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WELDING

Naveed Habib Khan


Mechanical
Department
6th August 2009

Contents

Welding Basics
Types of Weld Joints
Welding Positions
Welding Types
Welding Processes
Welding Symbols
Welding Safety

What is Fabrication /
Welding?

Fabrication

Metal Fabrication is the forming of metal, usually steel plate, into

various forms either by welding or other forms of metal joining processes

Welding
A fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals by
causing coalescence

Coalescence means

Fusion

Welding Terms

Weldments
Weld puddle
Slag
Weld Bead
Backing
Tack Weld
Heat Affected Zone
(HAZ)

Parts of a Weld

Joint and Weld


Heat Affected Zone

Fillet Weld

Fillet welds should:

Have a flat to slightly convex face


Be uniform in appearance
Have equal leg size

Types of Weld Joints

There are 5 types of joints


1) B Butt Joint
2) L Lap Joint
3) T Tee Joint
4) E Edge Joint
5) C Corner Joint

Fillet and Groove Welds

Groove and fillet welds can be made on


many types of joints

Types of Joints

WELDED JOINT CATEGORY

ASME Code defines welded joints by category.


The term Category defines the location of a joint in a
vessel.
The joints included in each category are designated as
joints of Categories A, B, C, and D.
The Categories established by UW-3 are for use in
specifying special requirements (based on Service,
Material, and Thickness) regarding joint type and
degree of inspection for certain welded pressure joints.
Weld joint efficiency E
It is a measure of weld quality and accounts for
stress concentrations.
E is needed in component thickness calculations

Figure illustrates typical joint locations included in each


category.

Category A:
Longitudinal welded joints within the main shell or nozzles;
any welded joint within a formed or flat head; circumferential
welded joints connecting hemispherical heads to main shells,
to transitions in diameters.

Category B:
Circumferential welded joints within the main shell, nozzles,
or transitions in diameter; circumferential welded joints
connecting formed heads other than hemispherical to main
shells, to transitions in diameter.

Category C:
Welded joints connecting flanges, tubesheets, or flat heads
to main shell, to formed heads, to transitions in diameter, to
nozzles.

Category D:
Welded joints connecting nozzles to main shells, to spheres,
to transitions in diameter, to heads.

Weld joint efficiency vs. Joint Type, Category &


Radiographic Examination

Welding Positions

There are various positions that a weld can be made in:

14

Weld
Passes

Fill Pass

Cover Pass

Root Pass

Hot Pass

TYPES OF
WELDING

APPLICATION

CONSTRUCTION

IN-SERVICE

PROCESS

ARC

GAS

RESISTANCE

SOLID STATE

ENERGY BEAM

Welding Process

Arc Welding
Arc welding process
use electric power
supply to create &
maintain an electric arc
b/w an electrode and
the base material to
melt metals at the
welding point.

How an arc is formed?

The arc is like a


flame of intense
heat that is
generated as
the electrical
current passes
through a highly
resistant air gap.

The Arc Welding Circuit

The electricity flows


from the power
source, through the
electrode and across
the arc, through the
base material to the
work lead and back to
the power source

19

Basic Steps of Arc Welding

Choose the right welding process


Preparation of Welding
Prepare the base materials: remove scale, rust, oil, grease and
any foreign material
Qualified Welders
Welding Procedure
Tack Welds
Choose the right filler material
Pre-heating
Connections
Welding & Removal of Temporary Attachment
Assess and comply with safety requirements
Use proper welding techniques and be sure to protect the molten
puddle from contaminants in the air
Inspect the weld

20

Factors Affecting the


Welding
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Welding Procedure
Thickness
Electrode extension
Angle of bevel
Travel speed
Cleanliness
Type of joint
Polarity, Current & Voltage
Root Opening distance
Welding Position

Types of Arc Welding

Shielded Metal - Arc Welding


(SMAW)
Gas Metal - Arc Welding
(GMAW)
Gas Tungsten - Arc Welding
(GTAW)
Submerged - Arc Welding (SAW)
Plasma - Arc Welding (PAW)
Flux Cored - Arc Welding (FCAW)

GAS WELDING

Oxyacetylene Welding

(OAW)

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)


Also called Tungsten
inert gas (TIG)
T
This uses a similar inert gas shield to MIG, but the
tungsten electrode is not consumed.
Filler metal is provided from a separate rod fed
automatically into the molten pool

Equipment for GTAW Welding

Type of Current &


polarity

Direct Current

Direct current
straight polarity
(DCSP)
Direct current
reverse polarity
(DCRP)

Alternating Current

Type of Power
Source

Generator
Transformer

Tungsten Electrode

Non consumable
Melting point = 6170F
Tungsten Alloys :
Thoria, Zirconia, Ceria,
Lanthana or a
combination of oxides.
Length = 3 to 24
inches
Diameter = .01 to .
25inches
Extension & Shape

GTAW Shielding Gases

Argon, Helium or mixture of Gases


Inert gases don't form compound with
other elements.
These gases protect the tungsten
electrode and weld metal from
contamination.

Properties Of Inert Gases


Properties of Argon

Properties of Helium

Argon is a heavy gas that is obtained from


the atmosphere by the liquification of air

Helium is a light gas that is obtained by


separation from natural gas

May be used as a compressed gas

May be used as a compressed gas

Quieter & smoother arc action

Deeper penetration

Lower cost

Expensive

Suitable gas for GTAW

Gives a smaller heat affected zone

Better for thin metals

Better for thicker metals

Good cleaning action

Lower flow rates are required

Higher flow rates are required

Better for welding dissimilar metals

More availability

Less available

Better for welding at higher speeds

Argon - helium mixture are used when better control of argon and the deeper penetration of
helium are needed. (75% helium, 25% Argon)

Filler Metals
Selection of Filler metal depends upon chemical
composition of base metal.
To increase the tensile strength, ductility, and corrosion
resistance.
Filler metal is kept in HOT OVENS for preheating for
smooth operation.
Classification of Filler metals in AWS

Stainless steel
Carbon steels
Low alloy steel

A5.9
A5.18
A5.28

Deposition Rate

R 70

1 8

A1

Allow Constituent of Filler


Current Condition
Position of Welding (1

6)

Tensile Strength in Ksi


Type of Covering

Electrode

(usually for

GTAW

only)

Cost of GTAW

Labor
(20% to 40%)
Overhead cost
(Major Cost)
Filler metal cost
Shielded gas cost
Electric power cost
(Minor cost)
Tungsten Electrode cost
(4%of Shielding gas cost)
Welding Torch

Advantages

High Quality Weld


No Flux or Slag
Used for both Ferrous & Non-Ferrous metals
No Smokes or Fumes
Welding can be done in all position
Filler metal is not always required
The arc & weld pool is clearly visible to the
welder
For many application, it is the best method
Excellent for welding thin metals and pipeline
welding

Limitations

Welding speed is slow


Electrode is easily contaminated
Not efficient for welding thick sections
Thickness

should not exceed .

Lower filler metal deposition rate


Not Economical
Hand eye co-ordination skill is required
Highly skilled labor needed for this process

Shielded Metal Arc Welding


(SMAW)

This is the most commonly used technique. There is a wide


choice of electrodes, metal and fluxes, allowing application
to different welding conditions.

The gas shield is evolved from the flux, preventing


oxidation of the molten metal pool.

Also referred to as Stick Welding

Used for everything from pipeline welding, farm repair and


complex fabrication.

Uses a stick shaped electrode.


Can weld: steel, cast iron, stainless steel, etc.

Shielded Metal Arc Welding


(SMAW)

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

Electrode metal is fused directly into the molten pool. The


electrode is, therefore, consumed rapidly, being fed from a
motorized reel down the centre of the welding torch

Also referred to as MIG welding

Uses a shield gas and a continuous wire electrode

Used for all types of fabricatio

Great for thin metals up to

Excellent speed of deposition

Used for metals such as: steel, aluminum and stainless steel.

Gas Metal Arc Welding


(GMAW)

MIG Welding Benefits

Higher deposition rates than SMAW


All position capability
Less operator skill required
Long welds can be made without starts and stops
Minimal post weld cleaning is required

Submerged arc welding (SAW)

Instead of using shielding gas, the arc and weld zone are
completely submerged under a blanket of granulated
flux.

A continuous wire electrode is fed into the weld. This is a


common process for welding

Flux-cored arc welding


(FCAW)

This is similar to the MIG process, but uses a continuous hollow


electrode filled with flux, which produces the shielding gas.

The advantage of the technique is that it can be used for


outdoor welding, as the gas shield is less susceptible to
draughts.

Plasma - Arc Welding (PAW)

Plasma welding is similar to the TIG process.


A needle-like plasma arc is formed through an orifice
and fuses the base metal.
Shielding gas is used. Plasma welding is most suited
to high-quality and precision welding applications.

Oxygen/ Fuel Welding

Utilizes oxygen and a fuel gas to heat metal


until it is in a molten state and fuse multiple
pieces of metal together. Can be used with or
without a filler rod.
Great for brazing dissimilar metals together.
Older technology that can be replaced by
GTAW

Welding Symbols
Welding symbols contain information about the weld to be made

42

Welding symbols give the welder specific instructions about the


weld including:

Placement, Size, Length, Process


Any other special notes

Welding symbols are


Universally used
Governed by the AWS
Found on engineering drawings

43

Reference Line
Reference Line (Required element)

Always Horizontal

Arrow Line
Reference Line (Required element)

Arrow

Tail
Reference Line (Required element)

Arrow

Tail

Reference Line must always be horizontal,


Arrow points to the line or lines on drawing which clearly identify the proposed joint or
weld area.

Reference Line (Required element)

Arrow

Tail
The tail of the welding symbol is used to indicate the welding or cutting
processes, as well as the welding specification, procedures, or the supplementary
information to be used in making the weld.

Reference Line must always be horizontal,


Arrow points to the line or lines on drawing which clearly identify the proposed joint or
weld area.

Basic components of a WELDING SYMBOL


Reference Line (Required element)

Arrow connects reference line to arrow side


member of joint or arrow side of joint

Arrow
Tail omitted when reference not used

Tail
The tail of the welding symbol is used to indicate the welding or cutting
processes, as well as the welding specification, procedures, or the supplementary
information to be used in making the weld.

All the way Around


A circle at the tangent of the arrow and the reference line
means welding to be all around.

Field Weld Symbol

A flag at the tangent of the reference line and arrow


means Field Weld.

Weld Symbol Terminology


OTHER SIDE
ARROW SIDE

Break in arrow means arrow


side must be side that
beveling or other
preparation required.

Fillet Weld (Arrow Side Only)

Fillet Weld (Other Side)

Size of Fillet Weld

1/4
1/4

Example of Double Bevel Groove


weld
Depth of
preparation or
groove
1/4 (5/16)
1/4 (5/16)

Depth of penetration

Plug or Slot Weld Symbol


Arrow Side

Single-Bevel-Groove and
Double Fillet Weld Symbol
5/16

5/16

Single-Bevel-Groove and
Double Fillet weld Symbols

Chain Intermittent Fillet


Weld
Weld both sides
each end and
10 inches center to center in
between

1/4

2-10

1/4

2-10

10 in

Staggered Intermittent
Fillet Weld
Weld ends than 10 inch
centers staggered each side

1/4

2-10

1/4

2-10
10 in

10 in

Standard Weld Symbols


As per AWS 2.4-1998

Some common symbol List published by AWS

Back Purging

Back Purging Procedure


Used to protect the electrode and the molten weld metal
from atmospheric contamination
Protect the underside of the weld & its adjacent base metal
surfaces from oxidation during Welding
Application : All e.g.: Pipe Fabrication
Gas Backing : for minimum of the first two passes

.
Minimum purge time before welding, flow rate and
venting, etc
Shielding Gas type (Argon, He or mixture of 2-Inert Gases
for shielding)

Occupational Opportunities in
Welding

Welders
Tack Welders
Welding Helper
Welding Operators
Welder Assemblers/ Welder fitters
Welding Inspection
Welding Shop Supervisor
Welding Engineers

Arc Welding Safety

Protect yourself and others from


potential hazards including:

Fumes and Gases


Electric Shock
Arc Rays
Fire and Explosion Hazards
Noise
Hot objects

66

REFERENCES

Technical Guide for GTAW by Hobart Institute


American Welding Society (AWS)
http://www.khake.com/page89.html
ASME Section II- Part C : Specifications for Welding Rods,
Electrodes, and Filler Metals
ASME Section VIII Div.1: Rules for Construction of Pressure
Vessels
ASME Section IX - Welding and Brazing Qualifications for
personnel and procedures

Questions?

Thank You