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DOSEN PENGAMPU :

AANG PANJI PERMANA, ST, MT

Basic Concepts of Structural Geology


Introduction of structural geology
The concept of stress and strain
Deformation and deformed rocks
Fracture systems and classifications
Fault systems and classifications
Fold and others class of structures
Tectonic regimes

REFERENCES
Davis, G. H. and Reynolds, S. J., 1996, Structural Geology of Rock and Regions :
2nd edition, John and Wiley and Sons, Inc., 776 p.
Keary, P., and Vine, F. J., 1990, Global Tectonics; Blackwell Scientific Pub.
Lowell, J. D., 1985, Structural Styles in Petroleum Exploration : OGCI
Publication, 480 p.
Means, W. D., 1976, Stress and Strain: Basic Concepts of Continuum Mechanics
for Geologists : Springer Verlag, New York, 339p.
Mial, D. A., 1984, Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis : Springer Verlag, p.
367 - 468.
Park, R. G., 1988, Geological Structures and Moving Plates : Blackie, Glasgow
and London, 337 p.
Price, N. J. and Cosgrove, 1990, Analysis of Geological Structures : Cambridge
University press, 502 p.
Suppe, J., 1985, Principles of Structural Geology : Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey, 537p.
Twiss, R. J. and Moores, E. M., 1992, Structural Geology : W. H. Freeman and
Company, New York, 532 p.
Twiss, R. J. and Moores, E. M., 1992, Tectonics : W. H. Freeman and Company, New
York, 532 p.
Additional sources : AAPG, GSA, JSG, GSP

Geologi Struktur

Geologi struktur adalah ilmu yang mempelajari deformasi pada batuan yang
merupakan lapisan bagian atas dari bumi (kerak bumi).

Kata structure berasal dari bahasa latin yang berarti membangun.

Deformasi atau deformation adalah proses yang merubah bentuk atau ukuran
dari batuan yang diakibatkan oleh stress dan meninggalkan hasil yang permanen
(Strain).

Deformation = Distorsi + Dilatasi +Translasi + Rotasi

Kondisi deformasi :

Metoda untuk mempelajari geologi struktur :

1. Brittle

Outcrop / singkapan
Laboratorium
Teoritical

2. Ductile

Field (lapangan)

Pemodelan Fisik
Pemodelan Numerik

Skala observasi (micro-meso-macroscopic, regional, global)

PENGERTIAN STRUKTUR
DALAM UKURAN

Km-Scale Fold

m-Scale Fold

Plates
Aerial Photograph

CONTRACTIONAL DEFORMATION

Kemp et al. (1995)

DEFINITIONS
Structural Geology : Study Rock deformation

Deformation = Changes in rocks caused by force

Force = Stress ( )

Changes (Place, Length, Volume, Angle) = Strain ( )

Terminology
Stress The force acting on a
surface, force per unit area
Deformation change in
shape or volume of rock in
response to stress
Strain deformation resulting
from stress.

Terminologi
Stres - Gaya yang bekerja pada
permukaan, gaya per satuan luas
Deformasi - perubahan bentuk
atau volume batu dalam
menanggapi stres
Regangan - deformasi akibat stres.

BASIC CONCEPTS
STRESS
UNDERSTANDING MECHANISM

DYNAMICS ANALYSIS

STRAIN
QUANTIFICATION DEFORMATION

KINEMATICS ANALYSIS

Balancing Cross-sections
Basin Reconstructions

STRESS versus STRAIN


STRESS

STRAIN
RHEOLOGY

LITHOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY

Rock Strength

STRESS AND STRAIN


Stress : Forces action on rocks
Compressive - Pushing together
Tensional - Pulling apart
Shear - Parallel but opposite forces

Strain : Change in size or shape due to


stress
Plastic versus Brittle

Tekanan dan Regangan


Tekanan : Kekuatan tindakan pada batu
Tekan - Mendorong bersama
Tensional - Menarik terpisah
Geser - Paralel tetapi kekuatan sebaliknya.
Regangan: Perubahan ukuran atau bentuk
karena stres
Plastik dibandingkan Rapuh

Stress
Uniform

: - compressional

Differential : - compressional
- tensional
- shear

Types of Stress

Uniform stress :
equal force applied
in each direction

Types of Stress
Differential
stress : force
applied is greater
in one direction

Tipe Tegangan
Tegangan Seragam (umum) : gaya
yang sama diterapkan di setiap arah
Tegangan Tidak Seragam : gaya
yang diberikan lebih besar dalam
satu arah

Types of Differential Stress

BEHAVIOR

Elastic

15-4

Geologi Struktur
Bidang Kontak

Bidang ketidakselarasan
Intrusi (dike, sill, batolit, lakolit)

Struktur Primer
Bidang Perlapisan
Struktur Sedimen

Struktur Sekunder

Kekar, Sesar dan Perlipatan


Cleavage, Foliasi dan Lineasi

PRIMARY STRUCTURES

SECONDARY STRUCTURES

Formation of Fractures
3

A. Tension
fracture

B. Longitudinal
splitting

C. Extension
fracture

D. Conjugate
shear fracture

Relationship between fracture types and stress from rock experiments

Deformation : Formation of Fractures


Ductile

Brittle

Formation of Fractures

breaks

15-2b

flows

http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/GeologicalDiagrams1.html

Relationship Between Fault Plane and


Orientation of Principal Stress (S)

Smax = 1
SInt = 2
Smin = 3

Lowell (1985)

FAULT GEOMETRIES AND CLASSIFICATION


Andersons Dynamic Fault Classification
Separation Classification
Slip Classification
Dip-slip
faults

Hanging wall
block

Hanging wall
block
Dip-slip
faults

Foot wall
block

A. Normal

Foot wall
block

B. Thrust

Obliqueslip
faults

E. Sinistral-normal

C. Right-lateral, or dextral D. Left-lateral, or sinistral


Rotational
faults

F. Sinistral-reverse

G.

FRACTURES
Fracture : a break in rock due to brittle
behavior to stress
Joint : A fracture with no displacement
Joint Sets : multiple joints oriented
parallel to one another, in response to
regional stress
Groundwater flow, hydrothermal ore
deposits
Fault : A fracture with displacement

Pecahan
Pecahan : Rekahan di batu karena perilaku
tegangan
Kekar : Sebuah pecahan/hancuran tanpa
perpindahan
Kekar Berpasangan: Beberapa pecahan
berorientasi sejajar satu sama lain, dalam
menanggapi tegangan daerah
Aliran air tanah, deposit bijih hidrotermal
Sesar : Pecahan dengan perpindahan

FRACTURES AND JOINTS

F A U L T S
Dip-Slip Fault : movement is parallel to
the dip of the fault (up and down)
Strike-Slip Fault : movement is
perpendicular to the dip of the fault
(back and forth)
Oblique-Slip Fault : combination of
dip-slip and strike-slip
Hanging Wall & Foot Wall : Hanging
wall is over the foot wall

FAULTS

SESAR TURUN (NORMAL FAULT)

SESAR TURUN
(NORMAL FAULT)

SESAR TURUN (NORMAL FAULT)

SESAR TURUN (NORMAL FAULT)

SESAR TURUN (NORMAL FAULT)

SESAR NAIK
(REVERSE FAULT)

SESAR NAIK (REVERSE FAULT)

SESAR SUNGKUP (THRUST FAULT)

THRUST FAULT
(DUPLEX FAULT)

FAULTING AND FOLDING

SESAR MENDATAR
(STRIKE SLIP FAULT)

RIGHT LATERAL STRIKE SLIP FAULTS

LIPATAN (FOLDS)
Fold : bend or wave-like feature in layered
rock, from plastic behavior of stress
Anticline : Upward arching fold
Syncline : Downward arching fold
Hinge Line : Axis of the fold of the folded
layer
Axial Plane : Plane with all of the hinge
lines of a fold
Limb : Portion of layer between hinge lines

LIPATAN
Lipat: Bentuk melengkung atau gelombang-seperti
di batuan berlapis, dari perilaku tegangan batuan
yang bersifat plastik
Antiklin: melengkung atau melipat keatas
Sinklin: melengkung atau melipat kebawah
Hinge Line: Puncak dari lipatan dari lapisan dilipat
Axial Plane: Bidang dengan semua lini puncak
lipatan
Limb (Sayap lipatan) : Lapisan antara hinge lines

LIPATAN (FOLDS)

LIPATAN (FOLDS)

Deformation caused primarily by compression stress


acting on ductile rocks.
http://www.uta.edu/geology/Geohomepage/98%20research.htm

LIPATAN (FOLDS)

PLUNGING
FOLDS

DOMES &
BASINS
Structural dome upward arching circular
structure.
Structural basin downward arching
circular structure.

15-16

REGIONAL SCALE FOLDS

OUTCROP SCALE FOLDS

Salah satu contoh perlipatan

Basic Fundamental Structural Geology


STRESS ( ) AND STRAIN ( )

As Geologist I dont believe in stress (John Ramsay)

SEISMIC DATA

GEOLOGIC MAPS
Map : Surficial two-dimensional
representation of the underlying geologic
structures with the use of standard symbols
and patterns
Cross-Section : Vertical slice through the
earth, like a road cut in the mountains.
Fence Diagram : Several cross-sections in a
area from different views
Block Diagram : Geologic Map with two
Cross-Sections

Peta Geologi
Peta: representasi dua dimensi permukaan
dari struktur geologi yang mendasari dengan
penggunaan simbol-simbol dan pola standar
Cross-Section: slice vertikal melalui bumi,
seperti jalan memotong di pegunungan.
Fence Diagram: Beberapa lintas-bagian di
daerah dari pandangan yang berbeda
Blok Diagram: Geologi Peta dengan dua
Bagian Belahan

Geologic Map

Geologic Profile
Geologic
Cross Section

GEOLOGIC MAP
and section

Measuring Deformation in the Rocks


Strike & Dip

APLIKASI STRUKTUR GEOLOGI

PETROLEUM TRAPS

Salt Dome
NORMAL
Faults
Anticline

PETROLEUM TRAPS

ANTICLINE