
9.41
9.65
9.89
10.2
10.4
10.7
11
11.2
11.5
11.8
12
12.3
12.7
12.8
13.1
13.5
13.7
14
14.3
14.5
14.8
15.2

2%
0.02
0.22
0.6
1.09
1.66
2.28
2.94
3.63
4.34
5.08
5.84
6.61
7.4
8.2
9.01
9.83
10.7
11.5
12.3
13.2
14
14.9
15.8

3%
0.03
0.28
0.72
1.26
1.88
2.54
3.25
3.99
4.75
5.53
6.33
7.14
7.97
8.8
9.65
10.5
11.4
12.2
13.1
14.0
14.9
15.8
16.7

5%
0.05
0.38
0.9
1.52
2.22
2.96
3.74
4.54
5.37
6.22
7.08
7.95
8.83
9.73
10.6
11.5
12.5
13.4
14.3
15.2
16.2
17.1
18.1

7%
0.1
0.5
1.1
1.8
2.5
3.3
4.1
5
5.9
6.8
7.7
8.6
9.5
10.5
11.4
12.4
13.4
14.3
15.3
16.3
17.3
18.2
19.2

10%
0.11
0.6
1.27
2.05
2.88
3.76
4.67
5.6
6.55
7.51
8.49
9.47
10.5
11.5
12.5
13.5
14.5
15.5
16.6
17.6
18.7
19.7
20.7

15%
0.18
0.8
1.6
2.5
3.45
4.44
5.46
6.5
7.55
8.62
9.69
10.8
11.9
13
14.1
15.2
16.3
17.4
18.5
19.6
20.8
21.9
23

20% 30% 40% 50%


0.25 0.43 0.67
1
1 1.45
2 2.73
1.93 2.63 3.48 4.59
2.95 3.89 5.02
6.5
4.01 5.19
6.6 8.44
5.11 6.51 8.19 10.4
6.23 7.86
9.8 12.4
7.37 9.21 11.4 14.3
8.52 10.6
13 16.3
9.68
12 14.7 18.3
10.9 13.3 16.3 20.3
12 14.7
18 22.2
13.2 16.1 19.6 24.2
14.4 17.5 21.2 26.2
15.6 18.9 22.9 28.2
16.8 20.3 24.5 30.2
18 21.7 26.2 32.2
19.2 23.1 27.8 34.2
20.4 24.5 29.5 36.2
21.6 25.9 31.2 38.2
22.8 27.3 32.8 40.2
24.1 28.7 34.5 42.1
25.3 30.1 36.1 44.1

49

Traffic Engineering
If a traffic map is provided, the traffic engineering is done together with
the coverage design
After the individual sites are located, the estimated number of
subscribers in each sector is calculated by :

Calculating the physical area covered by each sector

Multiply it by the average subscriber density per unit area in that region

The overlap areas between the sectors should be included in each sector
because either sector is theoretically capable of serving the area

The number of channels required is then determined by :

Calculating the total Erlangs by multiplying the area covered by the average
load generated per subscriber during busy hour

Determine the required number of TCH and then the required number of TRXs

If the number of TRXs required exceeded the number of TRXs supported by


the available spectrum, additional sites will be required

50

SWAP PLAN
Why do we need a swap plan?
To reduce mix of different vendor BTS within a large
city/ area
Reduce Inter MSC HO.
Better maintenance efficiency
Swap Strategy
No. of existing BTS sites with configuration known
No. of new sites with configuration known.

51

For Example BSNL UP(W) Circle

52

UP(W) Circle Network Diagram


Haryan
a

ur
ranp
a
h
a
S

Uttaranchal

Muzaffarnagar

NCR

Me
t eru

Ghaziabad

r
pu
m
Ra
Bareilly

Noida
Bulandshahr

Mathura

rh
ga
Ali

Nep
al

Moradabad

Delhi

Haryan
a

Nokia BTS

Bijnor

Budaun

All DHQ on Nokia


Pilbhit

Etah

Rajastha
n

Agr
a

Mainpuri

Ericcsson BTS

UP(E)

Eta
h wa

53

UP(W) Circle Network Distribution


Major Cities /SSAs to be deployed on Nokia BTS

DHQ of all SSAs


Meerut
Agra
Mathura
Noida
Ghaziabad
Muzaffarnagar
Aligarh
Bulandshahar

SSAs except DHQs deployed on Ericsson BTS

Bijnor
Bareilly
Moradabad
Etah
Etawah
Rampur
Pilbhit
Badaun
Mainpuri
Saharanpur

54

HW & Rly Plan for UPW


NH-58
Haryan
a

Saharanpur

Uttaranchal

Muzaffarnagar
Meerut
Ghaziabad
Delh
i
NH-02
Haryan
a

Bijnor

Noid
a

Moradabad

Rampur
Bulandshahar
Pilbhit
Badaun Bareilly

Aligarh
Mathura

Nep
al

69 Ericsson HW Site
56 Nokia HW Site
National HW

Etah

Railways
State Highway

Agra
Rajastha
n

Mainpuri
Etawah

UP(E)

District Border

NH-91
NH-24

NH-03

55

SWAP SUMMARY
Sl
NO

SSA

PH-IV PLANNED
NOKIA

SWAP
NOKIA
WITH
ERICSSON

EXISTING
ERICSSON

SWAP
ERICSSON
WITH NOKIA

TOTAL
NOKIA

TOTAL
ERICSSO
N

Highways
Nokia

GRAND
TOTAL

(A+D-B)

(C-D+B)

(E+F+G)

Agra

74

43

37

109

125

Aligarh

40

27

19

55

12

68

Badaun

16

10

11

18

28

Bareilly

45

11

27

17

51

21

74

Bijnor

39

32

16

10

45

55

Bulandshahar

27

17

12

36

45

Etah

17

12

10

19

30

Etawah

29

21

16

12

33

45

Ghaziabad

27

15

35

42

10

Mainpuri

22

17

12

27

34

11

Mathura

34

22

17

50

63

12

Meerut

68

30

26

89

11

109

13

Moradabad

73

35

33

16

54

52

115

14

Muzaffarnagar

48

10

17

13

51

14

68

15

Noida

12

18

20

16

Pilbhit

11

10

22

17

Rampur

20

13

11

10

21

31

18

Saharanpur

31

18

16

22

25

52

Total

633

201

337

201

633

337

56

1026

56

UP(W) Circle 24volt BTS Distribution


Before Swap 24volts (40)
BTS status
Agra 9
Aligarh 2
Bareilly 5
Mathura 2
Meerut 3
Moradabad 6
Saharanpur 4
Bijnor 2
Bulandshahar 2
Etah 1
Etawah 3
Pilibhit 1
After Swap 24volts (40) BTS
status
Agra 1
Moradabad 16
Saharanpur 1
Bijnor 17
Etah 1
Etawah 3
Bulandshahr 1

Out of 40 sites 31 have been


swapped to
Bijnor 16
Moradabad 15
Out of 40 sites 9 left as it is (No
Swap)
Agra - 1
Moradabad 1
Saharanpur 1
Bijnor 1
Bulandshahr 1
Etah 1
Etawah 3

57

Advanced Network Planning Steps

58

Parameter Planning

Parameter planning means creating a default set of BSS


parameters.
The most important parameters to plan for:
frequencies
BSIC
LAC
handover control parameters
adjacent cell definitions.

59

BSS Parameter
Relevant BSS parameter for NW planning
frequency allocation plan
transmit power
definition of neighbouring cells
definition of location areas
handover parameters
power control parameters
cell selection parameters

60

Handover Types
Intracell

same cell, other carrier or timeslot

Intercell

between cells (normal case)

Inter-BSC
Inter-MSC
Inter- PLMN

between BSC areas


between MSC areas
e.g. between AMPS and GSM systems

intracell
intercell

inter-BSC

61

Handover Criteria
1. Interference, UL and DL

9. MS Speed

2. Bad C/I ratio


4. Downlink Quality

10. Better Cell, i.e. periodic


check (Power Budget,
Umbrella Handovers)

5. Uplink Level

11. Good C/I ratio

6. Downlink Level

12. PC: Lower quality/level


thresholds (DL/UL)

3. Uplink Quality

7. Distance
8. Rapid Field Drop

13. PC; Upper quality/level


thresholds (DL/UL)

62

Location Area Design 1/2


Location updating affects all
mobiles in network

LocUp in idle mode

LocUp after call completion

major road

Location updating causes


signalling and processing load
within the network (international
LocUpdate !)

Location area 2

Avoid oscillating LocUpdate


Trade-off between Paging load
and Location Update signalling

Location area 1

63

Location Area Design 2/2


Different MSC can not use the same LAC.
Location areas are important input for transmission planners
should be planned as early as possible.
Never define location area borders along major roads!
Dual band or microcellular networks require more attention on
LAC planning
co-located DCS and GSM cells are defined to the same LAC
same MSC to avoid too much location updates which would
cause very high SDCCH blockings

64

Network Optimisation

65

What is network optimisation?

66

Network Optimisation is:

Improving network quality from a subscribers point of


view.
Improving network quality from an operators point of
view.

67

What is network quality?

68

Overall Network Quality


H/W Failure
Network Configuration
Network Traffic
Spectrum Efficiency

O
P
E
R
A
T
O
R

C
U
S
T
O
M
E
R

NETWORK

Coverage yes/no
Service Probability
Quality
Call Set Up Time
Call Success Rate
Call Completion Rate

SERVICES

Mail Box, Data, Fax, etc.


Customer Care

MOBILE

Faulty H/W or S/W


Mobile Quality
Misuse of Equipment

COST

H/W Costs
Subscription/Airtime costs
Additional Services Costs
Network Equipment Costs
Maintenance Costs
Site Leasing Costs
Transmission Link Costs
69

Tools for Optimisation


Cell Planning
Tools
Prediction
Simulation

Network Measurement
Tools
Propagation
Drive test

Network
Management
System
Network configuration
BSS parameter data
Network performance
70

Performance Feedback
Network is under permanent change
==> detect problems and symptoms early!
OMC

Its far too late


when customers
complain!

field tests
customer
complaints
71

Optimize compared to what?

72

Key Performance Indicators, KPI


KPIs are figures used to evaluate Network performance.
post processing of NMS data or
drive test measurements data
Usually one short term target and one long term target.
check the network evolution and which targets are
achieved
KPIs calculated with NMS data
network performance on the operator side.
KPIs from drive test
performance on the subscribers side
Usually turn key projects are evaluated according to
some predefined KPIs figures like drop call rate

73

Network Performance Evaluation with


NMS

The most reliable KPIs to evaluate the network performance


with NMS are:
SDCCH and TCH congestion
Blocking percentage [%]
Drop call rate [%]
Handover failure and/or success rate
Call setup success rate
Average quality DL and UL

The targets are always defined by the customer but the


following figures can be considered as satisfactory results:
Item limit
Target
Lowest
acceptable
Dropped calls:
<2 %
4%
Handover success
>98 %
96 %
Good Qual samples (0..5) >98 %
95 %

74

Drive Test Measurements


Evaluate network performance from the subscriber point of view
KPIs information:
DL quality, call success rate, handover success rate, DL
signal level
not statistically as reliable as NMS information
Added value of drive test measurement :
find out the geographical position of problems like bad
DL quality to look for a possible interference source in the
area
compare the performance of different networks
display the signal level on the digital maps to individuate
areas with lack of coverage eventually improve the
propagation model
verify the neighbour list parameter plan

75

Optimisation Process

There are not strict processes for optimization because the activity
is driven by the network evolution.

76

Optimisation Process: Young Network


Case

In a young network the primary target is normally the coverage.

In this phase usually there is a massive use of drive test


measurement
check the signal and
the performance of the competitors

MMAC

GPS
NMS
X

77

Optimisation Process: Mature Network


Case
In a mature network the primary
targets are quality indicators

drop call rate, average quality, handover failures.

Important use the information from NMS


a general view of the network performance.
Drive test measurements are still used
but not in a massive way
in areas where new sites are on air
where interference and similar problems are pointed out by
NMS data analysis.
Drop Call Rate (%)
3.5
3
2.5
Call Bids / 10000

Average
1.5

Busy Hour

1
0.5
0
Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

78