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Artificial Intelligence

Lecture 1: Welcome and


Introduction

Do You Know

,
Graph vs Tree
BFS
O(n)
Implication

Today
What is AI?
Brief History of AI
What is this course?

An Attempted Definition
AI the branch of computer science that is concerned
with the automation of intelligent behavior

Sound theoretical and applied principles


Data structures for knowledge representation
Algorithms of applying knowledge
Languages for algorithm implementation

Problem
What is Intelligence?

This course discusses


The collection of problems and methodologies studied by AI
researchers

Brief Early History of AI


Aristotle 2000 years ago
The nature of world
Logics
Modus ponens and reasoning system

Copernicus 1543
Split between human mind and its surroundings

Descrates (1680)
Thought and mind
Separate mind from physical world
Mental process formalized by mathematics

Modern History
Formal logic

Leibniz
Boole
Turing
Frege first-order predicate calculus

Graph theory
Euler

State space search

Models of Intelligence
Logic Models
Formal logic
Fuzzy logic
Non-monotonic logic

What is AI?
The science of making machines that:
Think like humans

Think rationally

Act like humans

Act rationally

Acting Like Humans?


Turing (1950) ``Computing machinery and intelligence''

``Can machines think?'' ``Can machines behave intelligently?''


Operational test for intelligent behavior: the Imitation Game

Predicted by 2000, a 30% chance of fooling a lay person for 5 minutes


Anticipated all major arguments against AI in following 50 years
Suggested major components of AI: knowledge, reasoning, language
understanding, learning

Problem: Turing test is not reproducible or amenable to mathematical


analysis

Thinking Like Humans?


The Cognitive Science approach:
1960s ``cognitive revolution'': information-processing
psychology replaced prevailing orthodoxy of
behaviorism

Scientific theories of internal activities of the brain


Cognitive science: Predicting and testing behavior of
human subjects (top-down)
Cognitive neuroscience: Direct identification from
neurological data (bottom-up)
Both approaches now distinct from AI
Both share with AI the following characteristic:
The available theories do not explain (or engender)
anything resembling human-level general intelligence}

Hence, all three fields share one principal direction!

Imaging the Brain

Neural Basis of Intelligence


How does a system of neurons with
specific processes, connectivity, and
functions support the ability to think,
reason, and communicate?

Brains ~ Computers
1000 operations/sec
100,000,000,000
units
stochastic
fault tolerant
evolves, learns

1,000,000,000
ops/sec
1-100 processors
deterministic
crashes
designed,
programmed

What is AI?
The science of making machines that:
Think like humans

Think rationally

Act like humans

Act rationally

Thinking Rationally?
The Laws of Thought approach
What does it mean to think rationally?

Logicist tradition:
Logic: notation and rules of derivation for thoughts
Aristotle: what are correct arguments/thought processes?
Direct line through mathematics, philosophy, to modern AI

Problems:
Representing informal knowledge in the formal terms required by logical
notations
Being able to solve a problem in principle and doing so in practice

Acting Rationally
Rational behavior: doing the right thing
The right thing: that which is expected to maximize goal
achievement, given the available information
Doesn't necessarily involve thinking, e.g., blinking
Thinking can be in the service of rational action
Entirely dependent on goals!
Irrational insane, irrationality is sub-optimal action
Rational successful

Our focus here: rational agents


Systems which make the best possible decisions given goals,
evidence, and constraints
In the real world, usually lots of uncertainty
and lots of complexity

Usually, were just approximating rationality

Computational rationality a better title for this course

Artificial Intelligence

Lecture 2: AI Application Areas,


Representation & Search

Today
What can AI do?
Representation
Search

AI Research and Application Areas

Game Playing
Automated Reasoning and Theorem Proving
Expert Systems
Natural Language Understanding and Semantic
Modelling
Modelling Human Performance
Planning and Robotics
Languages and Environments for AI
Machine Learning
Alternative Representation: Neural Nets
AI and Philosophy

Today
What can AI do?
Representation
Search

Representation Systems
What is it?
Capture the essential features of a problem domain
and make that information accessible to a problemsolving procedure

Measures
Abstraction how to manage complexity
Expressiveness what can be represented
Efficiency how is it used to solve problems

Trade-off between efficiency and expressiveness

Representation of
Different representations of the real number .

Image Representation
Array representation 2D
Image representation -- Digitized image of chromosomes in metaphase.

Block World Representation


A blocks world

General rule

Logical Clauses describing some


important properties and
relationships

Bluebird Representations
Logical predicates representing a
simple description of a bluebird.
Semantic network description of a
bluebird.

Today
What can AI do?
Representation
Search

State Space Search


State space
State any current representation of a problem
State space
All possible state of the problem
Start states the initial state of the problem
Target states the final states of the problem that has been solved

State space graph


Nodes possible states
Links actions that change the problem from one state to another

State space search


Find a path from an initial state to a target state in the state space
Various search strategies
Exhaustive search guarantee that the path will be found if it exists
Depth-first
Breath-first

Best-first search
heuristics

Tic-tac-toe State Space


Portion of the
state space for
tic-tac-toe.

Auto Diagnosis State Space


State space
description of
the automotive
diagnosis
problem.