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Gardners Art Through the

Ages,
Chapter
18
The Age of the Great Cathedrals:

Gothic Art

Europe About 1200

Gothic Art

Early Gothic ca. 1140 to 1194


High Gothic ca. 1194 to 1300
Late Gothic ca. 1300 to 1500
Gothic period/style began and ended at different dates
in different places
Mid-16th century Giorgio Vasari (father of art
history) used Gothic as term of ridicule to describe
late medieval art and architecture/ Vasari, along with
Ghiberti, thought Gothic art was invented by the
Goths who were uncouth and responsible for the
downfall of Rome and the destruction of the classical
style in art and architecture
13th and 14th centuries- Gothic style was the rage in
most of Europe (especially north of Alps)/ considered
opus modernum (modern work) or opus francigenum
(French work)/ Clergy and lay public regarded new
cathedrals as images of the City of God which they
were privileged to build on earth
Gothic style first appeared in northern France around
1140/ In southern France and elsewhere in Europe,

Gothic Period Turmoil and Change


1337 Hundred Years War began (shattered
peace between England and France)
14th century Black Death (killed at least of
western Europes population)
1378-1417 Great Schism (political/religious
crisis)
Shift in Society: From monasteries in
countryside and pilgrimage churches to rapidly
expanding secular cities with great new
cathedrals
In Gothic urban centers prosperous
merchants made homes, universities run by
professional guilds of scholars formed
independent secular nations of modern Europe
beginning to take shape (starting with France)

FrenchGothicArchitecture&ArchitecturalDecoration
AbbotSugerandSaintDenis

AbbotSuger:righthandmanofLouisVIandVII/duringSecondCrusadewasregentofFrance/rebuiltFrances
royalchurchSaintDenis
SaintDenis(Benedictineabbeychurch):CarolinigianbasilicawasFrancesroyalchurchsymbolofmonarchy/
housedSt.DenistombandthoseofFrenchkings
AbbotSugerbegantorebuildin1135erectednewwestfaadewithsculpturedportals/114044addednew
choir,ambulatoryandradiatingchapels

Early
Gothic

Figure 18-1 Ambulatory and radiating chapels, abbey


church, Saint-Denis, France, 11401144.

RemodelednaveofSaintDenis

SaintDenis:KeyMonumentofEarlyGothicSculpture
Sugerssculptureforwestsideof
abbeydidnotsurviveFrench
Revolution
Mid12thcenturystructureintact

Haddoubletowerwestwork/massivewallsinRomanesque
tradition/restoredlargerosewindow(newfeaturethatbecame
standardinFrenchGothicarchitecture/threeportalswith
statuesofOldtestamentkings,queensandprophetsattachedto
columns
Figure 18-2 Plan of the east end, abbey
church, Saint-Denis, France, 11401144 (after
Sumner Crosby).

HallmarksofNewFrenchGothicStyleatSaintDenis

HallmarksofNewFrenchGothicstyleappears:ribvaultsonpointedarchescoveringambulatory
andchapelsthesevaultsenablebuilderstoeliminatewalls,openspaceandaddstainedglass
windows
SugercalledthecoloredlightcomingthroughthesacredstainedglassLUXNOVA(newlight)

Figure 18-3 Vaults of the ambulatory and radiating chapels of the


choir, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 11401144.

EarlyGothicLaonCathedral,France(begun1190)

TypicalGothicfeaturesonwestfaade:
Hugecentralrosewindow,deepporchesin
frontofdoorways,openstructureoftowers
Deeperpenetrationofwallmass
Operatingprinciple(Gothicstyle):
Reducesheermassandreplaceitwith
intricatelyframedvoids

Figure 18-7 West facade of Laon


Cathedral, Laon, France, begun ca.
1190.

RetainedmanyRomanesquefeaturesindesignandcombinedthemwithribvaultsrestingonpointedarches
Romanesquefeatures:navebayswithlargesexpartiteribvaults,flankedbytwosmallgroinvaultedsquaresineachaisle
Newfeature:TRIFORIUM(bandofarcadesbelowtheclerestorywindows)/usedbecausehaddesiretobreakupandeliminateall
continuouswallsurfaces
Nowsee4PARTnaveelevation:
navearcade,vaultedgallery,triforium,clerestorywithsingleLANCETwindows(tall,narrowwindowsendinginpointedarches)
Alsoemployedalternatesupportsystem(Romanesque)innavearcadewithcompoundpiersalternatingwithsimplepiers

Laon
Cathedral/
Early
Gothic
Gothicarchitects
wantedtocreatea
unifiedinterior
spacethatswept
uninterruptedfrom
easttowest/moved
awayfrom
compartmentalized
spaces

Figure 18-8 Alternate View


General view of Nave and Choir (w
rectangular E end) seen from W

Figure 18-8
Interior of
Laon
Cathedral
(view facing
northeast),
Laon, France, 9

NaveElevationComparisonforEarly/HighGothicCathedrals
144ft.
Heightofnavevaults

107ft.

118ft.

80ft.

Figure 18-9 Nave elevations of four French Gothic cathedrals at the same scale (after Louis
Grodecki):
(a) Laon, (b) Paris, (c) Chartres, (d) Amiens.
10

Early/HighGothicNotreDame,France(begun1163,remodeledafter1225)
1130LouisVImovedofficialresidencetoPariswhichcausedmorecommercialactivityandabuildingboom
NewCathedralnecessary=NotreDameofParislocatedonislandinSeineRivercalledIledelaCite
ReplacedalargeMerovingianbasilica/sexpartitevaultscovernave/4storynaveelevationinplaceof
triforiumisstainedglassOCULI(smallroundwindows)belowclerestorylancets

Figure 18-10 Notre-Dame (view from the south), Paris, France, begun 1163; nave and flying buttresses, ca.
11801200; remodeled after 1225.
11

NotreDameParis,France

Twooffourstoriesinnaveelevationfilledbywindows=thinnerandtallerwalls=needforexternalsupport
UnknownarchitectintroducedFLYINGBUTTRESSES(exteriorarchesthatspringfromthelowerroofsover
theaislesandambulatoryandcountertheoutwardthrustofthenavevaults)

FLYING
BUTTRESSES:
Important
element
contributingto
thedistinctive
lookofGothic
Cathedrals

Figure 18-10 Alternate View

General view of choir with flying buttresses


12

EarlyGothicBeginningsChartresCathedral,France(begun 1134)

Buildinghistoriesofurbanchurchesoften
extendedoverdecadesandsometimesover
centuries
Financingdependedlargelyoncollections
andpubliccontributions(notalways
voluntary)andlackoffundsinterrupted
buildingprogramsasdidwars,plagues,
etc.=notfinishingchurchesforyears
ChartresCathedralconstructionstarted
in1134duringtheEarlyGothicperiodand
wasdestroyedbyfirein1194whichledto
reconstructionintheHighGothicstyle

Figure 18-4 Aerial view of Chartres


Cathedral (from the northwest), Chartres,
France, begun 1134; rebuilt after 1194.

13

RoyalPortalChartresCathedral(EarlyGothic,1145)

Statuecolumnsofkingsandqueensflankthe3doorways/episodesofChristslifearecarvedonthecolumncapitalsandforma
frieze/linkfromoneentrancetothenext/mostcompleteandimpressivesurvivingensembleofEarlyGothicsculpture
RightPortal:archivoltsdepict7femaleLiberalArtsandtheirmalecompanions(figuresrepresentcoreofmedievallearningand
symbolizehumanknowledgewhichwasbelievedtoleadtotruefaith)/inthetympanum,ChristappearsinlapofVirginMary(like
ByzantineTheotokosandRomanesqueThroneofWisdom)
CultoftheVirginMaryreachedahighpointintheGothicage/theseverityofRomanesquethemesstressingtheLastJudgment
yieldedtothegentlenessofGothicart,inwhichMaryisthekindlyQueenofHeaven
LeftPortal:ChristsAscensionintoHeaven/archivoltshavesignsofzodiacandscenesrepresentingvariouslaborsofmonthsofyear=
symbolsofcosmicandearthlyworlds
CentralPortal:SecondComing(LastJudgmenttheme)stillimportant/Themebecameasymbolofsalvationratherthandamnation

Figure 18-5 Royal Portal, west facade, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 11451155.
14

ChartresRoyalPortalOldTestamentkingsandqueens

OldTestamentkingsandqueensareconsideredroyalancestorsofChrist/thesecharacterssupporttheNewTestamentfiguresabove
thedoorways/theywear12thcenturyclothesandareregardedasimagesofkingsandqueensofFrance=symbolsofsecularaswellas
ofbiblicalauthority
Romanesque:linearfoldsingarmentsandelongatedproportions
Gothicfiguresare
attachedtocolumns/
Classicalstatues
(caryatids)replacedthe
columns
Statuesdisplayfirstsigns
ofanewnaturalism/they
have3Dvolume/human
faces(notmasks)which
personalize/individualize
theportraits

Figure 18-6 Old Testament kings and


queens, jamb statues, central doorway of
Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres,
France, ca. 11451155.

Figure 18-6 Alternate View


Saints from left jamb, central portal
(west), braided lady, two male saints

15

HighGothicPlanChartresCathedral(rebuilt1194)
Architecturalhistorians
considerthepost1194
ChartresCathedralthefirst
HighGothicbuilding
Incorporatedtheoldcrypt
andwestfaadeinthenew
building
Newkindoforganizationin
plan:RECTANGULARBAYS
flankedbyonesinglesquarein
eachaisleratherthantwo,no
alternatesupportsystem,
vaultshad4partsnot6=nave
lookslikeonecontinuoushall
Plannedfrombeginningwith
flyingbuttresseswhichmade
possibletheeliminationofthe
tribune/gallery

Figure 18-11 Plan of


Chartres Cathedral, Chartres,
France, as rebuilt after 1194
(after Paul Frankl).

Tripartite(3)naveelevation:
arcade,triforiumand
clerestorywithenlarged
windows(doublelancets
crownedbyasingleoculus)

Figure 18-12 Interior of Chartres


Cathedral (view facing east), Chartres,
France, begun 1194.
16

PorchoftheConfessorsHighGothicSpiritSculpturesofNewChartres
13thCenturyGothicSculpture=Second
Classicalrevolution
Statuesofsaintsonportaljambsaremore
independentfromthearchitectural
framework
GreatchangesinGothicsculptureseen:
RightFigure1815Architecturalsetting
doesnotdetermineposesthesaintsappear
tobecommunicatingwithoneanother,turn
slightlytowardandawayfromeachother
Draperyfoldsarenotstifffabricsoftly
fallsandlapsoverthebodies
Faceshaveindividualizedfeaturesand
distinctivepersonalities
LeftFigure1816Theodoreasideal
Christianknight(Gothiccrusader)/clothed
incrusaderattire/headturnedtoleft,hipto
rightbodysswayrecallsClassicalGreek
statuarycontrappostostance

Figure 18-16 Saint Theodore, jamb


statue, Porch of the Martyrs (left
doorway), south transept, Chartres
Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca.

Figure 18-15 Saints Martin, Jerome, and


Gregory, jamb statues, Porch of the Confessors
(right doorway), south transept, Chartres
Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 12201230. 17

StainedGlassMysticalLuxNova

UseofstainedglassinGothicperiod:itdoesnotconceal
walls,butreplacesthem/transmitslightratherthan
reflectinglight
Twotypesofstonewindowframesintowhichglasswasset:
platetraceryandbartracery
OurLadyoftheBeautifulWindowtallsinglelancet/
survivedfireof1194/centralsectiondepictingVirginMary
enthronedwithChristChildinherlapisoriginalfrom
1170/framingangelsagainstbluebackgroundadded13 th
century
GothicandByzantinebuildersusedlighttotransformthe
materialworldintothespiritual,butinoppositeways
(discussthedifference)

Figure 18-13 Virgin and Child and angels (Notre


Dame de la Belle Verrire), window in the choir of
Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1170, with
13th century side panels. Stained glass, 16 X 7 X 8.

18

ChartresRoseWindowAGiftFromtheQueenofFrance
Rosewindow=approx.43ft.indiameter/
bartracery/centerofroseisenthroned
VirginandChild/aroundherare4dovesof
theHolySpiritand8angels/squarepanels
containimagesofOldTestamentkings
Royalmotifs=yellowcastlesand
fleursdelis
Lancets=St.AnneandbabyVirginin
centerflankedby4ofChristsOld
Testamentancestors
ColorSymbolismofthetime:Blue=
heaven,Red=Passion,White=Purity,
Green=Fertility,Yellow=PresenceofGod

Figure 18-14 Rose window and lancets,


north transept, Chartres Cathedral,
Chartres, France, ca. 1220. Stained glass,
rose window approx. 43 in diameter.

19

HighGothicAmiensCathedral,France(begun1220)
Architects:RobertdeLuzarches,Thomas
andRenauddeCormont
Beganconstruction1220/navecompleted
1236/radiatingchapelsby1247/choirby
approx.1270
UsescompleteHighGothicstructural
vocabulary:
rectangularbays/4partribvault/
buttressingsystem/noalternatesupport
system,onlycompoundpiers
Conceptofaselfsustainingskeletal
architecturereachedfullmaturitywith
Amiens/noneedforheavymassesorthick
weightbearingwallsbecauseofbuttressing
system
Figure 18-17 ROBERT DE LUZARCHES,
THOMAS DE CORMONT, and RENAUD DE
CORMONT, interior of Amiens Cathedral (view
facing east), Amiens, France, begun 1220.

20

AmiensCathedralQuestforHeight

Navevaultheightis144ft.
3partnaveelevation:
navearcade,triforiumandclerestorywith
greaternumberandcomplexityoflancet
windows
Thestructurehasalightappearanceeven
thoughitisstonearchitecture(becauseof
increasednumberofwindowsandbroken
spaces)
AmiensistheGothiccounterparttothe
ByzantineHagiaSophia

Figure 18-18 Robert de Luzarches,


Thomas de Cormont, and Renaud de
Cormont, vaults, clerestory, and triforium
of the choir of Amiens Cathedral, Amiens,
France, begun 1220.

21

AmiensCathedral
HighGothicFacade
PortalssimilartoLaon
Upperpartmorecomplex:
deeperpiercingofwallsandtowers/
coveredwithnetworkofcolonnettes,
arches,pinnacles,rosettesandother
decorativestonework
Sculptureextendstotheareasabovethe
portals/bandofstatuesbelowrose
windowiscalledkingsgallery
Towerswereaddedin14thand15th
centuries

Figure 18-19 ROBERT DE


LUZARCHES, THOMAS DE
CORMONT, and RENAUD DE
CORMONT, west facade of Amiens
Cathedral, Amiens, France, begun
1220.

22

AmiensCathedralTrumeauBeauDieu(BeautifulGod)
FullymodeledfigureofChrist
Massivedraperyfolds
Standsfreelyandis
independentofits
architecturalsetting
Architecturalcanopyover
figureshead
Hedoesnotstrikefearinto
sinners,insteadheblesses
thosewhoenterthechurch
andtramplesalionand
dragonsymbolizingevilforces
intheworld
ThisimageofChristgives
humankindhopeinsalvation
Figure 18-20 Christ (Beau Dieu),
trumeau statue of central doorway,
west facade, Amiens Cathedral,
Amiens, France, ca. 12201235.

23

HighGothicReimsCathedral,France(begun1225)
Everydetailisstretchedonthefaade:
Kingsgalleryisaboverosewindow/
figuresaretallerandinmoreornateframes
Openingsintowersandleftandrightof
rosewindowaretallerandnarrowerand
moreintricatelydecorated
Pinnaclesovertheportalsaretallerand
moreelaborate
Moststriking:tympanumsoverdoorways
arestainedglasswindowsinsteadofstone
reliefsculptures

Figure 18-21 West facade of Reims


Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1225
1290.

24

ReimsCathedralJambStatuesConverse
BiblicalnarrativeVisitation:St.Elizabeth
visitingtheVirginMarybeforethebirthof
Jesus/subjectiscelebratingMaryslife=
importantinGothicperiod
Sculptorshrankthesupportingcolumnsso
theywouldnotinterferewiththemovementof
thefigures
Figuresdepictedinclassicalnaturalisticstyle/
theartistprobablystudiedactualclassical
statuaryinFrance/faceslooklikeRoman
portraits/Greekcontrappostoposture/
dramatic(deeplycarved)draperyfoldswith
kneespressingthrough/armsinmotionas
theyconversethroughgesture
PartofaseriesofstatuescelebratingMarys
life/hercentralroleinGothiciconography
Figure 18-22 Visitation, jamb statues of
central doorway, west facade, Reims
Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1230.
25

HighGothicSainteChapelle
Rayonnant(Radiant)Style

BuiltbyLouisIX(124348)
LouisIXroyalpatronbehindParisian
CourtStyle
LouisIXinheritedthroneatage12/mother,
BlancheofCastileservedasFrancesregent
untilhereachedadulthood/declaredasaint
afterdeath/unitedbestqualitiesinhis
person:Christianknight(losthislifein
serviceoftheChurch),benevolentmonarch
andholyman/Hebecamethemodelof
medievalChristiankingship/duringhis
reigntheartandarchitectureofFrancewas
admiredandimitatedthroughoutEurope
SEEADDITIONALPOWERPOINTFOR
DETAILSONSAINTECHAPELLE

Figure 18-23 Interior of the upper chapel,


Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, France, 12431248.
26

CourtStyleofLouisIX
VirginofParisLateGothic
LateGothic(early14thcentury)manneredelegance
LocatedinParisianCathedralofNotreDame
Maryportrayedasworldlyqueen/royalgarmentand
gemencrustedcrown/ChristChildasinfantprince
Humanisticstylemoreofaplayfulinteractionbetween
thetwofigures
Scurve=exaggeratedswayoftheVirginsbody
TheScurvehadnothingtodowiththestructureofthe
body(likeGreekstatuary)butwasadecorativedeviceto
producethedesiredeffectofELEGANCE

Figure 18-24 Virgin and Child (Virgin of Paris), NotreDame, Paris, France, early fourteenth century.

27

LateGothicSaintMaclou,France(begun1500)
FlamboyantStyle
FlamboyantStylenamedfortheflamelikeappearance
ofitspointedbartracery/beganin14thcenturybut
maturedin15thcentury
NormandyisrichinFlamboyantarchitecture/itscapital
RouenhousestheSaintMaclouCathedral
SaintMacloutinyinsize(75ft.high,180ft.long)
Faadeisunique:5portals(twoareblind)whicharebent
outwardinanarc/ornategablescrowndoorwayspierced
throughandfilledwithflickeringFlamboyanttracery
madeupofcurvesandcountercurvesthatforma
decorativewebandmasksthebuildingsstructure/
throughthepinnaclesyoucanseetherosewindowand
flyingbuttresses/overlappingofallfeaturesanda
complexityofviewsishallmarkofFlamboyantstyle

Figure 18-25 West facade of Saint-Maclou,


Rouen, France, ca. 15001514.
28

FamousGothicFortifiedTownCarcassonneinS.France
CarcassonnefortifiedsinceRomantimes

GothicAge:alsosawbuildingofsecularstructures(townhalls,palaces,privateresidences)
Feudalbaronsconstructedfortifiedcastleswiththickdefensivewallcircuits(ramparts)enclosingtheentiretown/
battlements(lowparapets/walls)withcrenellations(composedofalternatingsolidmerlonsandopencrenels)
protectedguardspatrollingthestoneringsurroundingthetown/hadkeep(asecuretowerthatcouldserveasa
placeoflastrefuge/hadCathedralofSaintNazaire(right)

Figure 18-26 Aerial view of the fortified town of Carcassonne, France. Bastions and towers,
12th13th centuries, restored by Eugne Viollet-le-Duc in the 19th century.
29

NewClassofWealthyMerchantsFrench
traderandfinancierJacquesCoeur/exampleofLate
Gothicarchitectureandamonumentalsymbolofthe
periodsnewsecularspirit/arrangedaroundcourtyard,
serviceareasongroundlevel,officesandfamilyliving
upperlevel/faadehaslargesectionwithstainedglass,
Flamboyanttracery,twodoorways(pedestrianand
horse/carriage)/twofalsewindowswithservantstatues
lookingdownonpassingpeople

Figure 18-28 House of Jacques Coeur, Bourges,


France, 14431451.

GuildHallgrowthofsecularizationin

urbanlife/builtforclothmakersofBruges/
showsimportantroleartisansandmerchants
hadinGothicsociety/loftytowerwasintended
tocompeteforattentionandprestigewith
towersofcitycathedrals

Figure 18-27 Hall of the cloth guild, Bruges,


Netherlands, begun 1230.
30

LuxuryArtsLateGothic
Popularamongwealthywerestatuettesofsacredfigures/
purchasedeitherforprivatedevotionorasgiftstochurches/
VirginMaryfavorsubjectreflectingherprominence
Costlystatuette(silvergiltandenamel):VirginofJeanne
dEvreux(queenofCharlesIVdonatedthisimagetoSaint
Denis)
Marystandsonbasedecoratedwithenamelscenesof
ChristsPassion
Playfulinteractionoffigures/MaryasQueenofHeaven
(oncewearingacrown)/Marysswayingposture/heavy
draperyfolds=acontemporaryversionofVirginofParis
Servesasareliquary(sceptercontainedhairsbelievedto
comefromMaryshead)

Figure 18-35 Virgin of Jeanne dEvreux, from the abbey


church of Saint-Denis, France, 1339. Silver gilt and enamel, 2
3 1/2 high. Louvre, Paris.

31

BookIlluminationHigh/LateGothic

ParisIntellectualCenterofGothicEurope

Parisrenownedcenterforproductionoffine
books
GothicPeriod:bookmanufactureshiftedfrom
monasticscriptoriatourbanworkshopsstaffedby
laypersons/theseGothicshopsweretheforerunners
ofmodernpublishinghouses
LouisIXwasavidbookcollector/hismother
BlancheofCastilecommissionedthismoralized
Bibleforherteenageson
Dedicationpage:LouisandBlancheenthroned
beneathtriplelobedarchesandminiature
cityscapes(likearchitecturalcanopiesoverheadsof
statuesinFrenchcathedralportals)/beloware
monkandscribe(showingGothicbookproduction)/
goldenbackgroundverycostly
Inspirationforpagedesign=Gothicstainedglass
windows(ChartresandSainteChapelle)
Figure 18-31 Blanche of Castile, Louis IX,
and two monks, dedication page (folio 8
recto) of a moralized Bible, from Paris,
France, 12261234. Ink, tempera, and gold
leaf on vellum, 1 3 X 10 1/2. Pierpont
Morgan Library, New York.

32

SameUrbanWorkshopsProduceBothGlassandBooks
PsalterofSt.Louisproducedbyartists
associatedwiththosewhomadestainedglassfor
hisSainteChapelle
Backgoundarchitecturalsettingresemblesroyal
buildingssuchasSainteChapelle/figures
depictedinelegantRayonnantcourtstyleof
architecturefavoredbyroyalParis/intensecolors
emulateglass/bordersresembleglasspartitioned
byleading/gablesandrosewindowwithbar
tracery=standardRayonnantarchitectural
features
Subject:Abrahamwith3angels(prefiguresthe
ChristianTrinity)/twoepisodesdepictedonsame
pageseparatedbytree(greetingandentertaining)
Parisiancourtstyle:elegantproportions,facial
expressions,theatricalgestures,swayingposes

Figure 18-32 Abraham and the three


angels, folio 7 verso of the Psalter of Saint
Louis, from Paris, France, 12531270. Ink,
tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 5 X 3
1/2. Bibliothque Nationale, Paris.

33

MasterHonorepioneerednaturalisminfigurepainting

Honoreilluminatedabreviary(bookofselectedprayers
andpsalms)forPhilippeleBel
TwoOldTestamentscenesinvolvingDavid:upper,
SamuelanointsyouthfulDavid/bottom,KingSaullookson
asDavidpreparestohurlhisslingshotatthegiantGoliath
(whoalreadytouchesthewoundonhisforehead),then
DavidisshownslayingGoliathwithsword
TypicalParisiancourtstyleshown:lineartreatmentof
hair,figuresdelicatehandsandgestures,elegantswaying
postures
Honoreadds:aninterestingivingfiguressculptural
volumeandshowingplayoflightontheirbodies/not
concernedwithlocatingfiguresinspace(feetoverlap
borders)

Figure 18-33 MASTER HONOR, David anointed by


Samuel and battle of David and Goliath, folio 7 verso of
the Breviary of Philippe le Bel, from Paris, France,
1296. Ink and tempera on vellum, 7 7/8 X 4 7/8.
Bibliothque Nationale, Paris.

34

JeanPucelleBelleville
Breviary
Subject:DavidandSaul
Placedhisfullymodeledfiguresin3D
architecturalsettingsrenderingconvincing
perspective(3/4viewofSaulonthrone)
PucellemayhavevisitedItalyandwas
influencedbyDuccioswork
Renderingofbirds,dragonfly,butterfly,
monkey,etc.inbordershowsinterestinclose
observationofnaturalworld
Pucellesnameandnameofassistantsappearat
endofbookalongwithpaymenttheyreceived
(wasaprofessionalguildmemberandwaslikea
brandnamewhichguaranteedqualityoftheir
work)
ThecenturiesoldmonopolyoftheChristian
Churchinbookproductionhadended
Figure 18-34 JEAN PUCELLE, David
before Saul, folio 24 verso of the Belleville
Breviary, from Paris, France, ca. 1325. Ink
and tempera on vellum, 9 1/2 X 6 3/4.
Bibliothque Nationale, Paris.
35

GothicOutsideofFranceENGLAND

SalisburyCathedral,
England(begun1220)

SeeSeparate
PowerPointfor
detailed
information

Figure 18-37
Salisbury Cathedral,
Salisbury, England,
12201258; west
facade completed 1265;
spire ca. 13201330.

36

SalisburyCathedral
SeeSeparatePowerPoint
fordetailedinformation

Figure 18-39 Interior of Salisbury


Cathedral (view facing east), Salisbury,
England, 12201258.

37

LateGothicGloucesterCathedral,England(begun1332)
PERPENDICULARSTYLE

Figure 18-40 Alternate View


View upward into the complex perpendicular vaulting of the choir (1337-51)

PerpendicularStyle:tookitsnamefromthepronounced
verticalityofitsdecorativedetails
Verticallinesdominant(examplewindowonright)
Choirvaultscoveredwithornamentalstrandsthatserveno
structuralpurpose(lookattheRomanesquebarrelvault)
Figure 18-40 Choir of Gloucester Cathedral
(view facing east), Gloucester, England, 1332

38

EdwardIIasRelic
GloucesterCathedral
Freestandingtombsarepermanentand
immovableunitsofchurchfurniture/preserve
bothremainsandmemoryofaperson/served
asreminderofhumanmortality/brought
distinction,pilgrims,patronagetothechurch
EdwardIIssonpaidforthememorialofhis
murderedfather
DeadkingisidealizedChristlikefigure/regal
robeswithcrown/oneachsideofhisheadan
angeltoucheshishair/athisfeettheguardian
lion
IntricatePerpendicularGothiccanopyencases
thecoffin,formingakindofminiaturechapel
protectingthedeceased
DistinctivefeatureisuseofOGEEARCHES
(archesmadeupoftwodoublecurvedlines
meetingatapoint),acharacteristicLate
Gothicform

Figure 18-42 Tomb of Edward II,


Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester,
England, ca. 13301335.

39

LateGothicChapelofHenryVII,WestminsterAbbey,England

SeeSeparatePowerPointfor
detailedinformation

Figure 18-41 ROBERT and WILLIAM


VERTUE, Chapel of Henry VII,
Westminster Abbey, London, England,
15031519.

40

HighGothicCologneCathedral,Germany(begun1248)

FrenchGothicstylebeganto
makeimpactinGermanywith
CologneCathedralmid13th
century
CologneCathedralnot
completeduntilmorethan600
yearsafter1248=longest
buildingprojectonrecord
Gothic/GothicRevival
structureislargestcathedralin
N.Europe

Figure 18-44 Gerhard of


Cologne, aerial view of Cologne
Cathedral (from the south),
Cologne, Germany, begun 1248;
nave, facade, and towers

41

ColognesSoaringVaults

422ft.longnavewithtwoaisles
oneachside
150ft.high14thcenturychoir
doublelancetsintriforium,tall
andslendersinglewindowsin
clerestoryaboveandinchoir
arcadebelow

Figure 18-45 GERHARD OF


COLOGNE, Choir of Cologne
Cathedral (view facing east),
Cologne, Germany, completed
1322.

42

Hallenkirche(HallChurch)SaintElizabethatMarburg

HallChurchaislesaresame
heightasnave/hasnotribune,
triforium,orclerestory
IncorporatesFrenchinspiredrib
vaultswithpointedarchesand
talllancetwindows
Germaninteriorismoreunified
andfreeflowing,lessnarrowand
divided,andmorebrightly
illuminatedthaninteriorsof
FrenchandEnglishGothic
churches

Figure 18-47 Interior of


Saint Elizabeth (view facing
west), Marburg, Germany,
12351283.

43

StrasbourgCathedral,France

DeathoftheVirginAPassionateDrama

TodayStrasbourgisaFrenchcitybutnotsointhe13thcentury(German)
StylisticallytheStrasbourgCathedralismostlyRomanesque,butthetympanumon
thesouthtranseptportalisGothic
12ApostlesgatheraroundtheVirgin/atcenterChristreceiveshismotherssoul/
MaryMagdalenecrouchingatbottom
FiguresexpressEMOTION/dramaticposesandgestures/deeplyinciseddraperyadds
todrama/wantstostiremotioninobserver/humanizing,natural,passionate

Figure 18-48 Death of the Virgin, tympanum of left doorway, south transept, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg,
France, ca. 1230.
44

NaumburgCathedral,Germany

EkkehardandUtaSecularImages

Sculptorofwestchoirhadtasktocarvestatuesof12benefactorsofthe
original11thcenturychurchforafundraisingcampaign
GermanmilitarygovernorEkkehardIIofMeissenandhiswifeUta
Wellpreservedbecauselocatedindoors(canstillseepaint)
Frenchinfluence:attachedto
columns/architecturalcanopies
Wearingperiodcostumes/
individualizedfeaturesand
personalities
Showsbodyunderclothing
(Utasarm)/renderingof
draperyfoldsindicatesthatwas
workingfromamodel
REALPEOPLE/SECULAR
IMAGESFOUNDINTHE
CHURCH

Figure 18-49 Ekkehard and Uta, statues in the west choir,


Naumburg Cathedral, Naumburg, Germany, ca. 12491255. Painted
limestone, approx. 6 2 high.

45

BambergCathedral,Germany
BambergRider
EquestrianstatuederivedfromancientRome
Seemstobeatrueportrait(GermanEmperor)
Proportionsofriderandhorsearecorrect/artistdidnot
understandtheanimalsanatomysoitisstifflyschematic

Figure 18-50 Equestrian portrait (Bamberg


Rider), statue in the east choir, Bamberg
Cathedral, Germany, ca. 12351240. Sandstone, 7

46

VirginwiththeDeadChrist(RottgenPieta),German

DirectAppealtotheEmotions

14thCenturywar,plague,famine,socialstrife
awarenessofsuffering
Artistsemphasizedthetraitsofhumansufferingin
powerful,expressiveexaggeration
Pieta=pityorcompassioninItalian
Christisdistorted,stiffindeathcoveredwithblood/
VirginMarycradleshimandhasoversizedface
twistedinexpressionofunbearablegrief
Viewerisconfrontedwithanappallingiconofagony,
deathandsorrowthathumanizesthesetwosacred
people
HUMANIZINGOFRELIGIOUSTHEMESAND
RELIGIOUSIMAGES

Figure 18-51 Virgin with the Dead


Christ (Rttgen Piet), from the
Rhineland, Germany, ca. 13001325.
Painted wood, 2 10 1/2 high.
Rheinisches Landemuseum, Bonn.

47

NicholasofVerdunMosanArtist

MosanRegion=fromGermanysMeuseRiverValley
Pulpitconvertedintoaltarpieceafterfirein1330
KlosterneuburgAltar(triptych)51enamelssetintotrefoilarchedniches
framedbyexplanatoryinscriptions(NewandOldTestamentthemes)
Goldfiguresagainstbluebackground/biblicalactorstwistandturn/
exaggeratedgestures/intricatelinearfoldsindrapery/intense
emotionalism

Figure 18-53
NICHOLAS OF
VERDUN, Sacrifice
of Isaac, detail of
the Klosterneuburg
Altar, from the
abbey church at
Klosterneuburg,
Austria, 1181.
Gilded copper and
enamel, 5 1/2 high.
Stiftsmuseum,
Klosterneuburg.
Figure 18-52 NICHOLAS OF VERDUN, the Klosterneuburg Altar, from the abbey
church at Klosterneuburg, Austria, 1181. Gilded copper and enamel, 3 6 3/4 high.
Stiftsmuseum, Klosterneuburg.

48

LateGothicOrvietoCathedral,Italy(begun1310)
FewItalianarchitectsacceptedthenorthern
Gothicstyle
Frenchinfluenceseen:pointedgablesover
threedoorways,rosewindowframedbystatues
inniches,fourlargepinnaclesthatdividefaade
intothreebays
TheGothicfaademasksthebuildingbehindit
whichisamarblerevettedbasilicainthe
TuscanRomanesquetradition/timberroofed
navewithtwostoryelevation/roundarches
frametheapseandnavearcadenotpointed
TheOrvietofaaderesemblesagreataltar
screen,carefullycarvedandpainted

Figure 18-55 LORENZO


MAITANI, west facade of Orvieto
Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy, begun
1310.

49

Doges(Dukes)PalaceVenice,Italy
VeniceoneofthewealthiestcitiesofLatemedievalItalyandofEurope
MostornatepublicbuildinginmedievalItaly/firstlevelhasshort,heavycolumnssupportpointedarches
theirrhythmisdoubledintheupperarcadeswheremoreslendercolumnscarryogeearcheswithquatrefoilson
top/eachstoryistallerthantheonebeneathit/colorful(creamandrosecoloredmarbles),decorative,lightand
airyinappearancefloatsbetweenwaterandair

Figure 18-56 Doges Palace, Venice, Italy, begun ca. 13401345; expanded and remodeled,
14241438.
50

Discussion Questions
What are the key architectural and
decorative elements of the Gothic
cathedrals?
How would you compare sculpture in the
Gothic era to the earlier Romanesque
sculpture? What are the reasons for the
differences?
Consider a persons reaction in 14th-century
upon viewing a Gothic cathedral for the first
time. What might the reaction be to viewing
an enormous building supported by glass
walls?

51