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Chapter 16: Design of

Pumping Stations

1. GROUPING OF PUMPING
STATIONS
Pumping stations can be grouped as
follows:
pumping water from a water source
such as a river;
for lifting water (high quantity, low
pressure) from a well;
for pumping water into a supply system,
elevated water tank or water tower;
to increase pressure.

Pumping stations for obtaining water


from a water source have two types
depending on the source:
pumping from surface water (river,
canal, lake, reservoir, etc.);
pumping from subsurface water (soil
water, deep seated spring, cavern
water, spring water, marginal water,
etc.)

2. PUMP WELL
The difference between the lowest possible
water level in the pump well and the inlet
part of the suction pipe, can be calculated
as follows:

where
v = is velocity of water in the suction pipe
(m/s)
g = 9.81 m/sec2gravitational acceleration.

PUMP HOUSES

PUMP WELLS

PUMP HOUSES

3. SETTING OF PUMPS
There are three ways of setting,
considering the type of pump and the inlet
chamber.
(a) Pumps of vertical shaft sunk in the
water of the pump well;
(b) pumps with vertical or horizontal
shafts set in a dry chamber located beside
the pump well;
(c) pump of generally horizontal shaft
located above the water level.

ARRANGEMENTS OF PUMP WELLS

ARRANGEMENTS OF PUMP WELLS

REVOLUTION CONTROL OF PUMPS

DISCHARGE AIR CHAMBER

4. CHARACTERS OF PUMP
SETTING
The pump stations can be:
permanently set or
mobile (Figure 8).

A permanently set pump station


should be used if:
(a) the pumping delivery is extremely high;
(b) the annual utilization of the pump
station is high (close to 600 hrs);
(c) high operational safety is needed.

A mobile pump station should be


used if:
(a) the use of the pump is occasional
only, and the utilization is less than 200
hrs annually;
(b) the location of pumping is not
permanent.

5. CAPACITY OF THE PUMP


STATION
Pump units

necessary for
maximum
delivery
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Total number

Delivery of
spare pumps
as a % of the
total number

2
3
4
6
7
8
9
10

50
33
25
33
29
25
22.5
20

for reserve
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2

6. CALCULATION OF HEAD
To determine the total head of a
pump:

If atmospheric pressure affects the


water levels of both inlet and
delivery sides the last item is:

6.1 Entrance Loss:

where
v = velocity of water on entering the inlet of the
pump (m/sec)
x 0 = value in case of not rounded inlet part: 0.8 1.0; in case of properly rounded inlet 0.04, i.e.
the entrance loss is practically equal to the value
which is necessary to accelerate the water.

6.2 Resistance of Suction


Screen
where
x 1 = value depends
on the suction
screen; according to
preliminary
calculation can be
2-3.

6.3 Resistance of Foot Valve


which is equal to the
specific valveloading, and the
loss-factor is
gradually
decreasing along
with the increasing
velocity if the valve
is automatic

6.4 Pressure Loss Coming


from Pipe Friction (h3)
If is higher than 2320, in case of
turbulent water stream:
where
l = pipe friction constant
l = length of the pipe-line (m)
v = water velocity in the pipe (m/s)
d = inner diameter (m)
l = kinematic viscosity (m3/sec) as a function
of water temperature.

6.5 Valves Built in the Pipeline


(Gate Valve, Check Valve, etc.)
the value of x 6, for a
gate valve depends on
A/A0 where A is the
whole, and A0 is the
gate-valve reduced
cross section of the
pipe.

6.6 Pressure Loss from


Inversion (h7)
where
x 7 depends on the
relation of pipe
diameter and
radius r of the pipe
bend midline, and
on the central
angle of the bent
pipe, that is the
degree of inversion.

7. PIPE SYSTEM IN THE PUMP


HOUSE
A suction screen with as small
resistance as possible should be used
on the suction pipe.
In the case of delivery pipes in the
pump house, a velocity of 2 m/sec is
the most economic.

A suitable gate valve or other cut off


device should be inserted in the delivery
pipe of each pump possibly close to the
outlet of the pump or in case of an inflow
system before the inlet of the pump as
well, in order to cut off the pump.
Pipes in the pump house should be made
of flange joint cast iron or welded steel.

8. VALVES
To cut off the pipeline as well as to
control the amount of water passing
through different valves such as gate
valves, ring valves or flap/butterfly
valves
are
applied.
They
are
manually operated. If the gate valve
is bigger than 800 mm and fast and
frequent operation is expected, or
automatic
or
distant-control
is
needed, the device can be run by

Butterfly valve

Gate valve

9. PUMPS
Choice of the Proper Type of Pump
For water delivery rotary pumps are used almost
exclusively. For water catchment, for primary
lifting of a small amount of water at little
heights (2-12 m), and for amounts higher than
200 l/sec, by providing the proper possibilities
as to inflow, the propeller pumpisthe most
suitable in one or two-step operation. The same
type can be applied in case the delivery
requirements are higher than 500 l/sec at
changing lifting heights, with adjustable blades.

Propeller pump

Rotary pump

Multistage pump

Control of Delivering Capacity


Capacity of a pump station can be controlled with the
simultaneous application of pumps of different
delivery capacity. For one delivery pipe a maximum of
three pumps, with intermittent running, with
revolution control throttling, and bypass can be used.
The most simple is throttling in the delivery pipe (Q,
H), and thus the amount of water delivered can be
reduced according to the throttling curve. It should be
kept in mind, however, that this type of control
results in a loss of efficiency, therefore it can only be
temporarily applied. Control with throttling is not
feasible with pumps of propeller or wing blade, due to
the overloading of the motor. Control is made with
adjustable blades with high capacity pumps with wind
blades.

10. AUXILIARY FACILITIES


Priming
For centrifugal pumps, where the suction
level is under the pump, i.e. there is no
inflow, and a foot valve cannot be used
because of the high delivering capacity or
other reasons, priming is necessary before
starting. For priming, electric motor driven
watering vacuum pumps are the most
suitable. With the pumps of smaller stations,
starter tanks, or extra-resistance forming,
self-priming pumps are applied.

Cranes
To make installation and mounting
easier, above the machines in the pump
house of smaller stations a crane with
suspended pulley block should be
mounted above the pumps. In pump
stations of several pumps of high
capacity an overhead electric traveller
should be installed.

Thank you!
Reported by:
Ma. Oliva Ross T. Fulgado
April S. Laurio