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# The idle time to choose the type of

analysis
During the planning process
- it helps to design your data collection
strategy and determines a sample size
Many times, it is true that data are
collected first and only then is
consideration given to data collection

## To select a proper analysis

Your research questions must be well
defined
Must know what hypotheses to test

## Which of the following scenarios

Are you performing a descriptive analysis,
a comparative (inferential) analysis, or a
correlational/association analysis?
What types of variables are you
analyzing? Are you using quantitative or
(dependent) variables normally
distributed?

## Planning a Successful Analysis

A descriptive Analysis
into a few numbers?
A Comparative Analysis
- Is the purpose of your analysis to compare one or more
groups to each other or to a standard?
Association and Correlation
- Is the purpose of your analysis to determine if there is a
relationship between variables, or do you want to predict
one variable using one or more other variables?

Descriptive Statistics
What is the Data
Type?

Normal

## Mean, SD, and so on, using the

Descriptive or Explore procedure

You want to
describe a Quantitative
single
variable
Categorical

## You want to Both are normal

describe
Both are at least

## Media, histogram, and stem-andleaf plot using the Explore

procedure
Frequency table

Pearsons correlation
Spearmans correlation

Comparison Tests

You are
comparing a
SINGLE
SAMPLE to a
norm

Type?

## Analysis Procedure to Use

Normal

Single-sample t-test

At least ordinal

Sign test

Categorical

Goodness of fit

You are
Normal
Two-sample t-test
comparing data At least ordinal
Mann-Whitney
from two
Normal indicates that the procedure is theoretically
based
a normality assumption.
2 x c test
foronhomogeneity/chiINDEPENDENT Categorical

Comparison Tests

You are
comparing
PAIRED,
REPEATED, or
MATCHED data

Type?

Normal

Paired t-test

At least ordinal

Sign test

Symmetric
quantitative

Binary

McNemar

Comparison Tests

groups
REPEATED
MEASURES

Type?

## Analysis Procedure to Use

Normal

Repeated-measures ANOVA

At least ordinal

Friedmans test

Categorical

Cochran Q

You are
Normal
Analysis of covariance
comparing
means
where the
Normal indicates
that the procedure is theoretically based on a normality assumption.
model includes a

Relational Analyses
You want to analyze
the relationship
between two
variables (If
regression, one
variable is classified
as a response
variable and one a
predictor variable

Type?

Normal

## Pearson correlation, simple linear

regression

At least ordinal

Spearman correlation

Categorical

## r x c contigency table analysis

Binary

Logistic regression

You
wan
to analyze
Normal
Multiplevariable
linear regression
In
this
table,
the data type
applies to the dependent
for regression procedues.
the relationship
Binary
Logistic regression
between a response
variable and two or
more predictor

Nonparametric Analysis
Spearmans rank correlation (measure association
between two variables): a nonparametric alternative to
Pearsons correlation
Mann-Whitney U (compare two independent groups): a
nonparametric alternative to a two-sample t-test
Kruskal-Wallis (compare two or more independent
groups): a nonparametric alternative to a one-way
analysis of variance
Sign test or Wilconxon test )compare two repeated
measures): a nonparametric alternative to the paired ttest
Friedmans test (compare two or more repeated
measures): a nonparametric alternative to a repeated
measures analysis of variance

## APA format for reporting statistics

Mean: M = 1.34
Standard Deviation: SD = 3.21
Sample size: N = 203
p-value: p = 0.03 or p < 0.001
t-statistic with degree of freedom: t(13) = 2.12
Chi-square results: X2 (2, N = 97) = 7.6, p = 0.02)
F-test: F(2, 21) = 3.33, p = 0.04)