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Transmission Line Basics II - Class 6

Prerequisite Reading assignment: CH2

Acknowledgements: Intel Bus Boot Camp:


Michael Leddige

Real Computer Issues


Dev a

Clk

data
Dev b
Signal
Measured
here

Switch
Threshold

An engineer tells you the measured clock is nonmonotonic and because of this the flip flop internally
may double clock the data. The goal for this class is
to by inspection determine
cause and suggest
Transmissionthe
Lines
whether this is a Class
problem
6 or not.

Agenda

The Transmission Line Concept


Transmission line equivalent circuits

and relevant equations


Reflection diagram & equation
Loading
Termination methods and comparison
Propagation delay
Simple return path ( circuit theory,
network theory come later)
Transmission Lines
Class 6

Two Transmission Line Viewpoints

Steady state ( most historical view)


Frequency domain

Transient
Time domain
Not circuit element Why?

We mix metaphors all the time


Why convenience and history

Transmission Lines
Class 6

Transmission Line Concept


Power Frequency (f) is @
60 Hz
Wavelength ( ) is 5 106
m
( Over 3,100 Miles)

Consumer
Home

Transmission Lines
Class 6

Power
Plant

PC Transmission Lines
Signal Frequency (f) is
approaching 10 GHz
Wavelength ( ) is 1.5 cm
( 0.6 inches)

Microstrip

Integrated Circuit
Stripline
T

PCB substrate
Cross section view taken here

Stripline
W
Cross Section of Above PCB
Copper Trace

Via
FR4 Dielectric

Micro
Strip

Signal (microstrip)

Copper Plane

Transmission Lines
Class W6

Ground/Power
Signal (stripline)
Signal (stripline)
Ground/Power
Signal (microstrip)

Key point about transmission line operation


Voltage and current on a transmission line is
a function of both time and position.

V f z, t
I f z, t

I2

I1

V1

V2

dz
The major deviation from circuit theory
with transmission
line, distributed networks is this positional dependence of
voltage and current!
Must think in terms of position and time to understand
transmission line behavior
This positional dependence is added when the
assumption of the size of the circuit being small
compared to the signaling wavelength

Transmission Lines
Class 6

Examples of Transmission Line


Structures- I
Cables and wires
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Coax cable
Wire over ground
Tri-lead wire
Twisted pair (two-wire line)

Long distance interconnects


+
-

(a)

+ (c)

(b)

+ Transmission Lines
(d)
Class 6

Segment 2: Transmission line equivalent


circuits and relevant equations
Physics
Physicsof
of transmission
transmissionline
linestructures
structures
Basic
Basictransmission
transmission line
lineequivalent
equivalentcircuit
circuit
?Equations
?Equationsfor
fortransmission
transmission line
line propagation
propagation

Transmission Lines
Class 6

10

E & H Fields Microstrip Case


How does the signal move
from source to load?
Signal path

Z (into the page)


X
Electric field
Magnetic field
Remember fields are setup given
an applied forcing function.
(Source)
Ground return path

The signal is really the wave


propagating between the conductors

Transmission Lines
Class 6

Transmission Line Definition


General transmission line: a closed system in which power is transmitted
from a source to a destination

Our class: only TEM mode transmission lines

A two conductor wire system with the wires in close proximity, providing
relative impedance, velocity and closed current return path to the source.
Characteristic impedance is the ratio of the voltage and current waves at any
one position on the transmission line
Propagation velocity is the speed with which signals are transmitted through
the transmission line in its surrounding medium.

V
Z0
I
v

Transmission
r Lines
Class 6

11

Presence of Electric and Magnetic Fields


I

I + I

I + I

E
V
I

V + V
I + I

V
I

V + V
I + I

Both Electric and Magnetic fields are present in the transmission lines
These fields are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of wave propagation
for TEM mode waves, which is the simplest mode, and assumed for most
simulators(except for microstrip lines which assume quasi-TEM, which is an
approximated equivalent for transient response calculations).

Electric field is established by a potential difference between two


conductors.

Implies equivalent circuit model must contain capacitor.

Magnetic field induced by current flowing on the line


Implies equivalent circuit model must contain inductor.

Transmission Lines
Class 6

12

13

T-Line Equivalent Circuit


General Characteristics of Transmission
Line

Propagation delay per unit length (T0) { time/distance} [ps/in]


Or Velocity (v0) {distance/ time} [in/ps]
Characteristic Impedance (Z0)
Per-unit-length Capacitance (C0) [pf/in]
Per-unit-length Inductance (L0) [nf/in]
Per-unit-length (Series) Resistance (R0) [/in]
Per-unit-length (Parallel) Conductance (G0) [S/in]

lR0

lL0

lG0
Transmission Lines
Class 6

lC0

14

Ideal T Line
Ideal (lossless) Characteristics of
Transmission Line

Ideal TL assumes:
Uniform line
Perfect (lossless) conductor (R0 0)
Perfect (lossless) dielectric (G0 0)
We only consider T0, Z0 , C0, and L0.

lL0
lC0

A transmission line can be represented by a


cascaded network (subsections) of these
equivalent models.

The smaller the subsection the more accurate the model

The delay for each subsection should be


no larger than 1/10th the signal rise time.
Transmission Lines
Class 6

Signal Frequency and Edge Rate


vs.
Lumped or Tline Models
In theory, all circuits that deliver transient power from
one point to another are transmission lines, but if the
signal frequency(s) is low compared to the size of the
circuit (small), a reasonable approximation can be
used to simplify the circuit for calculation of the circuit
transient (time vs. voltage or time vs. current)
response.

Transmission Lines
Class 6

15

T Line Rules of Thumb


So, what are the rules of thumb to use?

May treat as lumped Capacitance


Use this 10:1 ratio for accurate
modeling of transmission lines

Td < .1 Tx
May treat as RC on-chip, and treat as
LC for PC board interconnect

Td < .4 Tx Transmission Lines


Class 6

16

Other Rules of Thumb


Frequency knee (Fknee) = 0.35/Tr (so if Tr is

1nS, Fknee is 350MHz)


This is the frequency at which most energy is
below
Tr is the 10-90% edge rate of the signal
Assignment: At what frequency can your thumb be
used to determine which elements are lumped?
Assume 150 ps/in

Transmission Lines
Class 6

17

When does a T-line become a T-Line?


Whether it is a

When do we need
to use
transmission line
analysis
techniques vs.
lumped circuit
analysis?

Wavelength/edge rate

Transmission
Class 6

18

bump or a
mountain depends
on the ratio of its
size (tline) to the
size of the vehicle
(signal
wavelength)
Similarly, whether
or not a line is to be
considered as a
transmission line
depends on the
ratio of length of the
line (delay) to the
wavelength of the
applied frequency
Tline
or the rise/fall edge
Lines
of the signal

Equations & Formulas


How to model & explain
transmission line behavior

Relevant Transmission Line Equations


Propagation equation

( R jL)(G jC ) j
is the attenuation (loss) factor
is the phase (velocity) factor

Characteristic Impedance equation

( R j L )
Z0
(G jC )
In class problem: Derive the high frequency, lossless approximation for Z0

Transmission Lines
Class 6

20

Ideal Transmission Line Parameters


Knowing any two out of Z0, Td,
C0, and L0, the other two can
be calculated.
C0 and L0 are reciprocal
functions of the line crosssectional dimensions and are
related by constant me.
is electric permittivity
0= 8.85 X 10-12 F/m (free space)
ri s relative dielectric constant

is magnetic permeability
0= 4p X 10-7 H/m (free space)

L0
Z0
;
C0
T0

C0
;
Z0
1
v0
;

r 0 ;

T d L0 C0 ;
L0 Z 0 T 0 ;
C0 L0 ;

r 0 .

r is relative permeability

Dont
Dont forget
forget these
theserelationships
relationshipsand
andwhat
whatthey
theymean!
mean!
Transmission Lines
Class 6

21

Parallel Plate Approximation


Assumptions

TC

TEM conditions
Uniform dielectric ( )
between conductors
TC<< TD; WC>> TD

T-line characteristics are


function of:

Material electric and


magnetic properties
Dielectric Thickness (TD)
Width of conductor (WC)

Trade-off

TD ; C0 , L0 , Z0
WC ; C0 , L0 , Z0

22

TD

WC

* PlateArea Base
C
d
equation
C0

L0
Z0

WC F

TD m

WC pF
8.85 r

TD m

TD

T D H
0.4 r

WC m

WC m
377

TD
WC

r
r

To a first order, t-line capacitance and inductance can


Transmission
Linesplate approximation.
be approximated using
the parallel
Class 6

23

Improved Microstrip Formula


Parallel Plate Assumptions +

WC

Large ground plane with


zero thickness
To accurately predict
microstrip impedance, you
must calculate the effective
dielectric constant.

Z0

r 1.41

r 1
e

87

5.98TD

0.8WC TC

ln

r 1
12TD
2 1
WC

From Hall, Hall & McCall:


Valid when:
0.1 < WC/TD < 2.0 and 1 < r < 15

F 0.217 r 1

TC
WCTD

You cant
WC
W

for
1
0.02 r 1 1

beat a field
T
TD

W
0
for
1
Transmission
Lines solver
T
Class 6
2

TC

TD

24

Improved Stripline Formulas


Same assumptions as used
for microstrip apply here

TD1

WC

TC
TD2

From Hall, Hall & McCall:


Symmetric (balanced) Stripline Case TD1 = TD2

Z 0 sym

60

ln

4(TD1 TD1)

0.67 (0.8WC TC )

Valid when WC/(TD1+TD2) < 0.35 and TC/(TD1+TD2) < 0.25


Offset (unbalanced) Stripline Case TD1 > TD2

You cant beat


a field solver

Z 0 sym(2 A,WC , TC , r ) Z 0 sym(2 B, WC , TC , r )


Z 0offset 2
Z 0 sym(2 A,WC , TC , r ) Z 0 sym(2 B,WC , TC , r )
Transmission Lines
Class 6

Refection coefficient
Signal on a transmission line can be analyzed by

keeping track of and adding reflections and


transmissions from the bumps (discontinuities)
Refection coefficient

Amount of signal reflected from the bump


Frequency domain =sign(S11)*|S11|
If at load or source the reflection may be called gamma (L
or s)
Time domain is only defined a location
The bump

Time domain analysis is causal.


Frequency domain is for all time.
We use similar terms be careful

Reflection diagrams more later


Transmission Lines
Class 6

25

Reflection and Transmission


Incident

Transmitted

Reflecte
d

Reflection Coeficient Transmission Coeffiecent

Zt Z0

"" ""

Zt Z0

Transmission Lines
Class 6

2 Zt
Zt Z0

Zt Z0
Zt Z0

26

27

Special Cases to Remember


A: Terminated in Zo
Zs
Vs

Zo

Zo

Zo Zo 0
Zo Zo

B: Short Circuit
Zs
Vs

Zo

0 Zo 1
0 Zo

C: Open Circuit
Zs
Vs

Zo

Transmission Lines
Class 6

Zo
1
Zo

Assignment Building the SI Tool Box


Compare the parallel plate
approximation to the improved
microstrip and stripline formulas
for the following cases:
Microstrip:
WC = 6 mils, TD = 4 mils, TC = 1 mil, r = 4
Symmetric Stripline:
WC = 6 mils, TD1 = TD2 = 4 mils, TC = 1 mil, r = 4
Write Math Cad Program to calculate Z0, Td, L
& C for each case.
What factors cause the errors with the parallel
Transmission Lines
plate approximation?
Class 6

28

29

Transmission line equivalent circuits and


relevant equations
Basic
Basicpulse
pulselaunching
launchingonto
ontotransmission
transmissionlines
lines
Calculation
Calculationof
of near
nearand
andfar
far end
endwaveforms
waveforms for
for
classic
classicload
load conditions
conditions

Transmission Lines
Class 6

Review: Voltage Divider Circuit


Consider the

simple circuit that


contains source
voltage VS, source
resistance RS, and
resistive load RL.

30

RS
RL

VS

The output

voltage, VL is
easily calculated
from the source
amplitude and the
values of the two
series resistors.

VL = VS

Why
Why do
do we
we care
care for?
for?
Transmission
Lines
Next
Next page.
page.
Class 6

RL
RL + R S

VL

Solving Transmission Line Problems


The next slides will establish a procedure that will
allow you to solve transmission line problems
without the aid of a simulator. Here are the steps
that will be presented:

1. Determination of launch voltage &


t =0 voltage

final DC or

2. Calculation of load reflection coefficient and


voltage delivered to the load

3. Calculation of source reflection coefficient and


resultant source voltage

These
These are
are the
the steps
steps for
for solving
solving
all
t-line
allTransmission
t-line problems.
problems.
Lines
Class 6

31

Determining Launch Voltage

32

TD
Vs
0

Rs A

B
Zo

Vs

Rt

(initial voltage)
t=0, V=Vi

Vi = VS

Z0
Z 0 + RS

Vf = VS

Rt
Rt + RS

Step 1 in calculating transmission line waveforms is


to determine the launch voltage in the circuit.

The behavior of transmission lines makes it easy


to calculate the launch & final voltages
simply a voltage
divider! Lines
Transmission

Class 6

it is

33

Voltage Delivered to the Load


TD
Vs

Rs A
Zo

Vs

B
Rt

(initial voltage)
t=0, V=Vi

t=2TD,
AB)(Vi )
V=Vi
+Zo
Rt+ B(Vi)

Rt Zo

(signal is reflected)
t=TD, V=Vi +B(Vi )

Vreflected = (Vincident)
VB = Vincident + Vreflected

Step 2: Determine VB in the circuit at time t = TD

The transient behavior of transmission line delays the


arrival of launched voltage until time t = TD.

VB at time 0 < t < TD is at quiescent voltage (0 in this case)

Voltage wavefront
will be reflected
Transmission
Lines at the end of the t-line

VB = Vincident + Vreflected at time t = TD

Class 6

Voltage Reflected Back to the Source


Vs
0

Rs A

Vs

B
Zo

Rt

TD

(initial voltage)
t=0, V=Vi

(signal is reflected)

t=2TD,
V=Vi + B (Vi) + A B )(Vi )

Transmission Lines
Class 6

t=TD, V=Vi + B (Vi )

34

Voltage Reflected Back to the Source


Zo
Rs
Rs Zo

Vreflected = (Vincident)
VA = Vlaunch + Vincident + Vreflected

Step 3: Determine VA in the circuit at time t = 2TD


The

transient behavior of transmission line delays the


arrival of voltage reflected from the load until time t =
2TD.
VA

at time 0 < t < 2TD is at launch voltage

VA

= Vlaunch + Vincident + Vreflected at time t = 2TD

Voltage

wavefront will be reflected at the source

In the steady state, the solution converges to


VB = VS[Rt / (Rt + Rs)]
Transmission Lines
Class 6

35

Problems

36

Solved Homework

Consider the circuit

shown to the right


with a resistive load,
assume propagation
delay = T, RS= Z0 .
Calculate and show
the wave forms of
V1(t),I1(t),V2(t),
and I2(t) for (a) RL=
and (b) RL= 3Z0

RS

VS

Transmission Lines
Class 6

I1

V1

Z0 ,0
l

I2

V2

RL

Step-Function into T-Line: Relationships

Source matched case: RS= Z0


V1(0) = 0.5VA, I1(0) = 0.5IA
S = 0, V(x, ) = 0.5VA(1+ L)
Uncharged line
V2(0) = 0, I2(0) = 0
Open circuit means RL=
L = / = 1
V1() = V2() = 0.5VA(1+1) = VA
I1() = I2 () = 0.5IA(1-1) = 0
Transmission Lines
Class 6

Solution

37

Step-Function into T-Line with Open Ckt

At t = T, the voltage wave reaches load end

and doubled wave travels back to source end


V1(T) = 0.5VA, I1(T) = 0.5VA/Z0

V2(T) = VA, I2 (T) = 0


At t = 2T, the doubled wave reaches the
source end and is not reflected
V1(2T) = VA, I1(2T) = 0
V2(2T) = VA, I2(2T) = 0

Transmission Lines
Class 6

Solution

38

39

Waveshape:

Step-Function
into T-LineII with Open Ckt
I
1

Current (A)

RS

0.75IA
0.5I A

VS

I1

V1

Z0 ,0
l

I2

V2

Open

0.25IA

4 Time(ns)

V1
V2

VA
Voltage(V)

0.75VA
0.5VA

This is called
reflected wave
switching

0.25VA

Transmission
Lines
3
2
4 Time(ns)
Class 6

Solution

40

Problem 1b: Relationships

Source matched case: RS= Z0


V1(0) = 0.5VA, I1(0) = 0.5IA
S = 0, V(x, ) = 0.5VA(1+ L)
Uncharged line
V2(0) = 0, I2(0) = 0
RL= 3Z0
L = (3Z0 -Z0) / (3Z0 +Z0) = 0.5
V1() = V2() = 0.5VA(1+0.5) = 0.75VA
I1() = I2() = 0.5IA(1-0.5) = 0.25IA
Transmission Lines
Class 6

Solution

41

Problem 1b: Solution

At t = T, the voltage wave reaches load end

and positive wave travels back to the source


V1(T) = 0.5VA, I1(T) = 0.5IA

V2(T) = 0.75VA , I2(T) = 0.25IA


At t = 2T, the reflected wave reaches the
source end and absorbed
V1(2T) = 0.75VA , I1(2T) = 0.25IA
V2(2T) = 0.75VA , I2(2T) = 0.25IA

Transmission Lines
Class 6

Solution

Waveshapes for Problem 1b


I1
I2

Curre
nt(A)

IA

RS

0.75IA
0.5I A

VS

I1

V1

42

Z0 ,0
l

I2

V2

RL

0.25IA

4 Time(ns)

I1
I2

VA
Voltage(V)

0.75VA
0.5VA
0.25VA

Note that a
properly
terminated wave
settle out at 0.5
SolutionV
Solution
Lines
3
e(ns)
2Transmission
4 Tim
Class 6

Transmission line step response


Introduction
Introductionto
tolattice
latticediagram
diagram analysis
analysis
Calculation
Calculationof
of near
near and
andfar
far end
end waveforms
waveformsfor
for

classic
classicload
loadimpedances
impedances
Solving
Solvingmultiple
multiplereflection
reflectionproblems
problems

Complex
Complexsignal
signalreflections
reflectionsat
atdifferent
differenttypes
typesof
of
transmission
transmissionline
linediscontinuities
discontinuitieswill
willbe
beanalyzed
analyzed
in
inthis
thischapter.
chapter.Lattice
Latticediagrams
diagramswill
willbe
beintroduced
introduced
as
asaasolution
solutiontool.
tool.
Transmission Lines
Class 6

43

44

Lattice Diagram Analysis Key Concepts


The lattice diagram is a
tool/technique to simplify
the accounting of
reflections and waveforms

Diagram shows the boundaries

(x =0 and x=l) and the reflection


coefficients (GL and GL )
Time (in T) axis shown
vertically
Slope of the line should
indicate flight time of signal
Particularly important for multiple
reflection problems using both
microstrip and stripline mediums.

Calculate voltage amplitude for

each successive reflected wave


Total voltage at any point is the
sum of all the waves that have
reached that point Transmission

Class 6

Vs
0

Vs

Zo
V(source)
Rs
TD = N ps

V(load)

Time V(source)

N ps

a
A

A
b

2N ps
3N ps

Rt

load

source
0

V(load)

B
d

4N ps
5N ps

Lines

C
e

Lattice Diagram Analysis Detail

source

load

V(load)

V(source)
0

45

Vlaunch
0

Time

N ps

Vlaunch

Vlaunch load
Vlaunch(1+load)

2N ps

Time

Vlaunch loadsource
Vlaunch(1+load +load source)

3N ps
Vlaunch loadsource
Vlaunch(1+load+loadsource+ loadsource)

4N ps
Vlaunch loadsource
0

V(load)
V(source) Zo
Vs
Rs
TD = N ps
Vs
Rt

Transmission Lines
Class 6

5N ps

Transient Analysis Over Damped


2v
0

Vs

Zo
V(source)
Zs
TD = 250 ps

source 0.2
0
500 ps

0.8v
0.8v

1000 ps

Assume Zs=75 ohms


Zo=50ohms
Vs=0-2 volts

V(load)

load 1
V(load)

Time V(source)

Vinitial Vs

source

0v

load
0.8v
0.16v

46

Zo
50
(2)
0 .8
Zs Zo
75 50

Zs Zo 75 50

0 .2
Zs Zo 75 50

Zl Zo 50

1
Zl Zo 50

1.6v

Response fr om lattice diagram


2.5

1500 ps 1.76v

2000 ps
2500 ps

1.92v
0.032v

V olt s

0.16v

1.5
Sour ce

Load

0.5
0
0

Transmission Lines
Class 6

2 50

500

750

Tim e , ps

1000

1250

Transient Analysis Under Damped


2v
0

Zo

Zs
TD = 250 ps

Vs

source 0 . 3333
Time

Assume Zs=25 ohms


Zo =50ohms
Vs=0-2 volts

V(load)

V(load)

V(source)

1.33v

500 ps 1.33v

1000 ps

load

50
Zo
(2)
1.3333

Zs Zo
25 50

Zs Zo 25 50

0.33333

Zs Zo 25 50

Zl Zo 50

Zl Zo
50

2.66v

Response from lattice diagram

-0.443v

2.5

1.77v

2000 ps

source

0v

1.33v

-0.443v

1500 ps 2.22v

load 1

Vinitial Vs

0.148v

Volts

V(source)

2
1.5

Source

1
0.5

2500 ps

1.92

Load

0.148v

250

2.07
Transmission
Lines
Class 6

500

750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250


Time, ps

47

Two Segment Transmission Line Structures


X

Rs

Zo2
TD

Zo1
TD

Vs

T3 T2
2 3

Rt

a
TD A
2TD
3TD B
4TD
5TD C

Aa
B acd
C Ac d f h

Z o1
vi Vs
Rs Z o1

2
B

l
C

Rs Z o1
Rs Z o1
Z o 2 Z o1
Z o 2 Z o1

Z Zo2
3 o1
Z o1 Z o 2

A' b e
B' b e g i
C' b e g i k l

a vi
b aT2
c a 2
d c1
e b 4
f d 2 eT3
g e 3 dT2
h f1

Rt Z o 2
4
Rt Z o 2

i g 4

T2 1 2

j h 2 iT3

Transmission Lines
T 1
Class 6
3

k i 3 hT2

48

49

Assignment

Previous examples are


the preparation
Consider the two segment
transmission line shown to
the right. Assume RS= 3Z01
and Z02= 3Z01 . Use Lattice
I
I
R I
diagram and calculate
Z ,
Z ,
l
l
reflection coefficients at V
V
V
V
the interfaces and show the
wave forms of V1(t), V2(t),
and V3(t).
S

02 02

01 01

Check results with PSPICE


Transmission Lines
Class 6

Short