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BLUETOOTH

BASED WIRELESS
SENSOR NETWORKS

Contents

Introduction
Blutooth Specification
Blutooth Basics
Blutooth Topology
Blutooth Software
Blutooth Keyboard
Blutooth Protocol Stack
Blutooth Security
Blutooth Based Sensor N/W
Sensor N/W Implementation
Blutooth Hardware
Architecture
Algorithms For Operation Of
Networks
Merits
Demerits

Introduction

Bluetooth Wireless Technology (BWT) was developed in


1994 at Ericsson in Sweden.
It is named for Harald Blaatand.
Bluetooth-Wireless and Automatic technology simplifying
art of communication.
Frequency used is 2.45 GHz, same used in ISM devices.
Purpose Originally it was build to eliminate the need for
cable connections between PDAs and notebook PCs.
Later the goals were to enable different devices through
a commonly accepted standard for wireless
connectivity . Ericsson on advent of BWT conceptualized
a Radio Technology through a wireless personal area
network (WPAN).

Bluetooth Specification
Bluetooth-Wireless technology providing
link between mobile and electronic
devices.
It operates on 2.45 GHz radio signals
using frequency hopping spread
spectrum.
Technology of Bluetooth concentrates on
short range of communication.

Bluetooth Specification
Standard: IEEE 802.15
ISM Band Frequency: 2.4 GHz
Range: 10 100 meters
Channel Bandwidth: 1 Mbps
Maximum Asymmetric Data Transfer
Rate: 721 Kbps

Types of Bluetooth Wireless


Technology

Depending on the power consumption


and range of the device, there are 3
Bluetooth Classes as:
Class 1: Max Power 100mW ;
Range 100 m
Class 2: Max Power 2.5mW ;
Range 10 m
Class 3: Max Power 1mW ;
Range 1 m

Why the name Bluetooth?


The name was adopted as a tribute to
the tenth-century vikingking Harald
Blatand who peacefully united
Denmark and Norway.
Harald liked to eat blueberries,
which gave his teeth the coloration
that lead to the nickname
"Bluetooth."

How to reduce interference?


BWT devices hop randomly between
frequencies up to 1600 times per
second.
So,if another device using a 2.4 GHz
frequency (e.g.:cordless phone) ,
then the interference with the BWT
network lasts only for about 1/1600
of a second.
By then, the devices hop to another
frequency.

Applications

Laptops
PDAs
Headphones
Wireless printer
adapter
Onboard Bluetooth
adapter.

Bluetooth Basics
Bluetooth is low powered and low cost.
All the devices follow a uniform structure
Devices Connect through network called
Pico nets.
Strength lies in handling data and video
transmission simultaneously.

Bluetooth Basics
Specification- Bluetooth specification gives
developers data link and application layer
definitions
Spectrum-Bluetooth operates between 2.4
and 2.485 GHz using a frequency hopping
spread spectrum.
Interference- is reduced using Adaptive
Frequency Hopping allowing a better
efficiency and greater performance.

Bluetooth Topology
2 main topologies are as:
i.PICONET TOPOLOGY,
&
ii.SCATTERNET TOPOLOGY

i.Piconet Topology
A piconet consists of upto 8 BWTenabled devices.
When piconet is established, one
device sets up frequency-hopping
pattern and other devices
synchronize their signals to the same
pattern.
Each piconet has a different
frequency-hopping pattern.

Piconet Topology

ii.Scatternet Topology
Scatternet consists of several piconets
connected by devices participating in
multiple piconet.
There is a BRIDGE connecting 2
piconets which is also a slave in
individual piconets.
Advantages of Scatternet :
Higher throughput
Multi-hop connections between devices
indifferent piconets

There are SO many technical questions: such as

Network Topologies?

BusNetwork
TreeNetwork

RingNetwork

StarNetwork

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Ad Hoc Network

Future Of Bluetooth
BROADCAST CHANNELS:Adoption of
Bluetooth into mobile phones and
enable advertising models based on
users pulling information from the
information points.
TOPOLOGY MANAGEMENT:Automatic
configuration of piconet topologies in
scatternet situations.

Bluetooth Software
Bluetooth software can be installed and
used on Bluetooth capable devices.
There exists different software for different
devices like PDA , personal computer.
Enables the device to use technology at
its fullest.
Best example is Bluesoleil.

Bluetooth software

Bluesoleil can be installed on


personal computer or on

personal digital assistant also

On a PC, it provides a lot of


Extra wireless features.

It also has a graphical user


interface (GUI).

On a PDA, provides basic


Bluetooth profiles such as
headset and hands free profile,
personal networking (PAN)
profile

How Bluetooth works?


They normally operate at 2.45GHZ in license
free globally available ISM radio band.
Advantage-worldwide availability and
compatibility.
Disadvantage- devices must share the band
with other RF emitters including automobile
security systems, noise sources such as
Microwaves
Solution- Frequency Hopping Spread
Spectrum.

Frequency Hopping Spread


Spectrum (FHSS)

Frequency hopping is jumping from one


frequency to another within the ISM radio band.
Efficient use of entire bandwidth.

Low Interference

Provides basic level of security.

Working of FHSS

There exists a master-slave relation between


devices.
A device in master mode can communicate with
upto seven slave devices.
Bluetooth devices work in a short range to
conserve the battery power.

Technical operations

High speed, low powered wireless technology.


Circuits are Contained on a 0.9 cm square.
This offers 1MB link with security.
Each device offers unique 48 bit address from
IEEE 802.15 standard.
Authentification is via a 128 bit key.
Supports up to 721KBps along with 3 voice
channels.

Bluetooth Keyboard

Bluetooth keyboard is one of major applications of


Bluetooth technology.
It was first developed by Microsoft in 2002.
Today most of companies offer this type of
keyboard, some of which companies include Dell,
Apple..
A Bluetooth keyboard and mouse combination will
allow the user to work at distances of up to 30 feet.
There are mainly two types in this-wireless
keyboard and virtual keyboard.

Wireless and Virtual keyboard

Wireless keyboard, called


Optical Desktop Elite offered
by Microsoft work with 2.4 GHz
Bluetooth technology.
Apple wireless keyboard is a
sleek and compact design and
makes a secure, reliable
connection with Mac.
Foldable types are another
type of Bluetooth keyboards.
It ranges in full size keyboard
to mini keyboard.

Virtual keyboard

Virtual keyboard is projected


on a flat, non reflective surface
and keystrokes are
accompanied by key clicking
sounds that are simulated.
The keyboard has 63 keys and
it measures only 295*95 mm
with a height of 3.5 inches.
Keyboard works by producing
a red diode laser light when
keyboard is projected on
surface.

Potential Bluetooth Markets

28

Bluetooth Market Forecast

29
Nov03: 100M Bluetooth compliant
devices worldwide

Bluetooth Protocol Stack

Adopted Protocols
PPP(Point-To-Point Protocol)
TCP/UDP/IP
OBEX-Session Protocol for IrDA(Infrared Data
Association)
Contents Fromat(e.g. vCard, vCalendar)
WAP-Wireless Application Protocol

Bluetooth Security

Supports Unidirectional or Mutual Encryption based


on a Secret Link key Shared Between Two Devices
Security Defined In 3 modes:
Mode1- No Security
Mode 2 - Service Level Security: Not Established
Before Channel is Established at L2CAP
Mode 3 - Link Level Security: Device Initiates
Security Before LMP Link is Setup

Bluetooth Security

3 Levels of Service Access


Require Authorization and Authenication
Require Authentication Only
Default Security for Legacy Applications

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Bluetooth Based Sensor


Networks
One such application is : WIRELESS
SENSOR NETWORKS (WSN)
Important features of
WSN:Collaboration of network nodes
during execution and Data Centric
nature.
Many smart sensor nodes scattered
in the field collect data and send it to
users via gateway using multi-hop
routes.

Wireless Sensor Networks


(WSN)
WSN consists of number of small
devices equipped with asensing unit,
microprocessors, wireless
communication interfaceand power
source.

Sensor Network Implementation


OBJECTIVE: To build a Hardware
platform and generic Software
Solutions to serve for research in
WSN protocols.
Components of Sensor Network:
Smart Sensor Nodes and Gateway

Example: Pressure Sensor


For implementation of Pressure Sensor
as Bluetooth Node, following
components are important:
Bluetooth Device
Sensors
Microcontroller

Blutooth Hardware Architecture


Bluetooth Hardware consists of 3 main
functional modules:
2.4 GHz Bluetooth RF Transceiver
Unit
Link Management Unit
Host Controller Interface

Industrial CyberSecurity

The Case of Vitek Boden

On October 31, 2001 Vitek Boden was convicted of:


26 counts of will fully using a restricted computer to
cause damage
1 count of causing serious environment harm
The facts of the case:
Vitek worked for the contractor involved in the
installation of Maroochy Shire sewage treatment
plant.
Vitek left the contractor in December 1999 and
approached the shire for employment. He was
refused.
Between Jan 2000 and Apr 2000 the sewage
system experienced 47 unexplainable faults,
causing millions of liters of sewage to be spilled.

How did he do it?

On April 23, 2000 Vitek was arrested with stolen


radio equipment, controller programming
software on a laptop and a fully operational
controller.
Vitek is now in jail

Disgruntled
Contractor

Rogue Radio

PLC

Sewage Plant

PLC

Algorithms For Operation Of


Networks

Initialization of gateway and Bluetooth


Inquiry Procedure.
Discovery of Bluetooth device and
Checking of major and minor devices.
Setting of parameters and assigning
type of devices and sensors.
Description by Service-Class Field.
Discarding of non-smart nodes.

Else, service database of the


discovered smart node is searched
for sensor services.
If no current sensor profile, then
database is searched for serial port
connection parameters.
Lastly, Bluetooth link is established
and data exchange with smart node
starts.

Sensor Market: $11B in 2001


Installation (wiring) costs:
Fragmented market
>$100B
platform
opportunity

Installation cost
limits penetration
reducing
installation cost
increases market size
Highly Fragmented
Sensor Market
Freedonia Group report on Sensors, April 2002

Slide courtesy
of Rob Conant, Dust
43

Firewall Architectures

The external router blocks attempts to use the


underlying IP layer to break security (e.g. IP spoofing,
source routing, packet fragments, etc) and forces all
traffic to the proxy.
The proxy firewall handles potential security holes in the
higher layer protocols.
The internal router blocks all traffic except to the proxy
server.

Internet

External
Router

44

Internal
Router

Statistics on Types of Attacks

% of Respondents
*Source: 2002 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey Computer
Security Institute - www.gocsi.com/losses.

Theres lot of Wireless

From cellphones to PDAs to WiFi


to Satellite-based

Wireless LAN Standards

Merits

Wireless
Inexpensive
Automatic
Interoperability
Low interference and energy consumption.
Share voice and data
Instant PAN
Upgradeable
Long lasting technology.
Easy link establishment

Demerits
Data rate and security
More susceptible to Interception and
attack
Less range
Average Speed
Short Life

Thank You