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M.

ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Kuliah 4.

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika

Sistem Refrigerasi Kompresi


Uap Multistage
[Sistem
Tekanan
Jamak
]
POKOK BAHASAN :
A. Multi-compression systems
B. Multi-evaporator systems
C. Cascade systems

M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika

M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika

M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

lash tank

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika

tuk memisahkan gas cetus [ flash gas ] pada tekanan intermedit

flash gas
tidak ada kontribusi nya teradap Efek Pendinginan
meningkatkan kerugian tekan pada evaporator.
harus dikompressi ke tekanan kondenser meningkatkan kerja
kompressor.

M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

ercooling

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
dalam kompressi multi-stage

Kerja input kompressi , reversibel, politropik uap refrigeran dapat


dinyatakan sbb:

Intercooling dalam kompressi dua tingkat

M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

ercooling

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
dalam kompressi multi-stage

Intercooling
menggunakan air
pendingin dalam Heat
Exchanger

Intercooling menggunakan
refrigeran cair dalam
flash tank

M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


A. Multi-compression systemsKriogenika
1. Multi-stage system with
flash gas removal and intercooling
Pi ,opt Pevap .Pcond .

Tcond
Tevap

M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Lanjutan...

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
Balans massa dan energi flash tank:

M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
The above system offers several
advantages:
a) Quality of refrigerant entering the evaporator
reduces thus giving rise to higher refrigerating
effect, lower pressure drop and better heat transfer
in the evaporator
b) Throttling losses are reduced as vapour generated
during throttling from Pc to Pi is separated in the
flash tank and recompressed by Compressor-II.
c) Volumetric efficiency of compressors will be high
due to reduced pressure ratios
d) Compressor discharge temperature is reduced
considerably.
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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
frigeration system with liquid subcooler
One disadvantage of the above system is that since refrigerant liquid in the flash tank
is saturated, there is a possibility of liquid flashing ahead of the expansion valve due to
pressure drop or heat transfer in the pipelines connecting the flash tank to the
expansion device. Sometimes this problem is tackled by using a system with a liquid
subcooler.

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
. Use of flash tank for flash gas removal only

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
Use of flash tank for intercooling only

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ZAHRI KADIR
B.M.
MULTI-EVAPORATOR
SYSTEMS
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI
Teknik

Refrigerasi dan
Kriogenika

lti-evaporator system
h A single stage system and Individual expansion valves

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
2. Multi-evaporator system
with single compressor and individual expansion
valves

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
3. Multi-evaporator system
with single compressor and multiple expansion valves

h1

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
4. Multi-evaporator system
with multiple compressors and a flash tank for flash gas
removal and intercooling

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
5. Multi-evaporator system
with individual compressors and multiple expansion
valves

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika

Limitations of multi-stage systems

a) Since only one refrigerant is used throughout the system, the


refrigerant used should have high critical temperature and
low freezing point.
b) The operating pressures with a single refrigerant may
become too high or too low. Generally only R12, R22 and NH3
systems have been used in multi-stage systems as other
conventional temperatures. Operation in vacuum leads to
leakages into the system and large working fluids may
operate in vacuum at very low evaporator compressor
displacement due to high specific volume.
c) Possibility of migration of lubricating oil from one compressor
to other leading to compressor break-down.
The above limitations can be overcome by using cascade
systems.

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
CASCADE SYSTEMS
Applications of cascade systems:
i. Liquefaction of petroleum vapours
ii. Liquefaction of industrial gases
iii. Manufacturing of dry ice
iv. Deep freezing, etc.
Advantages of cascade systems:
v. Since each cascade uses a different
refrigerant, it is possible to select a
refrigerant that is best suited for that
particular temperature range. Very high or
very low pressures can be avoided
vi. Migration of lubricating oil from one
compressor to the other is prevented
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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
Cascade refrigeration systems
Very low temperatures can be achieved by operating two or more vaporcompression systems in series, called cascading. The COP of a
refrigeration system also increases as a result of cascading.

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
o-stage cascade refrigeration
system
In a cascade system a series of refrigerants with progressively lower boiling points
are used in a series of single stage units. The condenser of lower stage system is
coupled to the evaporator of the next higher stage system and so on. The
component where heat of condensation of lower stage refrigerant is supplied for
vaporization of next level refrigerant is called as cascade condenser.

For a two-stage cascade system working on Carnot cycle, the optimum cascade
temperature at which the COP will be maximum, Tcc,opt is given by:
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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika

For cascade systems employing vapour compression refrigeration cycle,


the optimum cascade temperature assuming equal pressure ratios
between the stages is given by:

Where, b1 and b2 are the constants in Clausius-Clayperon equation:


ln P = a b/T , for low and high temperature refrigerants,
respectively.

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
2. Auto-cascade system

An auto-cascade system may be considered as a variation of cascade system, in


two-stage
which a single compressor is used (Ruhemann in 1946). In a two-stage auto-cascade
system two different working fluids; a low boiling point (low temperature) refrigerant
and a high boiling point (high temperature) refrigerant are used.

Fig.Schematic of a two-stage auto-cascade system

Fig.Schematic illustrating principle of two


stage auto-cascade system on Dhring
plot

In practice, more than two stages with more than two refrigerants can be
used to achieve very high temperature lifts.These systems are widely
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used in the liquefaction of natural gas.

M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

CONTOH SOAL

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika

A cascade refrigeration system shown in the figure given below uses CO 2


as refrigerant for the low-stage and NH3 as the refrigerant for the highstage. The system has to provide a refrigeration capacity of 10 TR and
maintain the refrigerated space at 36oC, when the
ambient temperature (heat sink) is at 43oC. A temperature difference
of 7 K is required for heat transfer in the evaporator, condenser and
the cascade condenser. Assume the temperature lift (T cond-Tevap) to be
same for both CO2 and NH3 cycles and find a) Total power input to the
system; b) Power input if the cascade system
is replaced
single
The actual
COP ofwith
the avapour
stage NH3 system operating between same
refrigerated
space(COP
and heat
compression
system
act) can
sink.
be estimated using the equation:

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika

Ans.:
Since a temperature difference of & K is required for heat
transfer, the CO2
evaporator and NH3 condenser temperatures are given by:
In the cascade condenser
Since the temperature lifts of
CO2 and NH3 cycles are same,
(Tc,CO2 Te,CO2) = (Tc,NH3 Te,NH3)
From the above 4 equations, we obtain:

Substituting the values of temperatures in the expression for


actual COP, we obtain:

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


The power input to CO2 compressor is Kriogenika
given by,
Since the heat rejected by the
condenser of CO2 system is the
refrigeration load for the evaporator
of NH3 system, the required
refrigeration capacity of NH3 system
is given by:
Hence power input to NH3
compressor is given by:

Therefore, the total power input to


the system is given by:

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M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

b)

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika
If instead of a cascade system, a single
stage NH3 is used then, the actual COP of
the system is:

Power input to single stage ammonia


system is given by:

Comments:
1) Using a cascade system the power consumption could be reduced by
about 9.5 %.
2) More importantly, in actual systems, the compared to the single stage
system, the compressors of cascade systems will be operating at much
smaller pressure ratios, yielding high volumetric and isentropic
efficiencies and lower discharge temperatures. Thus cascade systems
are obviously beneficial compared to single stage systems for large
temperature lift applications.
3. The performance of the cascade system can be improved by reducing
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the temperature difference for heat transfer in the evaporator,

M. ZAHRI KADIR
Teknik Mesin FT UNSRI

Teknik Refrigerasi dan


Kriogenika

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