You are on page 1of 22

Anatomy of the Foot

Skin is the bodies largest organ and
made up of multiple layers.
Functions : protecting the body against
the environment, insulation,
temperature regulation and sensation.
Skin is divided into 3 main layers:
Epidermis-outermost layer; visible
Dermis-layer underneath epidermis
Hypodermis- also called the
subcutaneous tissue, used for fat

Plantar Skin
Plantar skin is the integument that covers the soles of the
feet of humans.
Plantar skin is relatively thick, greatly keratinized, hairless,
and filled with a dense collection of sweat glands.
The thickness of the skin at the soles (and palms) is 3.5 mm
1.5 mm at the epidermis layer .
Plantar skin is well designed to protect the feet from injury.

Subcutaneus tissue
Unique fibroseptal structures
(fibroadipose) together with dense
subcutaneus tissue server as a
cushion and provider great
resistance against shearing force
during walking.

Plantar Aponeurosis
Thickned band of deep facia in the
sole of the foot.
1. Posterior: Medial tubercle of
2. Anterior: Divides into 5 slips which
pass to the 5 toes.
3. On each side: attached to the
metatarsal bone by medial and
lateral intermusculer septa.
Function: protects the underlying
nerve and vassel.

Layers of the Sole

The muscles of the sole are conveniently described in four
layers from the inferior layer superiorly.
1. First layer: abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis,
abductor digiti minimi.
2. Second layer: quadratus plantae, lumbricals, flexor
digitorum longus tendon, flexor hallucis longus tendon.
3. Third layer: flexor hallucis brevis, adductor hallucis and
flexor digiti minimi brevis.
4. Fourth layer: interossei, peroneus longus tendon and
tibialis posterior tendon.

Ekstensor Digitorum

Tibialis Artery

Medial and Lateral Plantar Artery

Dorsalis Pedis Artery

Medial and Lateral tarsal artery
Arcuate artery
Dorsal Metatarsal artery :

Medial branch.


Lateral branch.

Plantar Metatarsal artery.

Sensory Nerve Supply of The Skin Dorsum

of The Foot

Superficial peroneal nerve :

Deep peroneal nerve
Saphenous nerve.
Sural nerve.

The Sensory nerve supply to the skin of the

sole of the foot
Medial calcaneal branch of the tibial nerve.
Medial plantar nerve.
Lateral plantar nerve.

Dorsal view

Medial View of Foot

Midfoot : Navicular,
cuneiforms (3) and

Rear foot/Hind foot :

Talus and calcaneus

Forefoot : Metatarsals (5)

and phalanges (14)

Lateral View of the foot



Hind foot/Rear foot

The main function of the toenail is to provide protection
to toes. The nail unit is composed of the nail plate, nail
matrix, and cuticle.
The nail plate is composed of a translucent protein
called keratin. The nail plate is porous to water and does
not contain any blood vessels or nerves.
The nail matrix is the nail root and the sole structure
responsible for the formation and growth of the nail plate.
The nail bed supports the nail plate in its contour, but it
does not assist with the growth of the nail plate.