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Distance Relays

Introduction

1.

The impedance relays also called distance relays are


employed to provide protection to transmission lines.

2.

They are comparatively simple to apply, operate with


extremely high speed, and both primary and backup
protection features are inherent in them.

3.

The impedance relay is made to respond to the


impedance between the relay location and the point
where fault is incident

4. The impedance is proportional to the distance to the


fault, hence the name 'distance relay'

Distance Relaying Principle


1.

A distance relay compares the currents and voltages at the


relaying point with Current providing the operating torque and the
voltage provides the restraining torque. In other words an
impedance relay is a voltage restrained overcurrent relay, also
Called under impedance relay

2.

Since the operating characteristics of the relay depend upon the


ratio of voltage and current and the phase angle between them,
their characteristics can be best represented on an R-X
diagram where both V/I ratio and the phase angle can be plotted
in terms of an impedance R+jX.

Types of Distance Relays


1. Impedance relay

2. Reactance relay
3. Mho relay
4. Modified impedance relay

Application of distance relays

1. Since the distance relays are fed from the secondaries of line CTs and
bus PTs/line CVTs, the line parameters are to be converted into
secondary values to set the relay as per requirements

2.

Zsec = Zpri/Impedance ratio


(where Impedance ratio = P.T.Ratio/C.T.Ratio)

3. For the lines, the impedance in Ohms per KM is approximately as


under:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------KV Z1 (= Z2 )
Line Angle
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------132 KV
0.4
60 to70Deg.
220 KV
0.4
70 to80Deg.
400 KV
0.3
80 to85Deg.

Zones
Reactance
Time
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Zone - 1
80% of ZL
instantaneous
Zone - 2

100% of ZL + 40-50% of ZSL

0.3 to0.4sec

Zone - 3

100% of ZL + 120% of ZSL

0.6to0.8sec

Zone - 4
100% of ZL + 120% of ZLL
0.9 to1.5sec
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------where ZL = Positive sequence impedance of line to be protected.
ZSL = Positive sequence impedance of adjacent shortest line.
ZLL = Positive sequence impedance of adjacent longest line

Main Features in Distance Scheme


1.

Starters.

2.

Measuring units.

3.

Timers

4.

Auxiliary relays

Additional Features in distance schemes


1. Power Swing blocking relay
2. VT fuse failure relay.
3. Switch onto fault relay
4. Fault locator
5. Auto- reclosing scheme.
6. Carrier communication scheme

Factors affecting distance relay operation


1.

Fault resistance.

2.

Infeed effect.

3.

Branching-off effect.

4.

Load encroachment

Feeder Protection
1) Over Current Protection
a) Time delayed non directional (51)

b) Time delayed directional (67)


c) Instantaneous (50)

2) Ground Over Current Protection


a) Time delayed non directional (51N)
b) Time delayed directional (67N)
c) Instantaneous (50N)

Instantaneous (50) protection

Used for detecting high magnitude fault current


Same time delay regardless of fault magnitude or distance
Co-ordination with down stream section cannot be maintained.

Protection for 3 Phase System


a) Three Over Current One
Earth Current relay

b) Two Over Current One Earth


Current relay

Ia

Ia

Ib

Ib

Ic

Ic

In=Ia+Ib+Ic

In=Ia+Ib+Ic

Earth Fault

E/F

O/C

O/C

O/C

E/F

O/C

O/C

Phase Fault

E/F

O/C

O/C

O/C

E/F

O/C

O/C

Directional Protection

Need for Directional Control


Generally required if current can flow in both
directions through a relay location
e.g. Parallel feeder circuits
Ring Main Circuits

2.1

1.7

1.3

0.9

0.5

0.1

Need for Directional Control


Generally required if current can flow in both
directions through a relay location
e.g. Parallel feeder circuits
Ring Main Circuits

2.1

1.7

1.3

Grading has now been lost !

0.9

0.5

0.1

Need for Directional Control


Generally required if current can flow in both
directions through a relay location
e.g. Parallel feeder circuits
Ring Main Circuits

0.9

0.1

0.5

0.5

0.1

0.9

Relays operate for current flow in direction indicated


(Typical operating times shown)

Ring Main Circuit


With ring closed :
Both load and fault current may flow in either
direction along feeder circuits
Thus, directional relays are required
Note: Directional relays look into the feeder
Need to establish setting philosophy

51

67

67

67

Load

51

67

Load

67

Load

67

Ring Main Circuit


Procedure :
1.

Open ring at A
Grade : A' - E' - D' - C' - B'

2.

Open ring at A'


Grade : A - B - C - D - E

Typical operating times shown.


Note : Relays B, C, D, E may be non-directional.
A
B'
C'
B
1.7

A'

0.1

0.5

1.3

E'

0.1

1.3

1.7

C
0.9
0.9

D'

0.5

Ring System with Two Sources


Discrimination between all relays is not possible due to different requirements
under different ring operating conditions.
For F1 :- B must operate before A
For F2 :- B must operate after A

Not
Compatible
B

F1
B'

C'

A'
F2

D'

Ring System with Two Sources


Option 1
Trip least important source instantaneously then treat as normal ring main.
Option 2
Fit pilot wire protection to circuit A - B and consider as common source
busbar.
B

Option 1

50

Option 1

PW

PW

Option 2

Option 2

Option 1

Parallel Feeders
Non-Directional Relays :-

Relays A and B have


the same setting.

51 C

51 B

51 D

Load

A&B
Operating Time

Conventional Grading :Grade A with C


and Grade B with D

51 A

C&D

Fault level
at F

Parallel Feeders
Consider fault on one feeder :I1 + I2
I1

51 A

51 B

I2

51

51

LOAD

Relays C and D see the same fault current


(I2). As C and D have similar settings both
feeders will be tripped.

Parallel Feeders
Solution:- Directional Control at C and
I +I
D
1

I1

51 A

51 B

I2

67

LOAD

67

Relay D does not operate due to current


flow in the reverse direction.

Parallel Feeders
Setting philosophy for directional relays
E
51 A

Load

67
51

51 B

67

Load current always flows in non-operate


direction.
Any current flow in operate direction is
indicative of a fault condition.

Parallel Feeders
Usually, relays are set :- 50% of full load current (note thermal
rating)
IDMT rather than DT
Minimum T.M.S. (0.1)

Parallel Feeders - Application Note


Grade A with B with C
at If1

(single feeder in service)

Load1
Grade B with D at If3=If

If3
B

If1

If2

Grade A with B at If2


- check that sufficient margin exists for
bus fault at Q when relay A sees total
fault current If2, but relay B sees only
If2/2.

Load

(upper feeder open at P)

(both feeders in service)

A
M = Margin
M
M

If2/2 If1 If2

Ifmax