Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Presented by : LIM SOOK FUN &

TANASKUMAR
Date
: 25 /5/ 2015

2. Concept &
Use of
Petroleum
Systems

OUTLINE

Introduction to Petroleum G & G

Definition
Petroleum System Elements
Temporal & Spatial Aspects
Event Chart
Basin, System, Play, Prospect

OIL & GAS LIFE CYCLE (RECAP)


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

UPSTREAM

MIDSTREAM

Geophysic
s

DOWNSTRE
AM

Petrophys
ics

Geochemist
ry

Geomechan
ics

Stratigrap
hy
GEOSCIENCE

Structural
Geology
Basin
Modelling
(Geostatisti
cs)
Appraisal Drilling:
Drillingcarriedoutonceoilorgashasbeendiscoveredinordertoassesstheextentofthefield,the
reserves,thepossiblerateofproduction,andthepropertiesoftheoilorgas
3

Sedimentol
ogy

Palaeontolo
gy

PETROLEUM SYSTEM DEFINITION


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

A petroleum system encompasses a pod of active source rocks and all


genetically related oil and gas accumulations. It includes all the
geologic elements and processes that are essential if an oil and gas
accumulation is to exist

ELEMENTS
Source Rock
Migration
Pathways
Reservoir Rock
Seal Rock
Trap
*Overburden Rock

PROCESSES
Generation
Migration
Accumulation
Preservation

Must be
correctly placed
in TIME & SPACE

PETROLEUM SYSTEM ELEMENTS


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

PETROLEUM SYSTEM NAMING

(Biggest accumulation)

TEMPORAL (TIME) ASPECTS


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

A petroleum system has 3 important temporal aspects:

AGE

CRITICAL
MOMENT
Time required for Time that best
the process of
depicts the
generationgenerationmigrationmigrationaccumulation of accumulation of
hydrocarbons.
hydrocarbons in
a petroleum
system.
7

PRESERVATION
TIME
Measured time
begins
immediately
after the
generationmigrationaccumulation
process occurs
and extends to
the present day.

SPATIAL (SPACE) ASPECTS


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

Geographic extent:
Determined at the critical moment; the line that
encircles the active source rock, oil and gas seeps,
shows and accumulations originating from the
source rock

Spatial
Spatial
Aspects
Aspects
Geographic
Geographic
Extent
Extent

MAP
8

Stratigraphic
Stratigraphic
Extent
Extent

SPATIAL (SPACE) ASPECTS


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

Stratigraphic extent:
Span of lithological units which encompasses the
essential elements within the geographic extent of a
petroleum system

CROSS
SECTION
9

Spatial
Spatial
Aspects
Aspects
Geographic
Geographic
Extent
Extent

Stratigraphic
Stratigraphic
Extent
Extent

WHAT ROCKS WILL FORM A PETROLEUM


SYSTEM?
Introduction to Petroleum G & G

To have a complete petroleum system, we need rocks that will form:

Source
Rocks

From which oil and gas


will be generated;
essentially rich with
kerogen

Reservo
ir Rocks

Porous and permeable


rocks in which oil and
gas will accumulate
over time
10

Sealing
Rocks

Impermeable rocks
that will keep oil and
gas within the reservoir

Migration Pathways

11

HYDROCARBON TRAPS
Introduction to Petroleum G & G

Traps

Structural

Folds, Faults

Stratigraphic

Lenticular
Sands,
Channel Fills

Combination

Up-dip pinch
outs

12

HYDROCARBON TRAPS
Introduction to Petroleum G & G

STRUCTURAL
TRAPS

13

HYDROCARBON TRAPS
Introduction to Petroleum G & G

STRATIGRAPHIC
TRAPS
Pinch Out
(Associated to
Stream
Channel)

Channel Trap

14

Unconformit
y (period of
erosion
and/or
nondepositi
on

HYDROCARBON TRAPS
Introduction to Petroleum G & G

DIAPIRIC TRAPS
Caused by upward movement of sediments that are LESS DENSE than
those overlying them
Salt
Clay

Salt Dome Associated


Traps
15

HYDROCARBON TRAPS
Introduction to Petroleum G & G

HYDRODYNAMIC
TRAPS
Oil, attempting to escape to
surface up a reservoir, is held
against an unevenness of its upper
surface by water flowing in the
opposite direction. There is no
structural or stratigraphic closure.
Note that the oil-water contact
is tilted down in the direction
of water flow.

16

PETROLEUM SYSTEM PROCESSES


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

GENERATION

ACCUMULATI
ON

MIGRATION

17

PRESERVATIO
N

PETROLEUM SYSTEM PROCESSES


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

GENERATI
ON

MIGRATION

ACCUMULATI
ON

GENERATION:
The process by which solid organic matter present in the source
rocks is transformed into liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons
Oil window : 60-120 degree Celsius
Gas window: 120 180 degree Celsius
Burial Depth: 2.5 3km depending on the geothermal gradient and
kerogen type

18

PRESERVATIO
N

Metagenesis

Generation

19

PETROLEUM SYSTEM PROCESSES


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

MIGRATION:
GENERATION

The process of petroleum migration is


divided into 3 parts
1. Primary migration: Movement of
hydrocarbons from source rock into the
reservoir rock (expulsion)
2. Secondary migration: Subsequent movement
of hydrocarbons within the reservoir rock
whereby the oil and gas has left the source rock
and entered the reservoir rock
3. Tertiary migration: Occurs when the seal
above the reservoir breaches; resulting in a
probable petroleum seep to the surface

20

MIGRATIO
N

ACCUMULATI
ON

PRESERVATIO
N

PETROLEUM SYSTEM PROCESSES


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

ACCUMULATION:
Accumulations of
petroleum occur in places
where migrating fluids
cannot escape

GENERATION

Gas is lightest and


accumulates above oil,
which overlies water
Need the right trap and
seal rock to contain and
accumulate the
hydrocarbons

21

MIGRATION

ACCUMULAT
ION

PRESERVATION

PETROLEUM SYSTEM PROCESSES


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

PRESERVATION:

GENERATION

Hydrocarbons that are


accumulated in the reservoir
rocks are preserved in its
state and are not subjected
to tertiary migration of
hydrocarbons

22

MIGRATION

ACCUMULATION

PRESERVAT
ION

WHAT IS AN EVENT CHART?


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

Shows the temporal (time) relation of the essential elements and


processes of a petroleum system
Shows the preservation time & the critical moment for the system
Used to compare the times that the processes occurred with the
times that the elements formed

23

WHAT IS AN EVENT CHART?


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

Can be
transformed
into a risk
chart to better
evaluate a play
or prospect

24

PETROLEUM SYSTEM EVENTS CHART (Eg. MandalEkofisk(!))


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

Reservoir
rocks: Late
Cretaceous
Early
Paleogene

Source
rock:
Deposited
as the rift
formed
Overburde
n rock:
Deposited
after the
rift formed

Seal rock:
Halite, shale,
chalk
Generationmigrationaccumulation
: 100Ma
Present Day

Peak generation:
30Ma
25

Trap:
During rift
formation

BASIN, SYSTEM, PLAY, PROSPECT


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

PETROLEUM PROVINCE:
An area where petroleum occurs in commercial quantities
Basins (thick), uplifts (thin), and fold belts (folded) can be labelled
petroleum provinces if they contain petroleum
SEDIMENTARY BASIN:
A depression filled with sedimentary rocks. The presence of
sedimentary rocks is proof that a basin existed.
Essential elements of a petroleum system are deposited in
sedimentary basins
Includes: Basement rock, basin fill, traps, petroleum

26

BASIN, SYSTEM, PLAY, PROSPECT


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

PETROLEUM SYSTEM:
Includes the pod of active source rock, the natural distribution
network, and the genetically related discovered petroleum
occurrences.
Only includes the DISCOVERED petroleum occurrences
PLAY: Consists of one/ more geologically related prospects
PROSPECT: A potential trap that must be evaluated by drilling to
determine whether it contains commercial quantities of petroleum
Lead

Play

Prospect

27

Dry hole/
Producing
Field

BASIN, SYSTEM, PLAY, PROSPECT


Introduction to Petroleum G & G

28