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ALTAI CERTIFICATION TRAINING

WIFI NETWORK PLANNING

Confidential Information
Not for Distribution

Date: By Technical Support


Jan 21, 2015

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MODULE OUTLINE
Basic WiFi Technology
Wireless Network Planning
Coverage Planning
Site Survey
Wireless Backhaul Link

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BASIC WIFI TECHNOLOGYWIFI STANDARD

Frequency
band

11b

11g

11a

11n HT 20

11n HT 40

11ac

2.4GHz

2.4GHz

5GHz

2.4 or 5 GHz

2.4 or 5 GHz

2.4 or 5 GHz
450Mbps
(2.4GHz) +
1300 Mbps
(5GHz)

Maximum
Data Rate

11Mbps

54Mbps

54Mbps

130Mbps

300Mbps

Usage

Access

Access

Bridging

Both

Both

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BASIC WIFI TECHNOLOGYNETWORK OPERATION MODE


1

Access
Point

Bridge

CPE

2
Repeater
Indoor
Access
Point

Internet

1. Access Point (AP Mode) 2.4GHz for laptop/smartphone access


2. Repeater Mode 2.4GHz for wireless in and wireless out
3. CPE Mode 2.4GHz for wireless in and Ethernet out
4. Bridge Mode 5GHz for wireless backhaul link
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BASIC WIFI TECHNOLOGYWIFI SPECTRUM (2.4GHZ)


1. 802.11b/g/n are operating at 2.4GHz
2. Different countries have different spectrum allocated for Wi-Fi
3. To minimize the overlapping, it is recommended to have a separation 25MHz, i.e. 5
channels.
4. Example of Separate Channels at 2.4GHz are 1, 6, 11

Channel used in different regulatory domains


Regulatory Domain

Allowed Channels

US (FF)/Canada(IC)

1 to 11 (2.412 2.462 GHz)

Europe, excluding France and Spain


(ETSI)

1 to 13 (2.412 2.472 GHz)

France

10 to 13 (2.457 2.472 GHz)

Spain

10 to 11 (2.457 2.462 GHz)

Japan(MKK)

14 (2.484GHz)

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BASIC WIFI TECHNOLOGYWIFI SPECTRUM (5GHZ)


1. 802.11a, 802.11an are operating at 5GHz
2. All 5GHz channels are non-overlapping channels .
Operation Radio
802.11a

802.11na (HT20)

802.11na (HT40ext CH+1)

802.11na (HT40ext CH-1)

Spectrum (GHz)

Available Channel Number

5180MHZ - 5320MHZ

36,40,44,48,52,56,60,64

5500MHZ - 5700MHZ

100,104,108,112,116,120,
124,128,132,136,140

5180MHZ - 5320MHZ

36,40,44,48,52,56,60,64

5500MHZ - 5700MHZ

100,104,108,112,116,120,
124,128,132,136,140

5180MHZ - 5300MHZ

36,44,52,60

5500MHZ - 5660MHZ

100,108,116,124,132

5200MHZ - 5320MHZ

40,48,56,64

5520MHZ - 5680MHZ

104,112,120,128,136

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WIRELESS NETWORK PLANNINGPROCESSING PATH


Determine the coverage area
and requirement

Preliminary determine number


of sites and locations

Perform site survey


(Site Info stored in the database)

Go back and
determine antenna

Conduct a coverage survey


(Optional)

configuration should
be changed, or more

Site acquisition & Installation

sites are required


Site configuration &
acceptance test

Ok

Keep maintenance
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Taking photos
Determine power supply
and backhaul
determine a preliminary
pole location
May need to redetermine the pole, or
even, site location

ELESS NETWORK PLANNINGWIRELESS NETWORK REQUIREMEN

Target Coverage Area


Dimension of the area on a map
User distribution

Building/Trees distribution and height

Anticipated Number of Users


Potential subscribers

Can take reference to no of schools, mobile phone subscriber number, WiMax


users

Wireless Application
Voice over IP

Surveillance camera

Email or web surfing

Wired Backhaul
Uplink and downlink bandwidth
Availability and extensibility location

Installation Site
Possible site acquisition

Power availability
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SITE SURVEYSITE INFORMATION


Stored in a database for
A

reference
Site Location

Site Location Details

B
C

Site Photo
Photo of each sector view
Example Site Map

Configuration
Bearing
Downtilt
Sector A
10
5
Sector B
70
5
Sector C
130
10
Sector D
190
10

Example Site Information

Example Site Configuration

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SITE SURVEYSITE ACQUISITION

Site Negotiation

Power Supply and Wired Network Link

Antenna Installation Planning

Site Confirmation

Installation Layout and Construction Plan

Site Information Database

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SITE SURVEYSITE INSTALLATION (A8EIN)


North

0.7
m

0.7
m

1m

1m
Side-View 3

0.8
m

Side-View 3
Rooftop
Height 25m

>1.7
m
Pole base
1m x 1m x 0.125m

Rooftop

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COVERAGE PLANNINGCALCULATE DOWNTITL

The cell coverage could be confirmed


by downtilt
Assume
h : antenna height
d : distance
: downtilt angle
The down tilt angle is:
= arc-tan( h / d)

Example 1:
h = 20m, d = 500m
= 2.3
Example 2:
h = 80m, d = 500m
=9

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COVERAGE PLANNINGANGER METER

Depends on

Antenna height

Antenna vertical beam-width

Distance required

WiFi Users Distribution

Angle Meter

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COVERAGE PLANNINGCASE STUDY (EAST PALO ALTO,


USA)
Objective
Community Interact Program providing Int
ernet access to non-profit and charity organi
zations
Problem
Original mesh AP supports less than 2Mbps
with latency problems
Solution
Community Wireless selects Altai as the rep
lacement product
12 BTS deployed in an area of 7 sq. km
Blanket 70% of East Palo Alto City
Provide coverage to over 35,000 residents

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COVERAGE PLANNINGCASE STUDY (EAST PALO ALTO,


USA)

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COVERAGE PLANNINGESTIMATED COVERAGE

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COVERAGE PLANNINGHUB SITE LOCATION

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COVERAGE PLANNINGBACKHAUL DESIGN


Site
06

Site
10

Site
09
Site
05

B6

802.11a

B4

B7

B
8

B9
Hub
2

switch
B2

Hub
1
switch

Site
03

Internet
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Site
11

COVERAGE PANNINGSITE 1: PREDICTED/PLANNED COVERAGE


Predicted Coverage
Measured Coverage
0.32 mile

Site 1

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COVERAGE PANNINGSITE 2: PREDICTED/PLANNED


COVERAGE
Predicted Coverage

0.32 mile

Site 2

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Measured Coverage

SITE SURVEYFIELD MEASUREMENT IN HANGZHOU


Site 2
Site 1

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SITE SURVEYSITE LOCATION


Building Height 75m

Zhong Shan Road North

P2

Lower Rooftop
(19/F)

Two site locations

P1

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Upper
Rooftop

North

SITE SURVEYSITE 1

Antennas

A8n

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SITE SURVEYVIEW FROM SITE 1


C (280)

D (310)

B (220)

Northwest
(Wulin Square)

West

A (150)
South (Zhong Shan
Road North)

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SITE SURVEYSITE 1, SECTOR A


ZhongShan Road North

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SITE SURVEYSITE 1, SECTOR A (UPWARD)

Seeing the building from Fengqi Road (a


t 250m distance)

Site 1

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WIFI BRIDGE
A2 WiFi Bridge

802.11na 5GHz

5GHz External Antenna

Switch
A8-Ein Super WiFi
802.11b/g/n 2.4GHz

A2 WiFi Bridge

802.11na 5GHz

Switch

A2 WiFi AP
802.11b/g/n 2.4GHz

B5 Ultra Bridge

5GHz Bridge

Switch

A8-Ein Super WiFi


802.11b/g/n 2.4GHz
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WIFI BRIDGE
External Antenna Options for A8Ein and A2e
High gain directional antenna: 20dBi
WiFi Bridge Requirements
Clear Line of Sight (LOS)
Fine tuning antenna alignment
Configuring bridge distance in web admin
Common Bridge Distance: 5~10km
B5 Bridge Ultra Long Distance: 20~80km

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COVERAGE MAPPING
Coverage mapping is important step to examine the result of the network pl
anning.
Measure the DL RSSI of different AP along the path in specified area.
Tools for WiFi Coverage mapping
InSSIDer

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COVERAGE MAPPING RESULT EXAMPLE

600m

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COVERAGE MAPPING RESULT EXAMPLE


Result of the coverage mapping is used to
Adjust the down tilt, direction, height and transmit power of AP
Determine if additional sites required to add to improve the network coverage.
Coverage test is always encouraging before site acquisition of new sites to c
onfirm the new sites coverage
Setup A8Ein in the new sites temporary with tripod and do coverage mapping.

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THANK YOU

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