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Cyanobacteria

KingdomBacteria

TimelineofPlanetEarth
O2

BillionYears
BeforePresent

4.54.03.53.02.52.01.51.00.50
PrecambrianTime:TheTimeofProkaryotes

Earth
formed

ArchaeanEra:
EraofArchaea

First
Life

First
Cyanobacteria

ProterozoicEra:
EraofCyanobacteria

First
Eukaryotes

Phanerozoic
Time
Eukaryotic
Time

Microcystis

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http://www.bio.utexas.edu/research/utex/photogallery/Microcystis_aeruginosa_2386.htm

Qu
TIFF (Uncom
are need

Cyanobacterial Vegetative Cell (photosynthesis)


cell wall

mesosome

cell membrane
cyanophycean starch
cyanophycin
vacuole

lipid droplet
polyphosphate granule

thylakoids

nucleoid
polyhedral body
http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/BOT311/Cyanobacteria/CBDivideTEM.jpg

Division by Binary Fission and Cytokinesis by Furrowing

Chroococcus

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Gloeocapsa

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http://www.bio.utexas.edu/research/utex/photogallery/Gloeocapsa_sp_1938.htm

Glaucocystis

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http://silicasecchidisk.conncoll.edu/LucidKeys/Carolina_Key/html/Glaucocystis_Main.html

Merismopediaelegans

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http://www.bio.utexas.edu/research/utex/photogallery/Merismopedia_sp_1902.htm

Lyngbya

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sheath
http://silicasecchidisk.conncoll.edu/LucidKeys/Carolina_Key/html/Lyngbya_Main.html

Oscillatoria

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http://www.bio.utexas.edu/research/utex/photogallery/Oscillatoria_prolifera_1270.htm

Oscillatoria

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http://www.bio.utexas.edu/research/utex/photogallery/Oscillatoria_lutea_var_contorta_390.htm

Scytonema

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heterocyst
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http://www.bio.utexas.edu/research/utex/photogallery/Scytonema_hofmanni_2349.htm

Tolypothrix

falsebranching
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http://silicasecchidisk.conncoll.edu/LucidKeys/Carolina_Key/html/Tolypothrix_Main.html

Arthrospira

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http://www.bio.utexas.edu/research/utex/photogallery/Arthrospira_fusiformis_2720.htm

Fischerella

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this picture.

http://silicasecchidisk.conncoll.edu/LucidKeys/Carolina_Key/html/Fischerella_Main.html

Gloeotrichia

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Heterocyst
N2Fixation

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http://silicasecchidisk.conncoll.edu/LucidKeys/Carolina_Key/html/Gloeotrichia_Main.html

Anabaena

akinete
heterocyst

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http://www.bio.utexas.edu/research/utex/photogallery/Anabaena_cylindrica_629.htm

An artificially colored TEM of a cyanobacterium.


Thylakoids contain chlorophyll a (green)
Metabolism?
Association?
Shape?

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http://www.jgi.doe.gov/JGI_microbial/images/microbes2003/anava.jpg

Anabaena --a cyanobacterium w/ division of labor

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e
C sis
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iv the
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ta yn QuickTime and a
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decompressor
g tosTIFFare(Uncompressed)
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V ho
(P

Akinete
(hypnospore)

Heterocyst (N2 fixation)


http://www.acrennes.fr/pedagogie/svt/photo/microalg/anabaena.jpg

Cyanobacterial Heterocyst (N2 fixation)


cell wall

O2 block

cell membrane

nucleoid
mesosome
ETS for O2
reduction
cytosol

pore in wall
fuel input for
respiration

Nitrogenase
reduces N2
(requires
anaerobic
conditions)
http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/BOT311/Cyanobacteria/Heterocyst.jpg

Anabaena

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http://silicasecchidisk.conncoll.edu/LucidKeys/Carolina_Key/html/Anabaena_Main.html

Cyanobacterial Akinete (hypnospore)


cell wall
cell membrane
cyanophycean starch
polyhedral body
lipid droplet
polyphosphate granule
vacuole

cyanophycin

thylakoids
nucleoid

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/BOT311/Cyanobacteria/AkineteEMBlue400.jpg

ProkaryoticAlgae
Cyanobacteria
(BlueGreenAlgae)
Monera
(Prokaryotes)

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Germinating akinetes (producing vegetative filaments)

http://www-cyanosite.bio.purdue.edu/images/lgimages/oreg4.jpg

Prochloron:asymbioticcyanobacteriumwithchlorophyllaandbbutwithoutphycobilins
Likelynotthe
sourceof
chloroplastsfor
higherplants,based
uponstructureand
genomesequences.

http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/7/78/Prochloron_l.jpg

Lissoclinumpatella
http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/thumb/4/43/Ascidian.jpg/250pxAscidian.jpg

Prochlorococcus:alsonotlikelythechloroplastsource
Thisisanimportantandcommonmarinephytoplanktonorganism

http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2007/09/070905134534.jpg

Photo courtesy of George Bullerjahn and from:


Bullerjahn, G.S., T.C. Jensen, D.M. Sherman and L.A. Sherman. 1990. Immunological
characterization of the Prochlorothrix hollandica and Prochloron sp. chlorophyll a/b
antenna proteins. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 67: 99-106.

Prochlorothrixhollandicathemostlikelychloroplastsource
discoveredtodatethoughfilamentousinassociation.

Note:
ThesmallintenselyblackdotsonthisthinEMsectionoftheorganismindicatewhereCP5proteinis
located.Thearrowshowsappressedthylakoidssimilartogranastacksinplantchloroplasts.

Ahigherplantetioplastnotethethylakoidorganization,recallingthatofProchlorothrix

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http://botit.botany.wisc.edu:16080/images/130/Plant_Cell/Electron_Micrographs/

Ahigherplantchloroplastnotethethylakoidorganization,recallingthatofProchlorothrix
Alsonotetheoildroplets,70Sribosomes,andpossiblelocationofplastomeDNA.

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http://botit.botany.wisc.edu:16080/images/130/Plant_Cell/Electron_Micrographs/Chloroplast_grana_EN.php?highres=true

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http://www.orchid
rhoen.de/Bitmaps/34%20Ophrys
%20insectifera.jpg
http://ibelgique.ifrance.com/ophrys/insc1.jpg
http://guenther.blaich.bei.tonline.de/argoins.htm

Ophrys insectifera with pollinator Argogorytes mystaceu


Bergstrm, G. (1978) Role of volatile chemicals in Ophrys-pollinator interactions In Biochemical
Aspects of Plant and Animal Coevolution (J. B. Harborne, ed.), Academic Press, London.

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