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PLANTS

ORGAN
AND
Structure, Growth, Development
and Reproduction
ORGAN
SYSTEMS

STRUCTURAL
ORGANIZATION OF
PLANTS

PLANT CELL
Plant cells unlike animal cells have
organelles called Chloroplast
Chloroplast- its function is to manufacture
food through photosynthesis.
They have larger vacoules.
Amyloplasts- for food storage

PLANT CELL
3 Types of plant cell :
Plant
cell
type

Cell

Chemical

Functio
n

Thicknes
s

compositio
n

Parench
yma

Uniformly
thin

Cellulose,
hemicellulos
e, may have
cutin

Collench
yma

Irregularly Cellulose,
Food
thick
hemicellulos storage,
e
strength
ening

Sclerenc
hyma

Uniformly
thick

Food
storage,
food
manufact
ure

Cellulose,
Strength
hemicellulos ening

PLANT TISSUES
A tissue is a group of cells that performs essentially the same function.
Classification of tissue in plants:
Meristematic Tissue- tissues primarily concerned with the formation of new
cell by division.
a. Apical meristem- a group of merismatic cells found at the tips of the plant.
-contributes to an increase in length (shoot apical
meristem) or length (root apicalmeristem) of the main
axis of the plant.
-primary growth
b. Lateral meristem- contributing to the increase in width, diameter, or girth.
c. Intercalary meristem- it becomes actively dividing when there is injury to
help regenerate the lost or damaged part.

PLANT TISSUES
Permanent Tissue- tissue that cease to divide, having gained new parts or
lost old ones to perform specialized permanent functions.
a. Dermal tissue- outer protective covering
-includes the epidermis and the periderm.
b. Vascular tissue- the conducting tissue of the plant
-for food, water, and mineral distribution in the plant body.
Xylem- principal water-conducting tissue in vascular plants.
Phloem- principal food- conducting tissue of vascular plants.

Fundamental tissue- the entire complex of ground tissue, composed of


the tissues comprising the cortex and the pith
consisting of fundamental cell types namely;
-parenchyma tissue
-Collenchyma tissue
-sclerenchyma tissue

PLANT ORGANS

An organ is a group of different tissues joined structurally and cooperating


functionally to perform a composite task.

Classification of Plant organs

Vegetative Organ- Function for growth and development, but not


directly involved in the sexual reproduction.
a. leaf
b. stem
c. roots

Reproductive Organ- function for sexual reproduction and include


stamens (male) and pistils (female).

PLANT ORGANS
Leaf
- For food manufacture
- Photosynthesis takes place here
- Gas exchange and transpiration
- chlorophyll- light harvesting molecules of the plant.
- Stomata (stoma)- tiny holes through which carbon dioxide enter the leaf.
- transpiration- loss of water from the plant in the form of vapor.

Stem
- Support for aerial plant parts
- conduction of substances
- internode- the region between two successive nodes.

Three major internal tissues:


a. Dermal tissue- covered with waxymaterial called cutin.
- for protection against injury and water loss.

PLANT ORGANS
b. Ground tissue- cortex and pith for food and water storage.
c. Vascular tissue- xylem for water transport and phloem for food transport.

Movement of water through the stem


Xylem includes:
- - Vessels
- - tracheids
- - wood fibers

Movement of food through the stem


Phloem includes :
- - Sieve tube
- - companion cell
- - phloem fiber
- - phloem parenchyma

PLANT ORGANS
Roots
-

Absorption of inorganic substances


- nutrient storage, and anchorage of the plant to the soil

Two types of roots :


-

- Taproot
- fibrous

PLANT GROWTH
AND
DEVELOPMENT

GROWTH
Changes in length, height or
diameter of plant parts are
easily quantified or
measured.

DEVELOPMENT
Other changes that can be
described only because they
result in the formation of new
parts that were not there
before.

HOW DO PLANTS DEVELOP


AND GROW?
Meristematic tissues
Mitosis
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

WHAT DO
PLANTS NEED FOR
GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT?

Plants need water and


minerals.
They need light energy.
Plants need gases from the
air.
Plants need Oxygen for
Aerobic Respiration.

REGULATORS OF PLANT
GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
Hormones- are chemical
substances that the body
produces in very small amounts.
Produced in specific sites.
They are transported.

PLANT HORMONES
Auxin
Cytokinins
Gibberelins
Abscisins
Ethylene

AUXINS
Produced in shoot tips diffuse
down the stem, inhibiting lateral
bud formation.
Auxins move away from light,
stimulating cell elongation on the
dark side of the stem, resulting in
growth curvature towards light.

Auxin is produced by the shoot apical


meristem.
Auxin diffuses from the shoot tip
where it is produced to the region of
enlargement below the shoot apical
meristem.
Auxin is sensitive to light and tends to
move away from it.
Auxin promotes cell elongation.

PHOTOTROPISM
is the growth of organisms
in response to light. It is
most often observed in
plants.

CYTOKININS
Are plant regulators that, in
combination with auxins, can
induce cell division and cell
differentiation.

GIBBERELLINS
Are plant regulator that
promotes seed germination
and growth in response to
water availability and flowering
in response to day length.

ABSCISINS
Are plant hormones that
suppress seed germination and
growth of buds as an adaptive
response to stress due to
unfavorable environment.

ETHYLENE
Is a plant hormone that
stimulates leaf abscission,
flower wilting, fruit ripening and
other aging processes that
eventually leads to death.

REPRODUCTION
IN PLANTS