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Concrete

Plain and Reinforced


Concrete
Plain Concrete artificial stone as a result
of mixing cement, fine aggregates and
water.
Reinforced Concrete- concrete with
reinforcement properly embedded in a
manner that two materials act together in
resisting forces.

Different Types of Concrete Used


in Construction:

The Ordinary Portland Cement


Rapid Hardening Portland Cement which is
preferred when high early strength concrete
is desired.
Blast Furnace or Sulfate Cement designed
to resist chemical attack.
Low Heat Portland Cement massive sections
designed to reduce heat of hydration.
Portland Pozzolan low hardening
characteristics
High Alumina Cement

Aggregates
Coarse Aggregates crushed stone,
crushed gravel or natural gravel with
particles retained on a 5mm sieve. (The
max. nominal size varies from 40, 20, 14 or
10 mm diameter.)
Fine Aggregates crushed stone, crushed
gravel or natural gravel with particles
passing on a 5mm sieve.

The Principle of Concrete


Mixing
Workability
Strength
Durability
Economy

Concrete mixture may be


classified as either:
a)

b)

Designed Mixture contractor is


responsible in establishing the mixture
proportion
Prescribed Mixture the designing
engineer specify the mixture proportion.
The contractors responsibility is only to
provide a properly mixed concrete
containing the right proportions as
prescribed in the plan.

Proportioning Concrete

Concrete mix designs are often given by a


ratio:

Crushed
Rock
Usually the ratio is in terms of weight of the
components
Cement

Sand

Concrete mix designs are often given by the


following ratio:

1:2:
2

Coarse Aggregates- crushed rock


Fine Aggregates- sand
Cement

Concrete Proportion
Cement in Bag

Sand

Gravel

40 kg

50 kg

cu.m

cu.m

12.0

9.5

0.50

1.0

:4

9.0

7.0

0.50

1.0

1 : 2 1/2 : 5

7.5

6.0

0.50

1.0

1: 3

6.0

5.0

0.50

1.0

Mixture
Class

Proportion

AA

1 : 1 1/2 : 3

1: 2

:6

Example:

A proposed concrete pavement has a


general dimension of 10cm thick, 3m wide
and 5m long. Determine the quantity of
cement in bags, sand and gravel in cubic
meters, required using class C mixture.

A. Determine the volume of the proposed concrete


pavement.
Volume = Thickness x Width x Length
Volume = 0.10 x 3.0 x 5.0
Volume 1.5 m3

A. Determine the volume of the proposed concrete


pavement.
Volume = Thickness x Width x Length
Volume = 0.10 x 3.0 x 5.0
Volume 1.5 m3
B. Using the cement class mixture C, multiply the
volume by the corresponding values:
Cement : 1.5 x 5.49 = 8.2 or 9 Bags
Sand
: 1.5 x 0.44 = 0.66 m3
Gravel : 1.5 x 0.89 = 1.34 m3

Square Concrete Column:


1.
2.

Volume Method
Linear Method

Example:

A reinforced concrete square column is 5m


long with a cross sectional dimensions of 16
inches. Determine the quantity of cement,
sand, and gravel using class A concrete.

A. By Volume Method

Convert all measurements from inches to


meters. (0.40 meters)

Solve for the cross sectional area of the


column

Area = 0.40m x 0.40m


Area = 0.16 m2

Find the volume of the column

Volume = 0.16m2 x 5m
Volume = 0.80 m3

Cement Class A

Cement : 0.80 x 7.85 = 6.28 or 7 Bags


Sand : 0.80 x 0.42 = 0.34 m2
Gravel : 0.80 x 0.84 = 0.67 m2

B. Linear Method

Concrete Hollow Blocks


Popularly known as CHB
Load bearing and non bearing blocks
Load bearing 15 to 20 cm
Non bearing 7 to 10 cm

Estimating Masonry Work using CHB could


be done by :
a. Fundamental Method
b. Area Methods

Example

A concrete hollow block wall has a general


dimension of 3m high by 4m long.
Determine the number of CHB to construct
the wall.

A. Fundamental Method
Divide the height by the height of one block
1 block = 0.20m height

Divide the length of the fence by the length


of one block. ( 0.40)

Multiply 1 and 2

Pieces = 15 x 10
Pieces = 150