Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

M1 GARAND

1936

DEVELOPMENT
C a n a d i a n b o r n J o h n G a r a n d b e g a n w o r k i n g o n a . 3 0 c a l i b e r p r i m e r- o p e r a t e d b re e c h .
Tw e n t y - f o u r r i fl e s , i d e n t i fi e d a s " M 1 9 2 2 " , w e r e b u i l t a t S p r i n g fi e l d i n 1 9 2 4
C a n a d i a n b o r n J o h n C a n t i u s G a r a n d , b e c a m e a n A m e r i c a n fi r e a r m s i n v e n t o r , w e n t t o w o r k a t t h e A r m y ' s S p r i n g fi e l d A r m o r y , a n d
b e g a n w o r k i n g o n a . 3 0 c a l i b e r p r i m e r - o p e r a t e d b r e e c h . Tw e n t y - f o u r r i fl e s , i d e n t i fi e d a s " M 1 9 2 2 " , w e r e b u i l t a t S p r i n g fi e l d i n t h e
s u m m e r o f 1 9 2 4 , a n d a t Fo r t B e n n i n g d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 2 5 t h e y w e re t e s t e d a g a i n s t m o d e l s b y B e r t h i e r , H a t c h e r-B a n g ,
T h o m p s o n , a n d Pe d e r s o n , t h e l a tt e r t w o d e l a y e d b l o w b a c k t y p e s . T h i s l e d t o a f u r th e r tr i a l o f th e i m p ro v e d " M 1 9 2 4 " G a r a n d
ag ainst th e Th om pson, ultim ately produci ng an inconc lusiv e report. Therefore, the O rd nance Board ordered a Garand v ariant .300 6 , w h i l e i n M a r c h 1 9 2 7 t h e C a v a l r y B o a r d r e p o r t e d t r i a l s b e t w e e n t h e T h o m p s o n , G a r a n d , a n d ' 0 3 S p r i n g fi e l d h a d n o t l e d t o a
clear winner, leading to a gas-operated .276 model.
D u r i n g t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 2 8 , b o t h I n f a n t r y a n d C a v a l r y B o a r d s r a n t r i a l s w i t h t h e . 2 7 6 P e d e r s e n T 1 r i fl e , c a l l i n g i t " h i g h l y
p r o m i s i n g " ( d e s p i t e i t s u s e o f w a x e d a m m u n i t i o n , s h a r e d b y t h e T h o m p s o n ) . O n 1 3 A u g u s t 1 9 2 8 , a S e m i a u t o m a t i c R i fl e B o a r d
carried out joint Army, Navy, and Marine Corps trials between the .30 Thompson, both cavalry and infantry versions of the T1
P e d e r s e n , " M 1 9 2 4 " G a r a n d , a n d . 2 5 6 B a n g , a n d o n 2 1 S e p t e m b e r , t h e B o a r d r e p o r t e d n o c l e a r w i n n e r. T h e . 3 0 G a r a n d , h o w e v e r ,
w as d ropped in fa vor of th e .276 .
F u r t h e r t e s t s b y t h e S R B i n J u l y 1 9 2 9 , w h i c h i n c l u d e d r i fl e d e s i g n s b y B r o w n i n g , C o l t - B r o w n i n g , G a r a n d , H o l e k , P e d e r s e n ,
R h einm etall, T hom pson, and an incom plete on e by White, led to a recom m endation th at w ork on the (d ropp ed ) .3 0 g as- operated
Garand be resum ed , and a T1E1 w as ordered 14 N ove m ber 19 29.
Tw e n t y g a s - o p e r a t e d . 2 7 6 T 3 E 2 s G a r a n d s w e r e m a d e a n d c o m p e t e d w i t h T 1 P e d e r s e n r i fl e s i n S p r i n g 1 9 3 1 . T h e . 2 7 6 G a r a n d w a s
the clear winner of these trials. The .30 caliber Garand was also tested, in the form of a single T1E1, but was withdrawn with a
c ra cked b o lt o n 9 O cto ber 1931 . A 4 J a nua ry 19 32 m eeti ng reco m m ended a do p tio n o f the .276 ca li ber a nd pro ductio n o f
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 2 5 T 3 E 2 s . M e a n w h i l e , G a r a n d r e d e s i g n e d h i s b o l t a n d h i s i m p r o v e d T 1 E 2 r i fl e w a s r e t e s t e d . T h e d a y a f t e r t h e
s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s t e s t , A r m y C h i e f o f S t a ff G e n e r a l D o u g l a s M a c A r t h u r p e r s o n a l l y d i s a p p r o v e d a n y c a l i b e r c h a n g e , i n
p a rt b e c a u s e th e re w e re ex t e n s i v e ex i s ti n g s t o c k s o f .3 0 M 1 b a l l a m m u n i ti o n . O n 2 5 Fe b ru a ry 1 9 3 2 , A d j u ta n t G e n e r a l J o h n B .
S h u m a n , s p e a k i n g f o r t h e S e c r e t a r y o f W a r , o r d e r e d w o r k o n t h e r i fl e s a n d a m m u n i t i o n i n . 2 7 6 c a l i b e r c e a s e i m m e d i a t e l y a n d
c o m p l e t e l y a n d a l l r e s o u r c e s b e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d i d e n t i fi c a t i o n a n d c o r r e c t i o n o f d e fi c i e n c i e s i n t h e G a r a n d . 3 0 c a l i b e r .
O n 3 A u g u s t 1 9 3 3 , t h e T 1 E 2 b e c a m e t h e S e m i - A u t o m a t i c R i fl e , C a l i b e r 3 0 , M 1 . I n M a y 1 9 3 4 , 7 5 M 1 s w e n t t o fi e l d t r i a l s ; 5 0 w e r e
t o i n f a n t r y , 2 5 t o c a v a l r y u n i t s . N u m e r o u s p r o b l e m s w e r e r e p o r t e d , f o r c i n g t h e r i fl e t o b e m o d i fi e d , y e t a g a i n , b e f o r e i t c o u l d b e
r e c o m m e n d e d f o r s e r v i c e a n d c l e a r e d f o r p r o c u r e m e n t o n 7 N o v e m b e r 1 9 3 5 , t h e n s t a n d a r d i z e d 9 J a n u a r y 1 9 3 6 . T h e fi r s t
p r o d u c t i o n m o d e l w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y p r o o f - fi r e d , f u n c t i o n - fi r e d , a n d fi r e d f o r a c c u r a c y o n J u l y 2 1 , 1 9 3 7 .
P r o d u c t i o n d i ffi c u l t i e s d e l a y e d d e l i v e r i e s t o t h e A r m y u n t i l S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 7 . B y S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 9 , S p r i n g fi e l d A r m o r y h a d r e a c h e d
a n o u t p u t o f 1 0 0 p e r d a y. D e s p i t e g o i n g i n t o p r o d u c t i o n s t a t u s , d e s i g n i s s u e s w e r e n o t a t a n e n d . T h e b a r r e l , g a s c y l i n d e r , a n d
f r o n t s i g h t a s s e m b l y w e r e r e d e s i g n e d a n d e n t e r e d p r o d u c t i o n i n e a r l y 1 9 4 0 . E x i s t i n g " g a s - t r a p " r i fl e s w e r e r e c a l l e d a n d
r e t r o fi t t e d , m i r r o r i n g p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e e a r l i e r M 1 9 0 3 S p r i n g fi e l d r i fl e t h a t a l s o h a d t o b e r e c a l l e d a n d r e w o r k e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y
t h r e e y e a r s i n t o p r o d u c t i o n a n d f o r e s h a d o w i n g r e w o r k o f t h e M 1 6 r i fl e a t a s i m i l a r p o i n t i n i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . P r o d u c t i o n o f t h e
G a r a n d i n c r e a s e d i n 1 9 4 0 d e s p i t e t h e s e d i ffi c u l t i e s , r e a c h i n g 6 0 0 a d a y b y 1 0 J a n u a r y 1 9 4 1 , a n d t h e A r m y w a s f u l l y e q u i p p e d b y
the end of 1941.

SERVICE USE
F o l l o w i n g t h e o u t b r e a k o f W o r l d Wa r I I i n E u r o p e , W i n c h e s t e r w a s a w a r d e d a n " e d u c a t i o n a l "
p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r a c t f o r 6 5 , 0 0 0 r i fl e s
T h e B r i t i s h A r m y t e s t e d t h e M 1 a s a p o s s i b l e r e p l a c e m e n t f o r i t s b o l t - a c t i o n L e e - E n fi e l d N o . 1 M k I I I ,
but rejected it
T h e M 1 ' s s e m i a u t o m a t i c o p e r a t i o n g a v e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r c e s a s i g n i fi c a n t a d v a n t a g e i n fi r e p o w e r
an d sh ot-to -shot recovery time over individ ual enemy in fantrymen in battle
G e n e r a l G e o r g e S . Pa t t o n c a l l e d i t " t h e g r e a t e s t i m p l e m e n t o f b a t t l e e v e r d e v i s e d
T h e i m p a c t o f f a s t e r- fi r i n g i n f a n t r y s m a l l a r m s i n g e n e r a l s o o n s t i m u l a t e d b o t h A l l i e d a n d A x i s
f o r c e s t o g r e a t l y a u g m e n t i s s u e o f s e m i - a n d f u l l y - a u t o m a t i c fi r e a r m s t h e n i n p r o d u c t i o n , a s w e l l a s
t o d e v e l o p n e w t y p e s o f i n f a n t r y fi r e a r m s
M u c h o f t h e M 1 i n v e n t o r y i n t h e p o s t - W o r l d Wa r I I p e r i o d u n d e r w e n t a r s e n a l r e p a i r o r r e b u i l d i n g .
W h i l e U . S . f o r c e s w e r e s t i l l e n g a g e d i n t h e K o r e a n Wa r , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f D e f e n s e d e t e r m i n e d a
need for ad ditional p roduction of th e Garand , and two new contracts were awarded. D uring 195356, M1s were p roduced by International Harvester and Harrin gton & R ichardson
A fi n a l , v e r y s m a l l l o t o f M 1 s w a s p r o d u c e d b y S p r i n g fi e l d A r m o r y i n e a r l y 1 9 5 7 , u s i n g fi n i s h e d
components already on hand. Beretta also produ ced Garan ds using Winchester tooling
T h e M 1 p r o v e d a n e x c e l l e n t r i fl e t h r o u g h o u t i t s s e r v i c e i n W o r l d Wa r I I a n d t h e K o r e a n Wa r. S u r p l u s
M 1 r i fl e s a l s o a r m e d m a n y n a t i o n s a l l i e d t o t h e U S A p o s t w a r , i n c l u d i n g W e s t G e r m a n y , I t a l y a n d
J a p a n . S o m e G a r a n d s w e r e s t i l l b e i n g u s e d i n t h e V i e t n a m Wa r i n 1 9 6 3 ; d e s p i t e t h e M 1 4 ' s o ffi c i a l
ad option in 1957, it was not un til 1965 the changeover from th e M1 Garan d was comp leted in the
active-duty comp on ent of the Army (with th e exception of the sniper variants, which were
i n t r o d u c e d i n W o r l d Wa r I I a n d s a w a c t i o n i n K o r e a a n d V i e t n a m ) . I n o t h e r c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e a r m e d
f o rc e s , s u c h a s t h e A rm y Re s e r v e , A rm y N a t i o n a l G u a rd a n d t h e N a v y , G a r a n d s c o n t i n u e d t o s e r v e
into the 1970s or longer

FEATURES

The weight of the M1 varies between 9.5 lb. (4.31 kg) and 10.2 lb. (4.63 kg) unloaded
(d ep en ding o n slin g t yp e an d sto ck woo d den sit y) --a c on side rable in crea se over t he p revious
M 1 9 0 3 S p r i n g fi e l d . T h e l e n g t h w a s 4 3 . 6 i n c h e s ( 1 , 1 0 7 m m ) . T h e r i fl e i s f e d b y a n " e n b l o c " c l i p
w h i c h h o l d s e i g h t r o u n d s o f . 3 0 - 0 6 S p r i n g fi e l d a m m u n i t i o n . W h e n t h e l a s t c a r t r i d g e i s fi r e d , t h e
r i fl e e j e c t s t h e c l i p a n d l o c k s t h e b o l t o p e n . C l i p s c a n a l s o b e m a n u a l l y e j e c t e d a t a n y t i m e . T h e
"en-b loc" clip is man ua lly eject ed b y pu lling t he op erat in g rod a ll t he way to t h e rear, and t hen
depressing the clip latch button. Much criticized in modern times, the en-bloc clip was
in n ovat ive for it s era. The con cep t of a d isp osab le box ma gaz ine ha d not b een em brace d a n d
en -b loc clip s were c hea p a nd reliab le. It was even ha rd er an d slower t o re lo ad th an t he M 1903
r i fl e . C o n t e m p o r a r y r i fl e s w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o e a s i l y t o p - o ff a m a g a z i n e i n c l u d e d t h e J o h n s o n
M 1 9 4 1 , t h e o b s o l e t e K r a g - J r g e n s e n a n d t h e L e e - E n fi e l d N o 1 a n d N o 4 .
T h e r i fl e ' s a b i l i t y t o r a p i d l y fi r e p o w e r f u l . 3 0 - 0 6 r i fl e a m m u n i t i o n a l s o p r o v e d t o b e o f
con sid erab le ad vant ag e in comb at . In China , Jap an ese b anz ai ch a rge s h ad p re viou sly me t with
f r e q u e n t s u c c e s s a g a i n s t p o o r l y - t r a i n e d C h i n e s e s o l d i e r s a r m e d w i t h b o l t - a c t i o n r i fl e s . A r m e d
w i t h t h e M 1 , U . S . i n f a n t r y m e n w e r e a b l e t o s u s t a i n a m u c h h i g h e r r a t e o f fi r e t h a n t h e i r C h i n e s e
c o u n t e r p a r t s . I n t h e s h o r t - r a n g e j u n g l e fi g h t i n g , w h e r e o p p o s i n g f o r c e s s o m e t i m e s m e t e a c h
ot he r in colu mn forma tion on a narro w p at h, t he pe net rat io n o f th e p owerful .30-06 M 2
cart rid ge en ab led a sin gle U .S . in fan tryman t o kill u p to th re e Jap an ese sold iers with a sin gle
rou n d
T h e G a r a n d ' s fi r e r a t e i n t h e h a n d s o f a t r a i n e d s o l d i e r , a v e r a g e d o u t t o 4 0 - 5 0 a c c u r a t e s h o t s
p e r m i n u t e a t a r a n g e o f 3 0 0 y a r d s , m a k i n g i t t h e s i n g l e f a s t e s t fi r i n g s e r v i c e r i fl e o f a n y n a t i o n
b y a w i d e m a r g i n . T h e c l o s e s t c l o c k e d r a t e o f fi r e f o r a s t a n d a r d s e r v i c e r i fl e w a s i n 1 9 1 4 b y a
L e e E n fi e l d , fi r i n g a t 3 8 r o u n d s p e r m i n u t e , s t i l l l e s s t h a n t h e G a r a n d

MODELS

T1
N/A
T1E1
N/A
T1E2
N/A
M1
N/A
M1E1
N/A
M1E2
N/A
M1E3
N/A
M1E4
N/A
M1E5
N/A
M1E6
N/A
M1E7/M1C
mount
M1E8/M1D
M1E9
N/A
M1E10
N/A
M1E11
N/A
M1E12
N/A
M1E13
N/A
M1E14
Mk 2
T20
N/A
T20E1
N/A
T20E2
N/A
T20E2HB N/A
T22
N/A
T22E1
N/A
T22E2
N/A
T22E3
N/A
T26
N/A
T27
N/A
T22E3
T31
N/A
T35
Mk 2
T36
N/A
T37
N/A

Prototype
A s i n g l e t r i a l r i fl e t h a t b r o k e i t s b o l t i n t h e 1 9 3 1 t r i a l
Tr i a l d e s i g n a t i o n f o r g a s - t r a p G a r a n d . B a s i c a l l y a T 1 E 1 w i t h a n e w b o l t .
Basic model. Identical to T1E2. Later change to gas port did not change designation
M 1 G a r a n d v a r i a n t ; m o d i fi e d c a m a n g l e i n o p - r o d
M1 Garand variant; prismatic scope and mount
M1 Garand variant; roller added to bolts cam lug (later adapted for use in the M14)
M 1 G a r a n d v a r i a n t ; g a s c u t - o ff a n d e x p a n s i o n s y s t e m w i t h p i s t o n i n t e g r a l t o o p - r o d
M 1 G a r a n d v a r i a n t ; 1 8 - i n c h b a r r e l a n d f o l d i n g s t o c k , f o r A i r b o r n e a n d Ta n k c r e w m a n u s e .
M1 Garand variant; sniper variant
N/A
M 1 E 6 G a r a n d v a r i a n t ; M 1 C s n i p e r v a r i a n t w i t h M 8 1 s c o p e ( t h o u g h t h e M 8 2 o r M 8 4 s c o p e c o u l d b e u s e d ) o n a G r i ffi n & H o w e
N/A
M 1 E 7 G a r a n d v a r i a n t ; M 1 D s n i p e r v a r i a n t w i t h M 8 2 s c o p e ( t h o u g h t h e M 8 4 s c o p e c o u l d b e u s e d ) o n a S p r i n g fi e l d A r m o r y m o u n t
M1 Garand variant; similar to M1E4, with piston separate from op-rod
M1 Garand variant; variant with the Ljungman direct gas system
M 1 G a r a n d v a r i a n t ; s h o r t - s t r o k e Ta p p e t g a s s y s t e m
M1 Garand variant; gas impingement system
M 1 G a r a n d v a r i a n t ; " W h i t e " g a s c u t - o ff a n d e x p a n s i o n s y s t e m
M o d 0 M 1 G a r a n d v a r i a n t ; re c h a m b e re d i n . 3 0 T 6 5 / 7 . 6 2 x 5 1 m m N AT O w i t h p re s s - i n c h a m b e r i n s e r t
M 1 G a r a n d v a r i a n t ; s e l e c t - fi r e c o n v e r s i o n b y J o h n G a r a n d , c a p a b l e o f u s i n g B A R m a g a z i n e s
T20 variant; uses its own type of magazines
T20 variant; E2 magazines will work in BAR, but not the reverse
T20E2 variant; HBAR variant
M 1 G a r a n d v a r i a n t ; s e l e c t - fi r e c o n v e r s i o n b y R e m i n g t o n , m a g a z i n e - f e d
T 2 2 v a r i a n t ; u n k n o w n d i ff e r e n c e s
T 2 2 v a r i a n t ; u n k n o w n d i ff e r e n c e s
T 2 2 v a r i a n t ; u n k n o w n d i ff e r e n c e s ; u s e s T 2 7 fi r e c o n t r o l
M1 Garand variant; 18-inch barrel and standard stock, for airborne and tank crewman use.
R e m i n g t o n s e l e c t - fi r e fi e l d c o n v e r s i o n f o r M 1 G a r a n d ; a b i l i t y t o c o n v e r t i s s u e M 1 G a r a n d s t o s e l e c t - fi r e r i fl e s ; fi r e c o n t r o l s e t u p u s e d i n
Experimental bullpup
Mod 2 M1 Garand vari
T20E2 variant; T20E2
T36 variant; same as

variant
a n t ; re c h a m b e re d f o r . 3 0 T 6 5 / 7 . 6 2 x 5 1 m m N AT O
r e c h a m b e re d f o r . 3 0 T 6 5 / 7 . 6 2 x 5 1 m m N AT O u s i n g T 3 5 b a r re l a n d T 2 5 m a g a z i n e
T36, except in gas port location

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