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Meat Contamination

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

10/12/15

Cross contamination of meat is a common factor in the cause of meat


borne illness.
meat can become contaminated by microorganisms (bacteria and viruses)
from many different sources during the meat preparation and storage
process.
Preventing cross contamination is one important step to help eliminate
meat borne illness.

MC

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

10/12/15

Cross contamination is the contamination of a meat product from another


source.
There are three (3) main ways cross contamination can occur:
1. Meat to meat.
2. Equipment to meat.
3. People to meat.

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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meat can become contaminated by bacteria from other meat.

This type of cross contamination is especially dangerous if raw meat come


into contact with cooked meat. Here are some examples of meat-to-meat cross
contamination:

1. In a refrigerator, meat drippings from raw meat stored on a top shelf might
drip onto cooked meats placed on a lower shelf.

2. Raw chicken placed on a grill touching a steak that is being cooked

MC

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

10/12/15

Contamination can also be passed from kitchen equipment and utensils to meat.
This type of contamination occurs because the equipment or utensils were not
properly cleaned and

sanitized between each use. Some examples are:

1. Using unclean equipment such as slicers, can openers, and utensils to prepare
meat.
2. Using a cutting board and the same knife when cutting different types of meat,
such as cutting raw chicken followed by salad preparation.
3. Storing a cooked product, such as a sauce, in an unsanitized container that
previously stored raw meat.
4. Using unclean equipment such as slicers, can openers, and utensils to prepare
meat.
5. Using a cutting board and the same knife when cutting different types of meat,
such as cutting raw chicken followed by salad preparation.
6. Storing a cooked product, such as a sauce, in an unsanitized container that
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Dr.zuhair Ahmed
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10/12/15
previously
stored raw meat.

People can also be a source of cross contamination to meat. Some examples are:
1. Handling meat after using the toilet without properly washing your hands.
2. Touching raw meats and then preparing meats without washing hands between tasks.

3. Using an apron to wipe your hands between handling different meat, or wiping a counter
with a towel and then using it to dry your hands.

MC

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

10/12/15

Sources of meat contamintion

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

10/12/15

Meat can be contaminated from different sources,


these include:1. Agricultural and veterinary chemicals used in primary production.
2. Natural chemicals found in plants, fungi or bacteria associated with plants.
3. Meat processing by-products; and
4. Meat additives, processing aids and those chemicals that may migrate from packaging.

5.Microbiological contamination
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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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1-Agricultural and veterinary chemicals used in primary


production;
Chemicals are used intentionally at the primary production stage for a number of purposes,
including pest and weed control and animal health.
The agricultural and veterinary Chemicals to which cattle, pigs, sheep and goats are

exposed

may potentially leave residues in the meat.


Veterinary chemicals administered to the four main meat species are mainly
1.

Antimicrobials and endo- and ectoparasiticides..

2.

Reproductive therapy use and use of anti-inflammatory drugs or anesthetics.

3. Insecticides, such as the organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids are common


agricultural chemicals associated with meat.
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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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2-Environmental contaminants, including heavy metals and organic contaminants;

Environmental contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals may enter
the meat production chain through stock feed or though the direct consumption of soil.
Stock feed is an integral factor in meat production, which may have an effects on the
quality of meat produced.
Stock feed contamination may also result from the presence of endogenous plant
toxicants or mycotoxins, or environmental chemicals.

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3-Food processing by-products;


Chemicals can be formed within meat and meat products due to microbiological activity or
processing.
Biogenic amines, such as tyramine, and histamine, can be produced
in fermented meat products in particular.
There are reports from case studies indicating that biogenic amines may present a health concern
for some individuals
.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are by-products of cooking processes and have
been found in meat products.

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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4. meat additives, processing aids and those chemicals that may migrate from
packaging.
Meat additives and processing aids are used in the manufacture of a wide range of meat
products.

Meat additives may be added to achieve a technological function, such as preservation or


colouring, and are present in the final meat.

whereas processing aids fulfill a technological function during processing, but are not present in
the final meat.

The use of meat additives and processing aids is regulated in the Code by maximum permitted
use levels (MPL) or according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP).

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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At the end of the production chain, packaging may also lead to the unintentional migration
of chemicals from the packaging material into meat products.
There is a paucity (low) of data on the levels of migration of chemicals from packaging
materials into meat in general.
Where information on migration is available the levels are very low and of negligible risk to
human health and safety.

Migration of chemicals from packaging into meat and meat products is not considered to
present a risk to human health and safety.

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5-

Microbiological contamination

Bacteria can be found virtually everywhere including humans and can enter
meat and meat products through different routes.
The following list outlines some of the most common ways in which
microorganisms enter meat products.

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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Soil, water, and in-plant environment:


Many bacteria are carried in soil and water which may contaminate meat.

Also the in-plant environment is an important source of contamination because of the


daily activities and pest infestation.

Listeria, Clostridium, Salmonella, and Escherichia are good examples.

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Animal feeds:
This is a source of salmonellae to poultry and other farm animals.

It is a known source of Listeria monocytogenes to dairy and meat animals when fed
silage.

The organisms in dry animal feed are spread throughout the animal environment and
may be expected to occur on animal hides, hair, feathers, etc.

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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Animal hides:
The hide is a source of bacterial contamination of the general environment, hands of
establishment employees, and skinned carcasses.

Studies have shown that this may be a primary source for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella,
and Listeria in cattle.

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Gastrointestinal tract (GI):


The intestinal biota consists of many organisms; notable among these are pathogens
such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, and other microorganisms.

Any or all of the Enterobacteriaceae may be expected in feces of livestock and


poultry.

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Air and dust:


A variety of bacteria may be found in air and dust in merat-processing operations at
any one time.

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Listeria is an example of a Gram-positive organism that survives in the environment.

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Vegetables (plant) and vegetable products:


May be a significant concern in the processing of meat, poultry and egg products.

A good example is the processing of frozen entrees, salads, etc. containing meat and
poultry components.

Many or most soil and water organisms contaminate vegetables and fruits.

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Globalization of meat supply:


This is a major factor of contamination resulting in transfer of pathogenic agents
between countries (import/export) such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
infective agent and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, among others.

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Also, with the increase in international travel this imposes a risk of introducing
pathogens to this country like Foot and Mouth Disease.

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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Terrorist attacks:
There are growing concern in the meat industry that terrorist could use pathogens to
contaminate meat and water supplies in attempt to disrupt the economy, health, and
lifestyle among others

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Meat handlers:
The microbiota on the hands and outer garments of handlers generally reflect the
environment and habits of individuals (hygiene), and the organisms in question may be
those from hides, gastrointestinal tracts, soil, water, dust, and other environmental
sources.

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Meat Utensils:
Saws, cutting boards, knives, grinders, mixers, etc. may become contaminated during
slaughter and processing operations and ensure a fairly constant level of
contamination of meat-borne organisms.

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Sources and Extent of Microbial Contamination

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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Animal contamination:
Live animals are often highly contaminated, or are asymptomatic carriers of
pathogenic bacteria and can serve as sources of subsequent meat contamination.
Animal cleanliness is influenced by climate, geographic location, method of
transportation and holding conditions.
For example, animals raised on pastures may carry more bacteria of soil origin, while
microorganisms of intestinal origin may be more common on carcasses from animals
finished in feedlots.
Every feasible effort should be made to prevent accumulation of excess mud and dung
on the animals, because it may introduce bacterial pathogens into the plant environment.
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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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10/12/15

On the average, feces of steers and heifers were more often (8.3-14.2%) contaminated with
Salmonella than those of older cows and bulls (4.4-10.0%).
In contrast, external dry soil(dung) was more often positive for Salmonella in cows and bulls (7.812.2%) than in younger steers and heifers (0.8-7.5%).
Therefore, there is a need to determine risk factors in order to develop management practices that
will help in the control of the prevalence of pathogens in animals and their products.

Factors to be considered includes:


1.

Animal fasting,

2. Feeding and stressing practices such as those applied during confinement and transportation,
3. Amount of roughage and other dietary components,
4. Animal cleanliness.

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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10/12/15

Carcass contamination:
In general, the muscles of live healthy animals are sterile, while lymph nodes, some
organs, and, especially, surfaces exposed to the environment, such as external hide, pelt, or
fleece, the mouth and the gastrointestinal tract carry extensive contamination.
These are major sources of plant, carcass and meat contamination during slaughtering and
processing
Beef carcass contamination may vary with season, plant design and operation,
geographic area, and, to some extent, anatomical carcass site.
Overall, levels of carcass contamination after 24 hours of carcass chilling 2.55, 0.27 and
0.12 log colony forming units (CFU)/cm2 for aerobic plate counts, total coliform counts and
Escherichia coli counts.
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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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It appears that, although animals are a source of pathogen


contamination for meat, slaughter operations play a major role in
controlling the extent of such contamination.
Individual plants need to determine procedures that will assist in
consistently processing carcasses and meat of low microbial
contamination.

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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Edible offal contamination:

Variety meats (edible offal) may carry a higher level of microbiological


contamination than other meat animal tissues, either by nature and origin, or
due to poor hygienic and chilling conditions

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SOURCES OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION

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Major points of meat contamination:

l. Non-sterile knives used for exsanguinations.

2. Head, leg, hide and offal removal during slaughter.


3. Water sources for cleaning.
4. Surface contact during storage
5. Contact during fabrication.
6. Contact during handling and processing
.
.

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Dr.zuhair Ahmed

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10/12/15

Major sources of contamination:


Hide, feet, manure and viscera.
Equipment.
Clothing and hands of personnel.
Air.
Water.
Walls and doors.
Effect initial microbial load - major factor in determining shelf-life.
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