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Phrases and

Clauses
THE BUILDING BLOCKS
OF SENTENCES

PHRASE
a group of words that
does not have both a
subject and a verb

CLAUSE
a group of words with
both a subject & verb

Whats the
difference between
a phrase & a clause?

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
a complete thought that
can stand alone

DEPENDENT CLAUSE
group of words with both
a subject and verb;
cannot stand alone or it
is a fragment

Independent clauses = a foundation


and the frame of the house.

dependent clauses = like the windows or


doors (they enhance what is already there,
but cant function alone)

Sentence Building
Independent & Dependent
Start constructing with
___________________.
Improve sentence structure by adding
_____________________.

Clause Identification
1. Cross of prep phrases.
2. Double underline ACTION OR BEING verbs.
3. Single underline the subjects.
4. Each separate section with a subject and verb
is PROBABLY a different clause!
5. IDENTIFY INDEPENDENT OR DEPENDENT

DEPENDENT CLAUSES
ADJECTIVE STARTERS
1) THAT
2) WHO
3) WHOM
4) WHOSE
5) WHICH

EXAMPLES
The dog who lives by me is nice.
The show that I watch is good.
Jerry Spinelli is the author who
wrote Maniac McGee.

DEPENDENT CLAUSES
ADVERB STARTERS
after
although
as
because
before
if

in order that
since
so that
than
though
unless

until
when
whenever
where
wherever
while

Examples
1. After I danced,
2. Because he was hungry,
3. Until I get an A+,
4. When I get my new pony,
5. Since I love SpongeBob,

SENTENCE TYPES
1. SIMPLE
2. COMPOUND
3. COMPLEX
4. COMPOUND-COMPLEX

SIMPLE SENTENCE
one independent clause
I like SpongeBob.

COMPOUND
2 or more independent
clauses

I like SpongeBob,

and I like Plankton.

COMPOUND
2 or more independent
clauses

I like SpongeBob; I like Plankton.

How do we punctuate compound


sentences?
1) Semicolon
2) Comma and a conjunction (FANBOYS)

SpongeBob makes Krabby patties.


(join these)
They are quite delicious!

Two ways to punctuate


compound sentences!
SpongeBob makes Krabby patties;
they are delicious.
SpongeBob makes Krabby patties
and they are delicious.

COMPLEX
dependent + independent
Because he makes me laugh,
I like SpongeBob.

DEPENDENT CLAUSE starters

ADVERB STARTERS
after
although
as
because
before
if

in order that
since
so that
than
though
unless

until
when
whenever
where
wherever
while

DEPENDENT CLAUSE starters

ADJECTIVE STARTERS
1) THAT
2) WHO
3) WHOM
4) WHOSE
5) WHICH

Whats the difference?


Adjective
Adjective phrase
Adjective clause

Dependent clause punctuation


Add a comma when a
dependent clause starts a
sentence!
Because he makes me laugh
I like SpongeBob.

Dependent clause punctuation


Add a comma when a
dependent clause starts a
sentence
When I want entertainment
SpongeBob.

, I watch

Dependent clause punctuation


Add a comma when a
dependent clause starts a
sentence
If I get a choice of shows
I watch SpongeBob.

Dependent clause punctuation


Do not use a comma when the
dependent clause does not begin
the sentence!
I like SpongeBob because he makes
me laugh.

Now, write complex sentences!


Start a sentence with the dependent clause.
Then, rewrite the sentence to end with the
dependent clause.

Use the dependent clause


starter: when
Remember, your clause must have a subject
and a verb!

Heres my example!
When Gary runs away from home,
SpongeBob is devastated.
SpongeBob is devastated
when Gary runs away
from home.

Write two more complex


sentences!
Use the dependent clause starter: if

If you are hungry,


you should visit the Krusty Krab!
You should visit the Krusty Krab

if you are hungry.

Could you turn our complex


sentence into a compoundcomplex sentence?

If you are hungry,


you should visit the Krusty Krab!

COMPOUND COMPLEX
2 INDEPENDENT
+
1 DEPENDENT

EXAMPLES
Because they make me laugh,

I like SpongeBob,
and I like Plankton.

Turn these into complex


Patrick is annoying
Plankton wants the Krabby Patty recipe

The Hashslinging Slasher visits

COMMAS
AFTER INTRODUCTORY WORDS
AFTER INTRODUCTORY PHRASES
AFTER INTRODUCTORY CLAUSES
BETWEEN 2 INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
BEFORE THE CONJUNCTION

Introductory Words
Unfortunately, I love chocolate.
Therefore, I eat it often.
Also, I like ice cream.
But, I am allergic to it.
Thus, I should not eat it.
Once, I saw a Yettie.
Next, I saw Bigfoot.
Finally, I caught a leprechaun!

Introductory Phrases
To be or not to be, that is the question.
Inside the small garden, there is a
gnome.
(prep phrases of 4 or more)

Introductory Dependent Clauses


When I grow up,
Before I become president,
Since I am so short,
Until I study for my test,

BETWEEN INDEPENDENT
St. Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland,
but he was originally British.
St. Patrick was captured by Irish raiders,
and he worked as a slave for 6 years.
St. Patrick had a dream to escape, so he
walked 200 miles to the shore.