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Assessment of Radiographic

Film Interpretation

Jim Carswell

Presentation Outline
Morning 8:00am 11:00
Interpretation/perception
Review
Radiography
Welding processes
Appearance and classification of defects
Scenarios

Afternoon 1:00pm 3:00pm


Review acceptance criteria:
ASME B31.1,
API 1104
AWS D1.1

This presentation reviews the


process of conducting
radiographic film assessments
on Saudi Aramco Projects.
Objective: Maintain Continuity
of Film Assessors

Getting Started
Attitude & professionalism
Fair but firm
Make Sure you are right! second
opinion before you make the call

Factors affecting Interpretation


Heredity/Genetics and visual perception
Can you see it?
What do you see?
Perception
Distortion
Illusion
Detection

Perception

Distortion

Illusion

Detection

How many faces can you detect?

There are eleven faces


Scoring:
1-4
8
9
10
11

average
extraordinary
above average
very observant
extremely observant

Factors affecting Interpretation

Heredity/Genetics and visual perception

Condition of the human eye

Eye examinations 20/40


Wear your glasses/contacts, if scratched
replace.

Factors affecting Interpretation

Heredity/Genetics and visual perception


Condition of the human eye

Equipment

Viewer/densitometer
Viewing conditions
Tools

Factors affecting Interpretation

Heredity/Genetics and visual perception


Condition of the human eye
Equipment
Film and radiographic techniques
Discussing throughout

When in doubt
Ask for 2nd opinion
Re-shoot
Grind & re-shoot

Radiography

Contact - DWSV

Elliptical - DWDV

Single wall single view

Radiographic film

Film processing

Results: good technique

WELDING
Joining materials at the atomic/molecular level

Terminology

Five Basic Weld Joints

Shielded Metal Arc Welding


(SMAW)
Welding is generated by an electric arc established between the flux
covered electrode and the base metal and melts the two together.

Benefits of the electrode coating


Arc stabilization
Provides gas shielding decomposition of
cellulose and limestone
De-oxidation of weld pool
Strengthens the weld - adds alloying elements
Increases deposition by adding iron filler
Slag provides oxide barrier for solidifying metal
Slag provides thermal insulation of the cooling weld

Common defects associated


with SMAW
Porosity
Cracks
Slag
Incomplete fusion
Incomplete penetration
Burn through
Lack of fill
Root concavity
Undercut
Excessive penetration
The SMAW process is almost totally operator dependant

Gas Metal Arc Welding


(GMAW)
Welding is generated by an electric arc
between a continuously fed solid wire
consumable and the base metal

Common defects associated


with GMAW
Porosity
Cracks
Incomplete fusion
Undercut
lack of fill
Incomplete penetration
The GMAW process is automated, semi-automated and
machine.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding


(GTAW)
Welding is generated by an electric arc
between a tungsten electrode, a solid wire
consumable and the base metal.

Common defects associated


with GTAW
Porosity
Tungsten inclusions
Cracks
Incomplete fusion
Undercut
The GTAW process is almost totally operator dependant

Submerged Arc Welding


(SAW)
Welding is generated by an electric arc between a
continuously fed solid wire consumable and the
base metal while totally submerged in a protective
flux.

Common defects associated


with SAW
Porosity
Cracks
Slag
Incomplete fusion
The GMAW process is automated, semi-automated and
machine.

WELDING DEFECTS

Common causes of defects


Welder-technique
Cleaning
Joint preparation
Joint design

Welding technique

Cleaning
(Porosity, Fusion, Tungsten & Slag)

Cleaning - slag removal

Joint preparation - poor fit-up


(Fusion, Penetration & Mismatch - Hi-Lo)

POROSITY

Causes:
Contamination
Moisture
Environment wind, etc.

Porosity

Porosity

Incomplete fusion - Sidewall

Incomplete Penetration

Incomplete Penetration

Incomplete Penetration

Incomplete Penetration

Longitudinal Root Crack

Longitudinal Root Crack

Interpass Slag

Interpass Slag

Burn Through

Cause:
Welding technique
Poor joint fit-up

Burn Through

Burn Through

Root Concavity

Cause:
Welding technique
Poor joint fit-up

Root Concavity

Root Concavity

Undercut

Cause:
Welding technique excessive heat

Internal Undercut

Internal Undercut

External Undercut

External Undercut

Excessive Penetration

Cause:
Welding technique excessive arc
penetration
Poor joint fit-up

Excessive Penetration

Excessive Penetration

Lack of Fill

Cause:
Welding technique

Lack of Fill

Lack of Fill

Tungsten Inclusion

Cause:
Welding technique

Tungsten Inclusions

Tungsten Inclusions

Mismatch - Hi low

Cause:
Poor joint fit-up

Mismatch

Mismatch

Weld Spatter
Cause:
Poor joint fit-up
Welding technique

Miscellaneous

Film Handling And


Processing Defects
Scratches
Finger prints
Crimp marks
Light Leaks
Chemical Stains
Roller Marks & Artifacts

Scratches

Chemical Stains

Light Leaks

Static Marks

Store film upright

Artifacts

Water marks

Crimp marks

CODES & STANDARDS


in the petrochemical
industry

What is the purpose for


Codes & Standards?
They ensure uniform practices
throughout industry

Three common codes used in Saudi


Arabias petrochemical industry
ASME B31.3
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

API 1104
Welding of Pipelines And Related Facilities
AWS D1.1
Structural Welding Code - Steel

ASME B31.3
and
Appendix 4
Film interpretation acceptance
criteria for Process Piping onplot facilities

API 1104

Film interpretation acceptance


criteria for pipelines

AWS D1.1
Film interpretation acceptance
criteria for structures

Conducting Film Assessments


Getting Started:
Attitude & professionalism
Fair but firm
Make Sure you are right! second
opinion before you make the call

Film Assessments
Quality System
Obtain a copy of the Purchase Order or applicable
legal document for each assessment (project)
Highest document in the pyramid
Agreement that binds two parties
Schedule Q & SAEP 1150
Determine the applicable Codes and revisions for
the project

Film Assessments
Quality System
Approved personnel
Valid Saudi Aramco RTFI card
Company certification
Visual acuity examination
Jaeger #1 & Ishara color plates
Approved NDT procedures approval letter from
NDTU for each project

Film Assessments
Quality System
Condition of Equipment
Sources
Film Processing tanks, dryer, chemicals,
timers, time/temperature conversion charts
IQIs number belts ect.
Film Viewers
Facility

Film Assessments
Film Quality - Guidelines
Many things make up film quality
Density, Sensitivity, IQI, ID, F, scratches,
crimp marks
Density of weld is 2-4 & Parent material over 4.0
Sensitivity wire not required across entire weld
IQI damage bent, touching or crossing

Film Assessments
Film Quality - Guidelines
ID - traceable with all required information
F for film-side techniques
Scratches & crimp marks
Black letter B NOT required
Weld spatter use one inch to verify acceptability

Film Assessments
Weld Quality - Guidelines
If the measurement it is on the line give it to them
When in doubt ask for a second opinion or re-shoot
Use film digitizer for close calls
Stay on solid ground

Film Assessments
Weld Quality - Guidelines
Use Acc/Rej straight from the applicable code
avoid second-hand documents.
Ethics Discussion recent unethical findings of NDT
contractor
Duplication of radiographs
NDT technicians not certified
Conflict of interest

Getting Started
Attitude & professionalism
Fair but firm
Make Sure you are right! second
opinion before you make the call

END