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GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR

MOBILE COMMUNICATION
- An Introduction

CONTENTS

Go Mobile - Go Cellular
Evolution Of GSM
Main Features Of GSM
Services Provided By GSM
GSM Identities
GSM Network Architecture
Network Interfaces
Network Protocols
The Air Interface
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Go Mobile - Go Cellular

Limited Frequency Spectrum


In wireless communication a pair of RF (Radio
Frequency) needed per active call.
For a 5 MHz band for a operator, only 25 channels
available for use.
This way service can be offered to 200 subscribers
only.
To overcome this limitation, zones of coverage are
created, which are known as CELLS.

Evolution Of GSM

1982 : the Groupe Spcial Mobile (GSM) formed within


the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT)
to study and develop a pan-European public land mobile
system.

1989 : GSM responsibility transferred to the European


Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI).

1990 : Phase I of the GSM specifications published.


1991 : Commercial service started.

1994 : Phase II specifications released.

GSM systems exist on every continent, and the acronym


GSM now aptly stands for Global System for Mobile
communications.

Main Features Of GSM

Cellular Structure
Frequency Reuse
Hand - Offs
Remote Monitoring and Control Of Cell Sites
Ease Of Use to the End - User
Seamless Mobility
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Services Provided By GSM

Bearer Services
GSM users can send and receive data, at rates up
to 9.6 kbps, to users on POTS), ISDN, Packet
Switched Public Data Networks, and Circuit
Switched Public Data Networks using a variety of
access methods and protocols, such as X.25 or
X.32.
Group 3 facsimile, as described in ITU-T
recommendation T.30, supported by use of an
appropriate fax adapter.
SMS

Tele services
Basic Telephony
Emergency Service

Supplementary Services
Call Forwarding
Call barring of incoming or outgoing calls
Caller Identification
Call waiting
Multi party conferencing

GSM Identities

IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity)

MCC

MNC

H1 H2

Mobile
Mobile Network
Country Code
Code

HLR

MSIN
Mobile Subscriber
identification Number

MSISDN (Mobile Station ISD Number)

CC

NDC

H1 H2

Country Code
National
Destination Code

HLR

SN
Subscriber Number

MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number)

CC

NDC

Subscriber Number

Country
National
Characteristic of the MSC in
Code Destination Code which the subscriber is
located

IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)

TAC

FAC

SNR

SP

Type Approval
Final
Serial Number(6) Spare(1)
Code(6)
Assembly Code(6)

CGI (Cell Global Identity)

MCC

MNC

Mobile Country
Mobile
Identity
Code
Network Code

LAC

CI

Location Area Cell


Code

LAI (Location Area Identity)

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GSM Network Architecture

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MS (Mobile Station)
Mobile Equipment + Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
Mobile Equipment uniquely identified by IMEI
Mobile clamps on to GSM network through a BTS
SIM card contains:

Serial Number
IMSI
Authentication Key
PIN and PUK numbers
Network Code etc.

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BSS (Base Station Subsystem)


BTS (Base Transceiver Station) + BSC (Base Station Controller)
BTS:

Houses the radio transceivers


Handles radio link protocols with the Mobile Station
Connects to BSC via an Abis interface (2Mbps)
Transmits and receives voice over air interface at 13 kbps with the Mobile
Station
Commands mobiles to set Tx. Power, hand-offs.

BSC:

Connects the BTS to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC)


Manages the radio resources for one or more BTS
Handles radio-channel setup, frequency hopping, hand-offs and release of
channels.
Connects to the MSC on A interface.
Contains entire database for all cell parameters of the associated BTS.

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TRAU (Transcoder / Rate Adaptation Unit)

MSC based on ISDN switching.


ISDN has rate of 64 Kbps.
Mobile communication is at 13 Kbps.
TRAU converts data rates between 13 Kbps GSM rate to 64 Kbps
standard ISDN rate.

OMC (Operations and Maintenance Center)


The central monitoring and remote maintenance center for all network
elements.
Provides remote access to all network elements.
Monitors the performance of each network element.
There are two types
OMC-S: Deals with the switch, i.e. the MSC
OMC-R: Deals with the radio network.

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NSS (Network Sub System)


MSC (Mobile Switching Center)

Acts as the Switching Node for the GSM network


Registration and authentication of the subscribers
Location Updating
Inter BSC Hand offs
Call routing to roaming subscribers

HLR (Home Location Register)

Contains all administrative information of each subscriber of GSM network


Contains the current location of the mobile, in form of the signaling address of
the VLR associated with the mobile station.

VLR (Visitor Location Register)

Contains selected administrative information from the HLR of the subscribers


active in its geographical area.
The information is the one required for call control and provision of the
subscribed services.

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EIR (Equipment Identity Register)

It is the mobile equipment database which has a series of


IMEI.
MSC uses this database to classify the Mobile Station.
IMEI are classified into three categories.
White List : This contains the IMEI of approved mobiles.
Grey List : This contains the IMEI of mobiles for which further
evaluation is required.
Black list : IMEI of barred mobiles.

Authentication Center (AuC)

Used for verification of SIM by the MSC


Secret data and verification process algorithm stored at AuC

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Network Interfaces
Um

Abis

BSC

HLR

VLR

MSC

BTS

BTS

BSC

Mobile Station Base Station Subsystem

PSTN

F
EIR

AuC

Network Subsystem

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Network Protocols
Um

Abis

CM

CM

GSM

MM

MM

Layer 3

RR

Layer 2
Layer 1

LAPDm
TDMA
Mobile Station

RR
LAPDm
TDMA
BTS

BSSMAP

BSSMAP

SCCP

SCCP

MTP2

MTP2

BSC

MSC

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The network subsystem uses the Mobile Application Part (MAP), built on top of
the SS7 protocol.

Signaling protocol structured into three general layers, depending on


the interface.

Layer 1 is the Physical Layer.

Layer 2 is the Data Link Layer.


Across the Um interface, this layer is a modified version of the
LAPD protocol used in ISDN, called LAPDm.
Across the A interface, the Message Transfer Part Layer 2 (MTP2) of
SS7 is used.

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Layer 3 is itself divided into 3 sub layers:


Radio Resource Management: Controls the setup, maintenance
and termination of radio and fixed channels, including handoffs.
Mobility Management: Manages the location updating and
registration procedures, as well as security and authentication.
Connection Management: Handles general call control,
manages Supplementary services and SMS .

Signaling between different entities of NSS (HLR, VLR)


accomplished through Mobile Application Part (MAP).

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The Air Interface

Separate Bands for Uplink and Downlink


Uplink (MS to BTS)
: 890 915 MHz
Downlink (BTS to MS) : 935 960 MHz

GSM uses combination of Time and Frequency


Division Multiplexing (TDMA/FDMA)
FDMA achieved by dividing 25 MHz bandwidth into
124 frequency channels for GSM900
Each channel of 200KHz
TDMA is achieved by dividing each of this channel in
time so as to handle 8 mobiles per channel.

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A Final Thought
We know what we are,
but not know what we may be.

Hamlet, Act IV, Scene V

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