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Magnetic Field

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You are on page 1of 37

MAGNETIC FIELD

28

Sections we will cover

1. Magnetic Field of a Moving

Charge

2. Magnetic Field of a Current

Element

3. Magnetic Field of a Straight

Current-Carrying Conductor

4. Forces Between Parallel

Conductors

5. Magnetic Field of a Circular

Current Loop

We are familiar with the force caused by a permanent magnet, but even that magnetic field

arises from the motion of charges within atoms. So lets look at the force caused by a single

moving charge and build up from there.

Experiments show that the magnetic field, B, is proportional to the amount of charge, q, and

inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the charge, r. That is very similar

to the results found for the electric field. Unlike the electric field however, the magnetic

field depends on the velocity of the charge, v. Also the direction of the magnetic field is not

radially along r, but is perpendicular Btoboth

r and

qv sin

/ v.

r 2 Mathematically this is expressed as:

Experiments yield the proportionality constant, so that we have the magnetic field caused

r to be:

r velocity

by a single charge moving with constant

qv r

r2

o 4 10 7 Tm / A

r o qvr r

B

4 r 2

r

~ E field

1 q

r

2

4 o r

not radiate outward like an electric field, but forms

concentric circles around the moving charge:

r

E field

e outer loops would have a smaller B field by the inverse square nature of B.

Question

A positive point charge is moving directly toward point P. The

magnetic field that the point charge produces at point P

A. points from the charge toward point P.

B. points from point P toward the charge.

C. is perpendicular to the line from the point charge to point P.

D. is zero.

E. The answer depends on the speed of the point charge.

So, if you had two single charges moving near each other, what would the total force be on

one due to the other? Consider the case of two protons moving with the same speed in

opposite but parallel directions:

The B field at the upper proton caused by the lower proton is:

r o qvr r o qv

k

4 r 2

4 r 2

2 2

r

r r

qv

q

v

o

o

FB qv B q (vi )

k

j

4 r 2

4 r 2

r

r

FE qE

1 q2

r

2

4 o r

FB v 2

2

FE c

vacuum, but also,

c2=1/oo

due to the interdependence

of E and B fields

Question

Two positive point charges move side by side in the

same direction with the same velocity.

What is the direction of the magnetic force that the

upper point charge exerts on the lower one?

+q

r

v

+q

r

v

B. away from the upper point charge (the force is repulsive)

C. in the direction of the velocity

D. opposite to the direction of the velocity

E. none of the above

According to the Principle of Superposition of Magnetic Fields, the

total magnetic field of several moving charges is the vector sum of

each field. We can use this to find the

r magnetic field due to a current.

r o qv r

B

2

4

r

We can replace q with dQ, the amount of charge in an incremental

section of a current carrying wire, dl, of cross-sectional area A

containing n charges per unit volume of individual magnitude q,

traveling at the drift velocity, vd.

Plugging this in, we get:

dQ nqAdl

dB

2

4 r

4

r2

We get the magnetic field caused by a current element, also called the law of Biot and Savart:

r

r o Idl r

dB

4 r 2

From this, we can find the magnetic field due to the current in any circuit by integrating over

the complete circuit:

r

r o Idl r

B

4 r 2

What is the magnetic field at points P1 and P2 due to the 1.0 cm length of wire shown in

red?

If we apply the law of Biot and Savart to find the B field a

distance x from a long straight rconductor of length 2a:

r o

B

4

Idl r

r2

r o I

B

4

xdy

2 3/2

r o I

a

B

2 x x 2 a 2 1/2

For a very, very long wire ( a ):

r o I

B

2 x

Since the wire is symmetric on all sides, the shape of the B field is a closed loop all the way

around the wire in the direction given by the right hand rule:

This is why a compass can be used to map out the magnetic field around a wire:

Question

How does the electric field behave between two wires

carrying equal current in opposite directions?

r o I

B

2 r

Question

Two long, straight wires are oriented

perpendicular to the xy-plane. They carry

currents of equal magnitude I in opposite

directions as shown. At point P, the magnetic

field due to these currents is in

A. the positive x-direction.

B. the negative x-direction.

C. the positive y-direction.

D. the negative y-direction.

E. none of the above

Question

A long straight wire lies along the y-axis and

carries current in the positive y-direction.

in the positive x-direction. The magnetic force

that the wire exerts on the point charge is in

A. the positive x-direction.

r

v

O

+q

C. the positive y-direction.

D. the negative y-direction.

E. none of the above

Because a current carrying wire will create a magnetic field in the

position of a parallel wire a distance r away (and vice versa) these

wires will exert forces on each other by:

r r

r

FB I l B

r o I

B

2 r

F o I1 I 2

L

2 r

The conductors attract each other if the currents are in the same direction and

repel if they are in opposite directions.

Lets do a problem

How much force do the wires below exert on each other?

Question

The long, straight wire AB carries a

14.0-A current as shown. The

rectangular loop has long edges

parallel to AB and carries a clockwise

5.00-A current.

What is the direction of the net

magnetic force that the straight wire

AB exerts

the

loop?

A. toon

the

right

B. to the left

C. upward (toward AB)

D. downward (away from AB)

E. misleading questionthe net magnetic force is zero

The unit of current is the ampere, A, which is usually thought of as

1C

1A =

s

But it is actually defined by a 2 dyne force per unit length between two long, parallel wires

that carry identical currents and are separated by 1 cm. The current in each wire is then

defined to be 1 A.

When the cgs system gave way to the MKS system, the definition did not change, but is now

phrased differently. A one amp current is that which causes a 2x10-7N/m force per unit length

between 2 long parallel wires separated by 1 meter.

The SI unit of charge, the coulomb, is defined in terms of the ampere. When a conductor

carries a steady current of 1 A, the quantity of charge that flows through a cross section of the

conductor in 1 second is 1 Coulomb (C).

We can use the Biot Savart

r law to find the magnetic field produced on the axis of a current

r o Idl r

loop:

dB

r2

r

From the figure, we can see that r is perpendicular to dl and also that r

so we get:

o I dl

dB

2

2

4 x a

dBx dB cos

o I dl

4 x 2 a 2

o I dl

dBy dB sin

4 x 2 a 2

a

x2 a2

o I

adl

4 x 2 a 2 3/2

o I

xdl

2

2

2

2 3/2

4

x a

x a

x

x a

2

However, for every loop element, dl, there is another dl on the opposite side of the loop creating

a dBy in the opposite direction, so the y-components of the magnetic field caused by a loop

cancel out and we just need to integrate the x-components to find the total magnetic field on

the axis of a current loop:

Bx

o I

o Ia

o Ia

adl

dl

2 a

3/2

3/2

3/2

2

2

2

2

2

2

4 x a

4 x a

4 x a

Bx

o Ia 2

2 x a

2

2 3/2

Bx

o NIa 2

2 x2 a2

3/2

Which allows you to provide a stronger field without needing an enormous current.

If you graph this as a function of the distance from the

loop, you find that the B field is at its maximum value

in the center of the loop:

Bx

o NIa 2

2 x2 a2

3/2

field over a larger volume, which is useful for many

applications:

NI

B

2a

B field at the

center of N

circular loops of

radius a.

Question

A wire consists of two straight

sections with a semicircular

section between them. If

current flows in the wire as

shown, what is the direction

of the magnetic field at P due

to the current?

A. to the right

B. to the left

C. out of the plane of the figure

D. into the plane of the figure

E. misleading questionthe magnetic field at P is zero

Question

The wire shown here is

infinitely long and has a 90

bend. If current flows in the

wire as shown, what is the

direction of the magnetic

field at P due to the current?

A. to the right

B. to the left

C. out of the plane of the figure

D. into the plane of the figure

E. none of these

Amperes law

So far we have found the magnetic field by summing the contributions due to different current

elements. This was similar to how we found the electric field due to contributions from

different charges. However, Gausss Law allowed us to find the electric field for symmetric

charge distributions more easily by integrating the flux through a closed surface. Integrating the

magnetic flux through a closed surface would just yield zero,

due to the lack of magnetic monopoles. However, in 1826,

French physicist and mathematician Andre-Marie Ampere

related the current flowing through a surface to the line

integral of the magnetic field enclosing that surface.

B dl

o I enclosed

Amperes Law

relationship between electric current and

Earlier we found that the magnetic field

at a distance r from a long straight conductor was:

r o I

B

2 r

If we do a line integral counter-clockwise around this wire at a distance r away, the B field will

be constant and we can take it out of the integral:

r r

o I

B dl Bdl cos B dl 2 r 2 r o I

cos 0o = 1

cos 180o = -1

If the current flows into the page, the line integral also yields a negative value

Integration over a non-circular path yields the same result because the dot product causes

only the line segments parallel to the B field to contribute to the integral:

B dl

o I enclosed

dl = r tand = rd

Integration over the same closed path yields for several

current carrying wires would just add add each of their

contributions (positive and negative):

B dl

Bdlcos0o=+Bdl

o I enclosed

Bdlcos180o=-Bdl

For two wires carrying current in opposite directions, the line integrals cancel each other.

Question

The figure shows, in cross section, three

conductors that carry currents

perpendicular to the plane of the figure.

If the currents I1, I2, and I3 all have the

same magnitude, for which path(s) is the

line integral of the magnetic field equal to

zero? A. path a only

B. paths a and c

C. paths b and d

D. paths a, b, c, and d

E. The answer depends on whether the integral goes

clockwise or counterclockwise around the path.

Question

The figure shows magnetic field lines

through a permanent magnet. This

magnet is not connected to a voltage

source. What can you conclude from the

fact that there are closed loops of

magnetic field going through the magnet

(like the

red one)?There are no currents in the magnet.

A. Nothing.

B. There are currents in the magnet pointing out of the

These are currents caused by electrons orbiting around the atoms in the magnet.

page.

C. There are currents in the magnet pointing into the page.

D. There are currents in the space outside the magnet.

E. The answer depends on whether the integral goes

clockwise or counterclockwise around the path.

Consider the case of a long cylindrical conductor of radius r. Assume the current is

uniformly distributed over the cross-sectional area of the conductor. Find the magnetic

field as a function of the distance r from the center of the conductor.

The magnetic field inside a long cylindrical conductor of radius R is:

o I r

B

2 R 2

o I

B

Outside the conductor, the distribution is identical to that found for a thin wire:

2 r

So a cylindrical conductor can be treated as if all its charge were concentrated at its center.

Field of a solenoid

A solenoid consists of a helical winding of wire on a cylinder. If it is wound tightly enough

and is long enough, the magnetic field near its center is very nearly uniform. The magnetic

field on the exterior, especially near its center (longitudinally) is very nearly zero. We can

use this when doing a line integral enclosing one side of the solenoid for a short length:

Bsolenoid o nI

inside only

Direction of B by RHR

A toroidal solenoid is a doughnut-shaped solenoid. If it is tightly wound and its center is

small compared to its radius, the field is confined almost entirely to the interior of the

windings and is very uniform.

Btoroid

o NI

2 r

Direction of B by RHR

B dl o I enclosed 0

B dl o NI

B dl o N I in I out 0

path1

path 2

path 3

Question

The wire shown here is

infinitely long and has a 90

bend. If current flows in the

wire as shown, what is the

direction of the magnetic

field at P due to the current?

A. to the right

B. to the left

C. out of the plane of the figure

D. into the plane of the figure

E. none of these

Question

How would you show that the magnetic field around a coaxial cable is zero?

B dl

o I enclosed

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