You are on page 1of 29

SBP INTEGRASI

GOPENG,
GOPENG, PERAK.

Prepared by:MUHD FAZLI DOLLAH


http://fazliebiosensei.blogspot.com

LEARNING
OUTCOMES

To explain what malnutrition is


To explain the effects of malnutrition
using examples
To describe ways to reduce the chance
of contracting certain health problems
due to ones diet
To describe ways to reduce the effects
of certain health problem

Malnutrition and Its


Effects

Malnutrition : lack of one or more of


the nutrients required in the diet to
maintain good health
Can be caused by :
A reduced intake of nutrients
(undernourishment)
An inability to use absorbed nutrients
The failure to meet a required increase
in nutrient intake
Nutrient loses

Malnutrition & Its


Effects

3 stages to provide energy in cases of


malnutrition :
The carbohydrate stores in the body are
used up
The fat reserves are oxidised
Proteins are broken down. When protein
levels have been reduced to half their
normal value, death will occur

Lack of any nutrient can cause


deficiency diseases

Nutrients

Effects of
deficiency

Characteristics

Proteins

Kwashiorkor

Stomach bloated, growth of


body and brain retarded,
no appetite for food, weak
body

Vitamin A

Night blindness
Xerophthalmia

Vitamin B1

Beri-beri

Vitamin B3

Pellagra

poor night vision


cornea dry & opaque
Swollen legs & ankles,
numbness in hands,
muscular pain & cramps,
fatigue, loss of appetite
Dermatitis (skin becomes
red & inflamed), diarrhoea
& mental disorder

Vitamin B12
Iron

Anaemia

Lack of RBC or haemoglobin


to transport oxygen

Vitamin C

Scurvy

Bleeding gums, bruise skin,


painful & swollen joints,
weakness

Vitamin D
Calcium

Rickets
Osteoporosis

Stunted growth of bones &


teeth, weak bones
Brittle bones which easily
broken

Iodine

Goitre
Cretinism

Enlarge thyroid glands


Physical & mental growth
retarded

Sodium

Muscular cramps

Sudden & painful contraction


of muscles

Effects of Excessive Intake


of Certain Nutrients on
Health
Nutrient

Carbohydrates
(sugar)

Lipids

Effects

Obesity which may


lead to high blood
pressure, diabetes
mellitus, heart
diseases
Dental caries

Atherosclerosis (as a
result of saturated
animal fats)

Characteristics

Body weight is more


than 20% of the
suitable body weight
for a particular height
Tooth decay due to the
destruction of the
teeths enamel by acids
which are produced by
bacteria from
carbohydrate
The narrowing &
hardening of arteries

Proteins

Vitamin A

Sodium

Gout
Stones in the kidney
which can damage the
kidney

Excessive uric acid


deposits on the
joints causing joint
pain
Uric acid crystalises
& forms stones in
the kidney

Liver damage

The liver fails to


function because
liver cells die &
fibrous tissues form
in the liver

High blood pressure


Kidney damage

Fatigue, headache,
can cause bleeding
in the brain (stroke)
& heart failure
Kidneys are
overloaded with the
task of removing
excess salt

Calcium Atherosclerosis Calcium deposits


on the inner walls
of arteries causing
the arteries to
harden & lose their
elasticity

DIET-RELATED DISEASES
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
Excessive intake of food that is rich in
saturated fat, cholesterol & calcium leads to
atherosclerosis & high blood pressure.
The saturated fats, cholesterol & calcium
are deposited on the inner walls of arteries.
The lumen become smaller & the walls of
the arteries harden & lose their elasticity.
Blood flow is reduced. the heart pump
faster to produce a higher pressure

Also can cause by excessive intake of


salts, tea & coffee which can increase the
rate of heart beat, thus increasing the
blood pressure.
Ways to reduce the risk of HBP :
Reduce the intake of food which are rich in
saturated fats & cholesterol
Exercise frequently
Reduce the intake of salts in food, as well as
tea & coffee
Do not smoke
Have enough rest

DIET-RELATED DISEASE
DIABETES MELLITUS
Caused by excessive glucose in the blood & its
subsequent excretion in the urine
Excessive intake of food rich in sugar
(carbohydrates) can cause diabetes mellitus
Obesity can also lead to DM
The risk of DM can be reduced by :
Reduce the intake of food rich in sugar
Exercise frequently

DIET-RELATED DISEASE
OSTEOPOROSIS
Due to the lack of calcium, phosphorus &
vitamin D in the diet of an adult
Low density of the bone mass & the bones
become thin & brittle, easily broken
The risk of contracting osteoporosis can be
reduced in the following ways :
Intake of food rich in calcium, phosphorus & vitamin
D
Exercise frequently

Kwashiokor

Xerophthalmia

Beri-beri

PELLAGRA

ANAEMIA

SCURVY

RICKETS

GOITRE

ATHEROSCLEROSIS

OSTEOPOROS
IS

OBESITY

GOUT

HIGH BLOOD
PRESSURE

DIABETES
MELLITUS

EXERCISE 6.3
1. Explain what is
malnutrition.
2. Explain the effects of
malnutrition using examples.
3. Describe ways to reduce the
effects of certain health
problems.