Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

Introduction

to
Computer Networks

Monday, March 15, 2010 1


NETWORKS

A network is a set of devices (often referred


to as nodes) connected by communication
links. A node can be a computer, printer, or
any other device capable of sending and/or
receiving data generated by other nodes on
the network.

Monday, March 15, 2010 2


Overview

Monday, March 15, 2010 3


DATA COMMUNICATIONS

Where are the data communications?


Why data communications?
Telecommunication: communication at a

distance.
Data: information presented in whatever

form is agreed upon by the parties creating


and using the data.
Data communications: the exchange of data

between two devices via some form of


transmission
Monday, March 15, 2010
medium such as a wire cable.4
DATA COMMUNICATIONS

 What do we need?
Hardware
Software

 Four fundamental characteristics:


1. Delivery: correct destination
2. Accuracy: correct data
3. Timeliness: fast enough
4. Jitter: uneven delay

Monday, March 15, 2010 5


Topics to be covered:

–Components
–Data representation
–Data flow

Monday, March 15, 2010 6


Components

Figure 1.1 Five components of data communication

Monday, March 15, 2010 7


Communication Tasks
 Some of the key tasks that must be performed in data communication
system.

• Transmission system utilization


• Synchronization
• Error Detection & Correction
• Flow control
• Addressing
• Routing
• Recovery
• Message formatting
• Security
• Network Management

Monday, March 15, 2010 8


Data Representation
 Text
Email, articles, etc
Coding (Unicode, ASCII)
 Numbers
Direct conversion
 Images
Pixels, resolution, gray scale, RGB.
 Audio
Continuous, signal conversion
 Video
Movie, continuous/discrete
Monday, March 15, 2010 9
Data Flow

Monday, March 15, 2010 10


Figure : Data flow (simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex)
Topics to be covered:

• Distributed Processing
• Network Criteria
• Physical Structures
• Network Models
• Categories of Networks
• Internetwork

Monday, March 15, 2010 11


• Task is divided among multiple computers.

 Advantages of Distributed processing


• Security/Encapsulation
• Distributed Database
• Faster problem solving
• Security through redundancy

Monday, March 15, 2010 12


NETWORKS

 Network criteria
1. Performance
Transit time, response time.
Throughput, delay.
1. Reliability
Failure frequency, recovery time
1. Security
Protection.

Monday, March 15, 2010 13


Type of Connections

1.Spatially shared
2.Time shared

Figure : Types of connections: point-to-point and multipoint


Monday, March 15, 2010 14
Physical topology

Figure : Categories of physical topology

Monday, March 15, 2010 15


Mesh Networks

A
Partial Mesh
B C A

B C

Fully Mesh D D E
E

Monday, March 15, 2010 16


Star

Figure : A star topology connecting four stations

Monday, March 15, 2010 17


Bus

Figure : A bus topology connecting three stations

Monday, March 15, 2010 18


Ring

Figure : A ring topology connecting six stations

Monday, March 15, 2010 19


Classification of Networks by
Size and Community

A company
or home A city wide A country
network wide
Monday, March 15, 2010 network 20
Single to Multiple LANs

Monday, March 15, 2010 21


Figure 1.10 An isolated LAN connecting 12 computers to a hub in a closet

Monday, March 15, 2010 22


Metropolitan Area Network

Monday, March 15, 2010 23


Wide Area Network

Monday, March 15, 2010 24


Internetworking

• When two or more networks are connected , they


become an internetwork, or internet .
• The term internet means interconnection of
network
• While the Internet is the name of a specific
worldwide network.

Monday, March 15, 2010 25


THE INTERNET

The Internet has revolutionized many aspects


of our daily lives. It has affected the way we
do business as well as the way we spend our
leisure time. The Internet is a
communication system that has brought a
wealth of information to our fingertips and
organized it for our use.

Monday, March 15, 2010 26


The
Internet
Today’s Internet

Hierarchical Infrastructure

International/National
ISPs

Connected by NAP –
Network Access Points
(also called peering
points
Or Internet eXchanges)

Regional ISP

(Local) ISP
Monday, March 15, 2010 27

ISP = Internet Service Provider


PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS

 Protocols (rules)
1. Why do we need protocols?
2. Key elements of protocols
a) Syntax
b) Semantics
c) Timing
 Standards
1. De facto (by fact) vs. De jure (by law)
2. Organizations

Monday, March 15, 2010 28


STANDARD ORGANIZATIONS

1. ISO(International Organization of
Standardization)
2. Internet Telecommunication Union(ITU)
3. American Standard National Institute
4. Institute of Electric and Electronics
Engineers(IEEE)

Monday, March 15, 2010 29


Summary

 Data communications
 Networks
 The internet
 Protocols and standards

Monday, March 15, 2010 30