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Counting

Techniques
PERMUTATION/COMBINATIO
N

REVIEW

#1
How many
times are
you asked to
choose/decid
e?

Counting Techniques

#2
For each
decision you
make, how
many
choices
Counting
Techniques
available?

Sample Space
A sample space is
made up of all possible
outcomes
in
an
experiment.

Fundamental Principle
of Counting (FCP)
If one thing can occur in m ways
and a second thing in n ways,
and a third thing in p ways, and
so on, then the sequence of
things can occur in (m)(n)(p)...
ways.

Example 1
Three coins are tossed. How
many outcomes are possible?

8 outcomes

Example 2
A movie theater sells 4 sizes
of popcorn (S, M, L, and XL)
with 3 choices of flavors
(BBQ, Cheese and Butter).
How many possible ways
can a bag of popcorn be
12
ways
purchased?

Example 3
A
car
number
plate
contains
three
letters
followed by three digits.
How many car number plates
can be made if letters and digits
can be repeated?

17,576,000 car number

Example 4
A
car
number
plate
contains
three
letters
followed by three digits.
How many car number plates can
be made if letters and digits
cannot be repeated?

11, 232,000 car

Example 5
Suppose a 3-digit number
is to be formed from the
digits 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and
9. How many numbers
can
be
formed
if
repetition is allowed?
343 numbers

Example 6
Suppose a 3-digit number
is to be formed from the
digits 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and
9. How many numbers
can
be
formed
if
repetition is not allowed?
210 numbers

Example 7
Suppose a 3-digit number
is to be formed from the
digits 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and
9. How many numbers
can
be formed
if are even?
the numbers
to be formed
147 numbers

Example 8
Suppose a 3-digit number
is to be formed from the
digits 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and
9. How many numbers
can
be formed
if are odd?
the numbers
to be formed
196 numbers

Example 9
How
many
3-digit
numbers greater than 700
can be formed using the
digits 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 if
repetition is allowed?

75 numbers

Example 10
How
many
3-digit
numbers greater than 700
can be formed using the
digits 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 if
repetition is not allowed?

36 numbers

Example 11
How
many
3-digit
numbers greater than 700
can be formed using the
digits 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 if
the numbers must be even?

30 numbers

Example 12
How
many
3-digit
numbers greater than 700
can be formed using the
digits 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 if
the numbers must be odd?

45 numbers

Factorial
Notation
The factorial notation (!) is a
notation usually represented by n!
(read as n-factorial) and defined as
n! = n (n-1) (n-2) (n 3) . (3) (2)
(1)

Factorial
Notation

PRACTICE

5(4)(3)(2)
(1)

5! = 120

Factorial
Notation

PRACTICE

8(7)(6)(5)(4)(3)
(2)(1)

8! =40,

Factorial
Notation

PRACTICE

20! = 2.43x1
0

18

Factorial
Notation

PRACTICE

6!=
4

6(5)(4)(3)(2)(1)
4(3)(2)(1)

=30

Factorial
Notation

PRACTICE

15
1.09x1
=
!5
10
0

Factorial
Notation

PRACTICE

0!

1
=

Example 13
In how many ways can 7
persons be lined up to get
on a bus?
5040 ways

Example 14
How
many
different
arrangements can we form
from the word MAPHY?

120 arrangements

Example 15
In how many ways can 5
persons lined to get on a
bus if a certain
2 persons must follow each other?

48 ways

Example 16
In how many ways can 5
persons lined to get on a
bus if a certain
3 persons must follow each other?

36 ways

Example 17
COMPLEMENT
EVENTS
many ARY
ways
can

In how
5
persons lined to get on a
bus if a certain
3 persons must not follow
each other?

Complementary
Events
All outcomes that are not
the event.

Complementary
Events
When the event
complement is tails.

is

heads,

the

When the event is Mon and Fri, the


complements are Tue, Wed, Thurs, Sat
and Sun
When

the

event

is

spades,

the

Example 17
In how many ways can 5
persons lined to get on a
bus if a certain
3 persons must not follow
(3!)(3!)The likelihoood
each 5!
other?

that the event will


happen

120 36 = 84 ways

Example 18
Four married couples have
bought 8 seats in a row for a
concert. In how many ways
can they be seated
without any restrictions?

40320 ways

Example 19
Four married couples have
bought 8 seats in a row for a
concert. In how many ways
can they be seated
if each couple is to sit together?

384 ways

Example 20
Four married couples have
bought 8 seats in a row for a
concert. In how many ways
can they be seated
if all men and women sit together?

1152 ways

Example 21
Four married couples have
bought 8 seats in a row for a
concert. In how many ways
can they be seated
if all men sit together to the
right of women

576 ways

Example 22
In how many ways can 4
Americans, 5 Chinese, and 6
Filipinos be seated
in a row?

1.31x1012 ways

Example 22
In how many ways can 4
Americans, 5 Chinese, and 6
Filipinos be seated
if
each
together?

nationality

12, 441, 600 ways

sit

Assignment
1.) Bring your textbook
tomorrow.
2.) Reporting by group
- page 455 456 except
numbers 11 -12
- 6 groups
- Visuals are graded

Criteria
Visuals
5 points
Explanation 10 points
Ability to answer
Questions 5 points
Preparedness
and Poise
- 5 points

Total

25 points

Review 1
How
many
possible
outcomes result in rolling a
fair dice three times?

216 outcomes

Review 2
How many ways can you
choose a 3-digit pin number
where repetition is allowed?

1000 ways

Review 3
How many ways can you
choose a car plate number
composed of 3 letters
excluding vowels and 3
digits if repetition of letters
and digits are not allowed?

5,745,600 ways

Review 4
How many times can a
cellular network come up
with
different
cellphone
numbers composed of 11
digits if the first 4 digits
must be 0923 and the
5,000,000
ways
number must be even? RETURN

Review 5
3 males and 3 females lined
up to get on a bus. How
many ways can they be
arranged
without restriction?

720 ways

Review 6
3 males and 3 females lined
up to get on a bus. How
many ways can they be
arranged
if a male and a female sit
together ?

48 ways

Review 7
3 males and 3 females lined
up to get on a bus. How
many ways can they be
arranged
if all women sit together to
the right of men?

36 ways

Review 8
How many ways can the
students be lined up in a
school production number
composed of 2 freshmen, 2
sophies 3 juniors and 4
without any restriction?
seniors,

39, 916, 800 ways

Review 9
How many ways can the
students be lined up in a
school production number
composed of 2 freshmen, 2
sophies
3 ofjuniors
andyear
4
if students
the same
seniors,
level have to stand next to
each other?
13,824 ways

Review 10
How many ways can the
students be lined up in a
school production number
composed of 2 freshmen, 2
sophies
3 ofjuniors
andyear
4
if students
the same
seniors,
level MUST NOT stand next
to each
other?
39,902,976
waysRETURN

Permutation and
Combination
Permutation
How many 4-digit pin numbers can you
make if repetition is not allowed?

5040 pin numbers

Combination
How many different handshakes are
possible in a room with 4 people?

6 handshakes

Permutation and
Combination
Permutation
is an arrangement following a definite
order. The way things are arranged is
considered.
Combination
is a selection made from a group of
items without regard to their order.

Prn P n, r

n!
(n r)!

Permutation

n!
P
=
P
=
P(n,r)
=
n r
(nCombination
r)!
n
n
C
=
=
C
C(n,r)
=
r
r
n r
n!
=
r!(nn
r

( )

Permutatio
Example 1:
n

The ski club with ten


members is to choose three
officers, namely: captain,
co-captain and secretary.
How many ways can those
offices be filled?

720 ways

Combinatio
Example 2:
n

You are on your way to an


island for a vacation and of
8 possible books, your
parents say you can only
take 3. How many different
collection of 3 books can
56
collections
you take?

Combinatio
Example 3:
n

A school contest requires


each section of 20 students
to select 5 representatives.
How many ways can this be
done?

15,504 ways

Combinatio
Example 4:
n

There are 12 standbys who


hope to get on the flight to
Camiguin, but only 6 seats
are available. How many
different ways can the 6
people be selected?

924 ways

Permutatio
Example 5:
n

In the production of Snow


White
and
the
Seven
Dwarfs,
15
actors
are
considered for the roles of
the seven dwarfs. How
many ways can the director
32,
432,
400
ways
cast the roles?

Permutatio
Example 6:
n

Suppose you are asked to


list, in order or preference,
the three best movies you
have seen this year. If you
saw 10 movies during the
year, in how many ways can
the three720
best ways
be ranked?

Combinatio
Example 7:
n

During the HS Intramurals,


the volleyball tournament
requires each year level to
play every other year level
once. How many matches
are possible?

6 matches

Permutation
In how many ways can 4
boys and 3 girls be seated
in a row of 5 chairs?

2,520 ways

Permutation
In how many ways can six
students participating in the
math quiz bowl be ranked
1st, 2nd and 3rd place?

120 ways

Permutation
In how many ways can a
coach assign the starting
positions in a basketball
game
to
nine
equally
qualified men?

60, 480 ways

Permutation
A company advertises two
job opening, one for an
announcer and the other for
a new writer. If 8 people
who are qualified for either
position applied for the job,
56 ways
in how many
ways can the

Permutation of
Objects which are
distinct
Hownotmany
different
arrangements
can
you
make from the word POOP?

Permutation of
Objects which are
distinct
The not
permutation
of n objects
where n1 are of one kind, n2 ok
a second kind, n3 of the third,
, and nk of a kth kind is

n!
n1!n2!

Permutation of Objects which


are not distinct

ALGEBRA
7!
7!
=
2!1!1!1!
1!1! 2, 520 ways 2!

Permutation of Objects which


are not distinct

STATISTICS
10
!
3!3!2!
50, 400 ways

Permutation of Objects which


are not distinct

INFINITY
10
!
3!3!2!
50, 400 ways

Permutation
How many signals can be
made by arranging 8 flags
in a line, 4 are red, 2 are
blue and 2 are white?

420 ways

Permutation
Given 4 bulbs, three are red
and one green. Determine
the number of ways of
arranging the bulbs in a
string of wire.

4 ways

Permutation
In how many ways can 4
persons (A, B, C and D),
arrange themselves in a
circular table?

6 ways

Permutation
In how many ways can 7
different
seedlings
be
planted in a circle?

720 ways

Permutation
Ten people are to sit at a
round table. In how many
ways can they be seated
without restrictions?

362, 880 ways

Permutation
Ten people are to sit at a
round table. In how many
ways can they be seated if
the host and hostess are to
sit next to each other?

80, 640 ways

Permutation
In how many ways can 6
ladies be seated at a round
table
without
any
restrictions?

120 ways

Permutation
In how many ways can 6
ladies be seated at a round
table if 4 particular ladies
must sit next to each other?

48 ways

Permutation
In how many ways can 6
ladies be seated at a round
table if 3 particular ladies
must NOT sit next to each
other?

84 ways

Combination
A committee of 5 members
will be selected from a class
of 15 students. How many
committees are possible?

3003 committees

Combination
In a deck of cards, how
many ways can we select 5
diamonds?

1287 ways

Combination
In a lotto with 49 numbers,
how many ways can we
select 6 numbers?

13, 983, 816 ways

Combination
A shipment of 12 television
sets contain 4 defective
sets. In how many ways can
a hotel purchase five of
these sets and receive
2 defective sets?

336 ways

Combination
A shipment of 12 television
sets contain 4 defective
sets. In how many ways can
a hotel purchase five of
these sets and receive
at least 2 defective sets?

456 ways

Combination
How many groups of less
than four members can be
formed from 10 boys?

165 ways

Combination
A box contains 5 red, 4 blue,
and 3 white balls. In how
many ways can we select 3
balls such that
they are of different colors?

60 ways

Combination
A box contains 5 red, 4 blue,
and 3 white balls. In how
many ways can we select 3
balls such that
two are blue and 1 white?

18 ways

Combination
A box contains 5 red, 4 blue,
and 3 white balls. In how
many ways can we select 3
balls such that
exactly 2 are blue?

48 ways

Combination
A box contains 5 red, 4 blue,
and 3 white balls. In how
many ways can we select 3
balls such that
none is blue?

56 ways

Assignment
1.) Bring
Monday

your

textbook

on

2.) On your lecture notebook,


answer
- #s 33 38 page 465
(no need to make a tree
diagram)