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Chapter 6

THE
RESEARCH

The word

RESEARCH

CAME FROM THE OLD FRENCH WORD

CERCHER
Which means to seek for
The word REASEARCH was
introduce in 1577 to mean act of
searching closely (Harper ,2001).

Fundamental Concepts

DEFINITIO
N
OF
RESEARC

Calderon and Gonzales


as cited by Gonzales (2006) As a
purposive, systematic and scientific
process of gathering, analyzing,
classifying, organizing, Presenting,
and interpreting data for a solution
of a problem for prediction, for
invention, for the discovery Of truth,
or for the expansion of verification
of existing knowledge all for the
preservation and improvement of
the
quality of human life

AQUINO (2002)
Defines as the systematic
search for pertinent information
of a specific topic or problem.
After a careful, systematized
research. After a careful,
systematized research for
pertinent information or data on
a specific topic or problem and
after the research worker has
analyzed and interpreted the
data, he actually faces another
essential task-that of preparing
the research reports.

CRAWFORD
Research is simply a systematic
(2001)
and refined technique of thinking,
employing specialized tools,
instruments and procedures in
order to obtain a more adequate
solution of a problem. From a
problem, the researcher collects
data or facts, analyzes these
critically, and exercise of opinion. It
evolves from a genuine desire to
know not only what but how much,
and measurement is therefore a
central future of it.

Therefore, RESEARCH
is a systematic,
exhaustive process of
proving
a certain phenomena
through scientific
method of analysis.

PURPOSE
S OF
RESEARC
H

1. TO
DISCOVER
NEW FACTS
ABOUT
KNOWN
PHENOMENA

2. TO PROVIDE
BASIS FOR
DECISION MAKING
IN BUSSINESS ,
INDUSTRY ,
EDUCATION
GOVERNMENT
AND IN OTHER

3.TO
FIND
ANSWER
S

4. TO
IMPROVE
EXISTING
TECHNIQUES
AND DEVELOP
NEW
INSTRUMENTS

5. TO
EXPAND
OR
VERIFY
EXISTING

6. TO
SATISFY
RESEARCH
ES
CURIOSITY

CHARACTERISTICS
OF
RESEARCH

1. RESEARCH IS
SYSTEMATIC

-this implies that


research follows
procedures/steps that
cannot be undertaken
haphazardly but in certain
logical and orderly
Sequence.

a.Find a topic
b.Narrow the topic
c.Determine, locate, and
gather the kinds of
information that are needed
to solve your problem.
d. Organize the
materials/information
obtained from various
sources.
e. Analyze and interpret the
collected information

2. RESEARCH IS
PROBLEM ORIENTED
-the ultimate goal of
research is to provide an
answer/solution to the
question to posed at the
beginning in the inquiry

3. RESEARCH IS
EMPIRICAL
-research must be
based on observable
experience

4. RESEARCH IS
OBJECTIVE

-research must be free of


personal bias. Manipulating
data such as deliberately
hiding some information or
highlighting something
contrary to the true experience
should be avoided.

Overcoming
the
5. RESEARCH IS
Barriers
METHODOLOGICAL

-research follows a certain


methodology or a combination of
methodologies determined by the
problem. The methodology explains
the design of the research, the
instruments needed in the research,
the kind of participants suited for the
research- in short, the procedures of
data collection and analysis.

TYPES
OF
RESEARCH

1.Application
2.Objective
3.Types of information
sought,
4.methodology, and
5.historical

1.APPLICATIO
PLANNING TOOLS
NQUANTITATIVE
-research classified
under application may
be pure research or
applied research.

1. Applied research -is geared

toward the practical application


of knowledge involves developing
and testing theories and
hypotheses that are
intellectually Challenging to the
researcher but have may not have
practical application at the
present time
or+in
the future
E=(O
(4*M)
+P)/
(BAILEY 1978)
6

EA = ( 1 + (4*2 ) +
3)/6=

OBJECTIVE
-a research based on
objectives account s for
what the researcher
endeavors to do.

2. OBJECTIVES
A research based
in objectives accounts
for what The researcher
endeavors
to do.
-

TYPES OF PLANNING TOOLS

4 TYPES
OF
RESEARCH

1. DESCRIPTIVE
RESEARCH

-describes systematically
situation,
phenomenon, a problem
community,
event, attitudes,
characteristics, etc.

2. CORRELATIONA
RESEARCH

discover or establi
the existence
Of a relationship
or association.
-

3. EXPLANATORY
RESEARCH
- this clarifies why
and how there is a
relationship between
variables.

4. EXPLORATORY
RESEARCH
-this investigates the
possibility of carrying
out a particular study.
This sometimes called
"feasibility study.

TYPES OF
INFORMATIO
N SOUGHT

TWO
TYPES

1.QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH

- is geared to ascertain
magnitude of the variation that
use helps quantity the magnitude
of an association or relationship.

2. QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH

-it places greater emphasis on


holistic description that is to say,
describing what goes on in
particular situation rather than
determining correlations,
comparing effects of variables, or
describing attitudes and behaviors
via survey.

METHODOLOGIES
- based on methodology
are experimental,
correlational, survey,
ethnographic, and
historical.

METHODS
OF
RESEARCH

EXPERIMENTA
L RESEARCH

-attempts to influence a
particular
variable, and is used to test
hypotheses that
involve cause
and effect relationship

CORRELATIONA
L RESEARCH
-the association or
relationships among
without any attempt to
control/manipulate
them.

CAUSAL COMPARATIVE
RESEARCH
- determines the
causes or
consequences of
differences that
already exist between
and among groups of
people.

SURVEYS RESEARCH
-help describe the
characteristics of
population, through direct
administration of
questionnaires, mail,
telephone and or personal
interviews.

ETHNOGRAPHIC
RESEARCH
-emphasizes
documenting
experiences of people
by observing and
interviewing them.

HISTORICAL
RESEARCH
-focuses on the past by
studying documents of the
period, examining relics,
and interviewing people
who lived during the time.

PRELIMINARY
PAGES

-include the title


page that includes the
title, the name of
researcher, and the
date . The title page is
followed by the
acknowledgement,
abstract and the table
of contents.

PRELIMINARY
PAGES

TITLE
-identifiers the
research and tells
the reader what
the study is all
about.

A GOOD
TITLE
SHOULD
BE:

-Short; preferably
not more than 14
words or two
lines in inverted
pyramid format.

-Reflective of
the content,
problem, and
the main
variables to be
studied.

- free of
value
judgment

-It must be
clear and
descriptive

-it must be
correctly
worded and
edited

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
-it contains
expressions of
appreciation to the
people, groups which the
writer wishes to think for
assistance and guidance
in the completion of the
study. Expressed simply,
honesty, sincerely and
tactfully.

DEDICATION
-is an optional part
of a research report.
The style of writing
a dedication
depends upon the
researchers taste
and style.

TABLE OF
CONTENTS
-tables shows the
subjects covered in
the study and the
corresponding
pages where they
can be found.

LIST OF TABLES
AND FIGURES

this is a space that covers


the role of tables use in the
study/investigation . the list
of tables should contain the
table number, table, title
and page.
-

ABSTRACT

-can be defined as a summary


of the paper/document.
It should be a single paragraph
of 100 to 200 words. An abstract should
be self contained. That
should contain no bibliographic,
figure, or table references

ABSTRACT
SHOULD:

state the principal


objectives
and scope of
investigation
described the methodology
employed
summarize the result
State the principal
conclusions

BODY
OF
THE
PAPER

INTRODUCTION
-gives sufficient background
information to allow the reader
to understand
the results of the present study
without needing to refer to
previous
publications on the topic/
present study.

INTRODUCTION
ALSO PROVIDES THE:
-Rationale/ justification for
choosing the study
-Background of the study
-Purpose in writing
-Statement of the problem
-Significance of the study
-Terms to be unlocked/definition of
terms
-Scope and limitation of the study

A GOOD
INTRODUCTION
SHOULD:
-Tell the background of
the problem
-Show the rationale or
justification for choosing
the study
-Present the research
gap that can be filled by
the study

STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM
-There are two problems to
be stated: the major problem
and the minor problems or sub
problems. Usually, the general
problem starts with phrases:
The study while the subproblems start with;
Specifically, this study.

THE RESEARCH
PROBLEM
-states the question or
question that the study hopes
to answer. It should be
relevant to times, measurable
and testable, and linked to a
certain theory or principle

THE
RESEARCH
OBJECTIVE
S

A GOOD OBJECTIVE
SHOULD BE:
-Consistent with the
research problem
-Able to include major
variables
-Specific in citing
variables that can be
measured
-Clearly stated and
logically presented

SCOPE AND
DELIMITATION OF THE
STUDY

-States the coverage of the


study in terms of location and
the type and size of
respondents to be studied. It
delimits the study in terms of
size and area coverage.

DEFINITION OF
TERMS
-Used in the research study
must be defined for clearer
understanding by the readers.
Can be defined lexically,
authoritatively or operationally.
If the term is lexically or
authoritatively defined, the
source must be cited

GUIDANCE FOR THE DEFINITION OF


TERMS

-There must be an introductory sentence/


paragraph before stating to define the
terms.
-Terms should be arranged alphabetically.
-Always indent the terms.
-Emphasize the terms to be defined by a
bold print.

-The term to be defined is


followed by a period (.); a
consistent format must be
followed all throughout.
-Do not number the terms being
defined.
-Do not capitalize the terms,
only the first letter is
capitalized.

REVIEW OF
RELATED
LITERATURE

GUIDES IN CONDUCTING A
REVIEW OF EXISTING
RESEARCH
1.What type of research has been done in
the area?
2.What has been found in previous
studies?
3.What suggestions do other researchers
make for further study?
4.What has not been investigated?
5.How can the proposed study and further
to our knowledge of the area?
6.What research methods were used in
the previous studies?

FRAMEWORK OF THE
STUDY
-is a set of concepts
that are logically and
sequentially arranged
to explain and predict
the occurrence of a
certain phenomenon.

CHARACTERISTIC
OF A GOOS
FRAMEWORK
-Shows the order of
relationships of the variables
found in the study
objectives
-Takes into consideration
related literature on the key
variables
-Presents all findings
regardless of whether they
support the study or not

METHODOLOGY
-The research study
discusses that design,
People involved
Procedure followed
Tools and instruments used

RESEARCH
DESIGN
-Everything the researcher will
do from writing the objectives or
hypotheses and their operational
implications to the final data.

ELEMENTS:
-An outline of scheme
showing how the variables
under study will be
manipulated or observed;
-A sampling design
-A data gathering plan; and
-A plan of analysis of
collected data

RESULTS
-The findings of the
study are discussed
intensively in this part.
Tables, graphs and the
like are used to
facilitate the
presentation of results.

DISCUSSIO
N -Meanings of the
findings and
implications of the
research study are
discussed in this part.

CONCLUSION
-Generalizations brought
out from the study are
given in this part of the
paper. Conclusions derived
from the results and
discussions are
stated.Recomendation or
actions to be taken are also
included.

BIB

LIO

GR

AP

HY

TYPING
INSTRUCTIONS
The first page of the bibliography
should have the word Bibliography
centered and in capital letters on the 8 th
single space from the top of the paper.
The entries in the bibliography are
arranged in underhand, single spaced
form, with double spacing between
spaces.
Each entry begins flush with the left
margin and the second and ensuing lines
are intended seven spaces.

The first entry in the bibliography is


placed one double space below the
title. If, however, the next element of
the bibliography is a group (category)
heading, it should place three single
spaces below the title. The first entry
typed in a double space below the
category heading.
The bibliography is derived into
category if it is long. S a rule, a
bibliography containing fewer than 20
titles should not be subdivided into
categories.
Within the bibliography, category
headings are separated from preceding

REFERENCES
-are arranged in each
division of a divided
bibliography in alphabetical
order.
If the bibliographic entries are
annotated, the annotation
should be typed in single
spacing and should begin on
the line following the entry
proper. Annotation is not
required for all entries.

OTHER
IMPORTANT
REMINDERS
(REGARDING FORM)

If no specific format is
provided, use the following:
Use one inch margins on
standard 8.5 by 11 inch
paper.
Use 12 point font and double
space the text.

HOW TO
EVALUATE
RESEARCH
SOURCES

WEB SOURCES

-because the internet and the world


wide web are easy to use and accessible,
web material is volatile-it changes,
becomes outdated, or is deleted.
its lack of consistency and sometimes
crude form make web information
suspect for people who use it for
research.
because there is frequently no quality
control over web information, you must
critically evaluate all the resources.

GUIDELINES
IN
EVALUATING
INTERNET
SOURCES

AUTHORITY:
-Is the authority in this
material clear and legitimate?
Is the writer
qualified?

ACCURACY:
-Can the factual
information be verified by
legitimate authority?
Can one
opinion be verified against
another?

OBJECTIVITY:
-Is the material
objective and free
from advertising, bias,
and hidden Agenda?

CURRENCY:
-Is the material
complete updated
frequently to ensure
Currency?
Does the
material reflect the most
up-to-date research?


COVERAG
E -Is the material

complete, partial, or out of


context?
If the material is
out of context, is there a
path to find the source?
If the material is out of
copyright, has it been
updated to make it more

END

GROUP 3
AGUSTIN,JOHN LLOYD S.
LADIA,JEFFREY
CHETTRI, TIJANNA
MANGAHAS, ANJANETTE
TOMAS, JOAN