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Introduction to Sociology

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?oday¶s Objectives

?o facilitate the student to understand the meaning,


definition, and importance of sociology to provide basic
knowledge to clear the concept of sociology and its relevance
to the business studies
studies..

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efinitions
1. Sociology is Social Physics. Auguste Comte

2. It is the Science of Society. W.G. Sumner

3. Sociology is the Science of Men interdependence.


Nicols

4. Sociology is the Science of Social institutions.


Emile urkheim
5. Sociology is the study of Social Life.
W.F.Ogburn,
Nimkof
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efinition of Society
1) Society is the union itself, the organization, the sum of formal relations, in
which association of individuals are found together.
Popenoe 
2) A society is a collection of individuals united by certain relations or modes
of behavior which mark them off from others who do not enter into these
relations and who differ from them in behavior.
Giddings, F.H
3) An abstract term that connotes the complex of interrelations that exit
between and among the members of the group.
Odum H.W
4) Society is an abstract system, pattern or organization. It is not a group of
persons but the structure of their behaviors and relationships, and there is
psychic element in these relationships.
Cooley C.H
5) Society is complex of forms or processes each of which is living and
growing by interaction with the other, the whole being so unified that what
takes place in one part affects all the rest the rest.
?alcott Parsons
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Scope and subject matter of Sociology

1) INIVI AL & SOCIE?

2) SOCIAL INS?I? ?A?ION

3) GRO P AN GRO P LIFE

4) C L? RE

5) SOCIAL PROBLEMS

6) CRIME

7) SOCIAL S?RA?IFICA?ION

8) SOCIAL CHANGE
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Scope and subject matter of Sociology

’ Specialistics or Formalistic School of ?hought


According to the formalistic school the subject matter of
sociology consists of the forms of sociology
relationships.. ?hese sociologists wish to keep the
relationships
scope of sociology distinct from other social sciences.
sciences.
?hey regard sociology as pure and independent.
independent.

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Synthetic School

As against the formal school the synthetic school seeks to


make sociology a synthesis of the social sciences or a general
science.. Modern sociologists among them urkheim,
science
Hobhouse and Sorokin subscribe is to this point of view. view.
According to this opinion, sociology is the science of science
and all the sciences are included in its scope.
scope.

M
evelopment of Sociology
I. Sociology is the youngest of the recognized Social Sciences.
Sciences.
II. Father of Sociology Auguste Comte in France coined the word
³¶Sociology¶¶ in his book ³Positive Philosophy´ published in 1838.
1838.
III. Herbert spencer in England developed theory of Social Evolution in his
book ³Principle of Sociology´ in 1876.
1876.
IV. Lester F.Ward, an American, published his ynamic Sociology in
1883,, calling Social progress through intelligent social action which
1883
sociologist should guide.
guide.
V. A French man;man; E`mile urkheim, gave the most notable early
demonstration of Scientific Methodology in Sociology.
Sociology. In his book
³Rules of Sociological Methods´ published in 1897.
1897.
VI. Courses in Sociology appeared in many universities in the 1890s
1890s. ?he
American Journal of Sociology began publication in 1895.
1895.
VII. American Sociological Society now the American Sociological
Association was recognized in 1905.
1905.

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Importance of Sociology
’ Importance for Individuals
It is realized to an individual that ³  
 ´´ he is nothing.
nothing.
’ Importance for Society
Sociology aware the people with the Social realities and values.
values.
’ Importance at Global Level
Sociology tries to inculcate the people that peaceful co
co--existence and
statusco is relevant and important for all nations.
nations.
’ Importance Business Professionals
By providing in depth knowledge of Society the Sociology enables the
Business Professionals to interact properly with individuals and
organizations using the knowledge of the Social dynamics of the
Society to expand the business opportunity
opportunity..
’ Importance for Pakistan
Sociology is important for Pakistan to create Social harmony and build
national character.
character.


Relationship of Sociology with Other
Sciences
1. Sociology and Economics

2. Sociology and Political Science

3. Sociology and Psychology

4. Sociology and Anthropology

5. Sociology and History

6. Sociology and Business Studies

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Functions of Sociology
I. ?echnical Function

II. Introductory Function

III. Informative Function

IV. ?olerative Function

V. Cultural Function

VI. emocratic Function


cc
?hankou,
Good Bye
?ill Next Class

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