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CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

Construction is the process of creating and building infrastructure or a facility.Construction starts with planning, design, and
financing and continues until the project is built and ready for use.
Large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. A Project manager normally manages the job, and a construction
manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect supervises it. For the successful execution of a project,
effective planning is essential. Those involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the
zoning requirements, the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site safety,
availability and transportation of building materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and
bidding, etc.
Residential construction practices, technologies, and resources must confirm to local building authority regulations and codes
of practice. Materials readily available in the area generally dictate the construction materials used (e.g. brick versus stone,
versus timber). Cost of construction on a per square metre (or per square foot) basis for houses can vary dramatically based on
site conditions, local regulations, economies of scale (custom designed homes are always more expensive to build) and the
availability of skilled tradespeople. As residential can generate a lot of waste, careful planning again is needed here.
There are three types of construction techniques :
a) Open cut & cover technique
b) Bottom up technique
c) Top down technique

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BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - CONST. TECHNIQUES

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NAME - NEDA SHAKIL


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OPEN CUT TECHNIQUE


This is the simplest & most straight forward technique of providing an excavation to required depth.
The sides of the excavation are sloped to provide stability, with possible slope protection to maximise the angle of the slope.
Upon excavating to the required depth, the construction is done from bottom upwards.
After the completion of the basement, the remaining excavated areas between the basement & the side slope are backfilled.
The main criteria to consider for an open
cut technique is the geological condition
of the site, as this has a direct effect on
the earth slope.
The main limitation of this technique is
that the site is exposed to the
weather.Flooding usually occurs after a
downpour. Provision of dewatering &
temporary drainage system are
necessary.

overall view of construction using open cut technique

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - CONST. TECHNIQUES

A protected slope with sheet piles & an inclinometer.The


inclinometer is to measure deflection of sheet piles & soil
movement below sheet piles.
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NAME - NEDA SHAKIL


ROLL NO. - 13
CLASS - 3RD YR., B

T.SIGN.

CUT & COVER TECHNIQUE


This technique is usually employed in constrained sites where ground movement to the adjacent surroundings has to be kept
to the minimum. Retaining walls are required to support the excavation with the provision of bracing as the excavation
proceeds downward. Construction is done in conventional way from bottom to up in seuence wiith the removal of the temporary
struts.

Diaphram walls supported by horizontzal strutings

Heavy horizontal struting at corner

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - CONST. TECHNIQUES

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Excavation proceeds from the working


platform with large excavators until its
depth where small excavators need to
be mobilised
NAME - NEDA SHAKIL
ROLL NO. - 13
CLASS - 3RD YR., B

T.SIGN.

CUT & COVER TECHNIQUE


jacks adjustable
connectors & gauges
used to ensure proper
load transfer through
strut

excavation supported by
vertical king posts,
horizontal strut & bracings

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - CONST. TECHNIQUES

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NAME - NEDA SHAKIL


ROLL NO. - 13
CLASS - 3RD YR., B

T.SIGN.

CUT & COVER TECHNIQUE


The Cut and Covermethod is advanced engineering technique for tunnel construction in urban and interurban areas. Initially
meant for subway tunneling, the Cut and Cover method has been lately adopted in motorway projects to deal with smalldepth road tunnels and local environmental constraints. The main concept of the method consists of fulllength or sequential
excavation along the road segment and subsequent construction of the tunnel bore. Following drainage and waterproofing
measures, backfilling requires a well-monitored construction process, adequately defined in terms of equipment and quality
control. Environmental issues, such as planting and seeding, constitute the final stage, complemented, eventually, by
reconstruction of the secondary road network upslope. This technique involves stepped excavation & implementation of
support either by temporry walls & bracing system to support slope of excavation.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - CONST. TECHNIQUES

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NAME - NEDA SHAKIL


ROLL NO. - 13
CLASS - 3RD YR., B

T.SIGN.

BOTTOM UP TECHNIQUE
Conventionally, buildings with underground basements are built by bottom-up method where sub-structure and super-structure
floors are constructed sequentially from the bottom of the sub-structure or lowest level of basement to the top of the superstructure. Though this conventional method, also called as bottom-up method, is simple in both design and construction, it is
not feasible for the gigantic projects with limited construction time and/or with site constraints.

Conventional bottom-up sequence of construction consists of thefollowing steps:


Step 1a: Installation of temporary excavation support walls, such as soldier pile and lagging,sheet piling, slurry walls, tangent or
secant pile walls
Step 1b: Dewatering within the trench if required
Step 1c: Excavation and installation of temporary wall support elements such as struts or tiebacks
Step 2: Construction of the tunnel structure by constructing the floor;
Step 3: Compete construction of the walls and then the roof, apply waterproofing asrequired;
Step 4: Backfilling to final grade and restoring the ground surface

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - CONST. TECHNIQUES

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NAME - NEDA SHAKIL


ROLL NO. - 13
CLASS - 3RD YR., B

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BOTTOM UP TECHNIQUE
ADVANTAGES
It is a conventional construction method
well understood by contractors.
Waterproofing can be applied to the outside
surface of the structure.
The inside of the excavation is easily
accessible for the construction equipment
and thedelivery, storage and placement of
materials.
Drainage systems can be installed outside
the structure to channel water or divert it
awayfrom the structure

DISADVANTAGES
Somewhat larger footprint required for
construction than for top-down
construction.
The ground surface can not be restored
to its final condition until construction is
complete.
Requires temporary support or relocation
of utilities.
May require dewatering that could have
adverse affects on surrounding
infrastructure

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - CONST. TECHNIQUES

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NAME - NEDA SHAKIL


ROLL NO. - 13
CLASS - 3RD YR., B

T.SIGN.

TOP DOWN TECHNIQUE


Top-down construction method as the name implies, is a construction method, which builds the permanent structure members of the
basement along with the excavation from the top to the bottom. Top-down method is mainly used for two types of urban structures, tall
buildings with deep basements and underground structures such as car parks, underpasses and subway stations. In this case the
basement floors are constructed as the excavation progresses. The top down method has been used for deep excavation projects
where tieback installation was not feasible and soil movements had to be minimized. Top-down construction method which provides
the significant saving of the overall construction time has been adopted for some major projects where time factor is of primary
importance. The sequence construction begins with retaining wall installation and then load-bearing elements that will carry the future
super-structure. The basement columns (typically steel beams) are constructed before any excavation takes place and rest on the load
bearing elements. These load bearing elements are typically concrete barrettes constructed under slurry (or caissons).

Mechanical ventilation
& lighting are
essential for top down
method

group of
inclinometer,water
sandpipe & piezometer
are located aroun the
perimeter of excavation
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE OF A TYPICAL TOP DOWN METHOD

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - CONST. TECHNIQUES

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NAME - NEDA SHAKIL


ROLL NO. - 13
CLASS - 3RD YR., B

T.SIGN.

TOP DOWN TECHNIQUE

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - CONST. TECHNIQUES

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NAME - NEDA SHAKIL


ROLL NO. - 13
CLASS - 3RD YR., B

T.SIGN.

TOP DOWN TECHNIQUE


ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

The temporary support of excavation walls are used as the permanent


structural walls
It requires somewhat less width for the construction area
Easier construction of roof since it can be cast on prepared grade
rather than using bottomforms
It may result in lower cost for the tunnel by the elimination of the
separate, cast-in-placeconcrete walls within the excavation and
reducing the need for tie backs and internal bracing
It may result in shorter construction duration by overlapping
construction activities.

Inability to install external waterproofing outside the tunnel walls.


More complicated connections for the roof, floor and base slabs.
Potential water leakage at the joints between the slabs and the
walls
Risks that the exterior walls (or center columns) will exceed
specified installation tolerancesand extend within the neat line of
the interior space.
Access to the excavation is limited to the portals or through shafts
through the roof.
Limited spaces for excavation and construction of the bottom slab

Inserting into existing foundation new bars which will


be connected to the micropiles

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - CONST. TECHNIQUES

concrete cast around the new micropiles & existing


foundation to form a new integrated foundation
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NAME - NEDA SHAKIL


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UNDERGROUND STATION - TOP DOWN & BOTTOM UP METHOD

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - CONST. TECHNIQUES

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NAME - NEDA SHAKIL


ROLL NO. - 13
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