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Concept of Congestion

in power system &


Congestion
Management
Procedure

What is the nature of the


problem?
Generation, Distribution and Transmission of

Electricity are monopolistic in nature


Competitive markets provide the lowest price.
Transmission is the enabler of competition in
the electricity sector.
For generators to compete it is essential that
lowest cost generators are scheduled on the
basis of merit order.
Congestion limits the possibilities of
competitive markets

Power sector unable to utilise full


capacity due to poor transmission
Mitul Thakkar, ET BureauDec 15, 2014NEW DELHI

The power sector is unable to use at least 10 per cent of its


capacity due to the choked transmission network in the
country, hurting projects ofTata Power,Essar Power,Jindal
Power,JSW Energy,CLP,DB Power,MB Power,Emco
Energy,GMRand Adhunik Power.
Inadequate transmission has kept about 25,000 Mw of
generation capacity idle, making the problem comparable to
the issue of acute fuel scarcity that has hit about 30,000 Mw
of new capacity, industry executives say. In addition to the
inadequate capacity, regulatory authorities impose strict
restrictions on the utilisation of existing networks and keep a
large amount of transmission capacity idle as a safeguard
against grid collapse.

IEX sees higher demand for electricity


in October ET 7 Nov, 2014, 1838 hrs IST,PTI

About ten per cent fall in the average area clearing price was seen across all bid
areas while in the Southern states, the area price increased by almost 50-70 per cent
on account of congestion in the transmission network.

"Almost 286 million units were constrained (in October)


due to unavailability of transmission corridor as
compared to only 42 MUs lost in September.Persistent
transmission congestion towards the Southern region
and between the Southern states is a key reason for
increased price of electricity in the South," the
statement said.
Meanwhile, in October, IEX's spot power market traded 2.8 BUs of electricity. The
amount is around ten per cent higher than 2.5 BUs seen in September.
On October 11, the day-ahead market witnessed trading of 131 MUs -- "highest ever
on a single day since the inception of the exchange in 2008".

Congestion & Congestion


Management

Transmission congestion occurs when there is


insufficient transmission capacity to
simultaneously accommodate all requests for
transmission service within a region
It can be defined as the condition where desired
transmission line-flows exceed reliability limits.
Following this definition, congestion management
can be defined as the actions taken to avoid or
relieve congestion. More broadly, congestion
management can be considered any systematic
approach used in scheduling and matching
generation and loads in order to manage
congestion

How do we measure
transfer capability
ATCAvailable Transfer Capability

How do we measure
transfer capability
The ATC of a transmission system is a
measure of the transfer capability
(transmission capacity) remaining in the
physical transmission network for further
commercial activity over and above already
committed uses . It is a measure at a given
time and depends on a number of factors
such as a system generation dispatch,
system load level, load distribution in the
network, network topology and the limits
imposed on the transmission network.

Why is TTC/ATC calculation


required?
Restructuring of electric power industry to
an open-accessed and market-based
system introduced high level of power
transactions to large power system
networks operation
Deregulation of power systems has
increased the need for defensible
calculations of transfer capability and
related quantities such as the
transmission reliability margin

Impact of Congestion
efficiency in markets
G

400 MW
Rs. 2/unit

400 MW
Rs. 4/unit

ATC >200
G
200 MW

200 MW

400 MW
Rs. 2/unit

400 MW
Rs. 4/unit

Total cost= Rs.800/ATC =100


200 MW
Total cost= Rs.1000/-

200 MW

The Weakest Link

1015 MW
750 MW
630 MVA

Transfer Capability depends


on
load-generation
scenario
900 MW
600 MW (max)

300 MW
900 MW

0 MW

300 MW

0 MW
600 MW (max)
600 MW
900 MW

1800 MW

1200 MW

Procedure for calculation of


ATC
Base case LF
Identify the buses involved in
transfer
Base case ATC-calculate PDTFs for
monitored lines
Identify credible contingencies
Calculate LODF, GODF and
recalculate ATC

Determinants of
Transmission Capability of
Individual
Line
Thermal Limits

SIL
Stability-angle limits
Voltage limits

The capability of a high voltage power line is usually set by


thermal limit for shorter lines and transmission distances (up
to 80 km), and longer (80 to 320 km) lines by voltage
regulation, and very long lines (> 320 km) by stability issues
The capability of a high voltage power line is usually set by
thermal limit for shorter lines and transmission distances (up
to 80 km), and longer (80 to 320 km) lines by voltage
regulation, and very long lines (> 320 km) by stability issues

Transmission Capacity vs
Tansfer capability
Why Transfer Capability is less than
Transmission Capacity?
N-1 criteria
Stability Criteria
Non uniform loading of parallel lines
Loop flows
Voltage profile
Load generation disposition
Intra-state network configuration
Law of diminishing returns

Determinants of Transmission
Capability of Individual Line

The rating is the physical capability of a line or other


equipment for a particular set of conditions, allowing for
safe operation.
Usually in the context of thermal amp limits.
Voltage and stability constraints may sometimes be more
limiting.
1351.5 ASCR on 750 F day = 1627 amps
Rating is
higher in
cooler
weather. Why?
1351.5 ASCR on 950 F day = 1512 amps
Minimum
Clearance

Ratings Considerations
Physical Design & condition
Ambient (weather) conditions
ROW conditions

Ratings change
constantly due to
weather and ROW
conditions.

Potential Equipment Limits (limiting


elements)
Busses
Conductors
Hardware

Jumpers
Lines

Transformers

Fuses
Interrupters
Bushings
Relaying
Switches
CTs

Breakers

Transfer Capability
Think of an elevator with a single 1000 lb cable.
How much load can it carry?
1000.
This is the cable Rating.

Contingency

What would be its reliable Transfer Capability?


0.
Due to the N-1 Contingency loss of Cable A.

Add a second 1000 lb cable. Now what is the


Transfer Capability?
1000.
This is Total Transfer Capability (TTC).

Now add (4) 200 lb passengers to the elevator.


How much Transfer Capability remains?
1000 4(200) = 200.
This is Available Transfer Capability (ATC).

Transfer Capability
What if Cable B had a 10
minute emergency rating
of 1000 lbs.

Now lets change some assumptions.


What if Cable B is only rated for 900 lbs? What
Contingency
is the TTC?
900.
Cable B is the Constraint or Limiting Element.

What is the ATC?

900 4(200) = 100.

What is the risk if a fifth 200 lb passenger rides?


If Cable A fails, Cable B would fail also.
This would be a System Operating Limit (SOL)
violation and could lead to a Cascading Event.

What should the operator do?

Take a Pre-Contingency Action to reduce the load.


A Post-Contingency Action could be used to reduce
the load.

Very Simple Circuit Example


Neighbor Blue

Neighbor Green

A
100
Generator

Flow of
100 MW

Load

Worst Contingency
200
150
100

Line Ratings
(MVA) 200

100

(Offline)

Home Area connects with two neighboring systems, Blue and Green.
Power flows split evenly. Ignore impedance, losses, spinning reserves,
etc. Well focus on thermal limits (ignore voltage, stability, etc.).

Concept: TTC depends upon direction.


Neighbor Blue

Neighbor Green
TTC can be
higher in
cooler
weather. Why?

What is the
Contingency
? Constraint?
200

Worst Contingency

100
Constraint A-B

150 Base flow 200


of 100
100
100

Assume C Off

200

200
Constraint B-A

Off
C

Assume C Off

TTCA-B= ? 50

TTCB-A= ? 200

ATCA-B= ? 50

ATCB-A= ? 200

Concept: Loop Flows impact TTC


(Contract Path)
Point of Receipt (POR) = B2

Point of Delivery (POD) = L2

Neighbor Blue

L2

B2

Neighbor Green

Contract path

B1

Long
way
L1

100
Can a deal
from Blue to
Green impact
our TTC?

Loop Flow = 40
A
200

Base flow
of 100
+ 40 Loop
flow

TTCA-B=

50

TTCA-B=

10

150

B
200

100

Off

What if our
Loop Flow
was 60?

150 - 100 -60 = -10


Curtail needed!
w/Loop Flow Redispatch locally or call a
Transmission Loading Relief (TLR).

Concept: Redispatch impacts TTC


(Contract Path)
Neighbor Blue
Long
way

L2

B2

Neighbor Green

B1

L1
A
What if
generator at
bus c is
dispatched
instead of gen
at bus A?
TTCA-B= 150
TTCA-B= 150

200
150

200

100

100
C

TTC and Power Flows are impacted by:


Loads (weather is a major driver)
Outages (both transmission and generation)
Generation Dispatch (fuel volatility is a major
driver)

Loop Flows (activities in other markets)


Counter Flows
Imports and Exports from other areas
(simultaneous transfers)

ATC changes Continuously


Power system transfer capability indicates how much interarea
power transfers can be increased without compromising system
security. Accurate identification of this capability provides vital
information for both planning and operation of the bulk power
market. (Planners need to know the system bottlenecks and system
operators must not implement transfers which exceed the
calculated transfer capability.)
Repeated estimates of transfer capabilities are needed to ensure
that the combined effects of power transfers do not cause an
undue risk of system overloads, equipment damage, or blackouts.
However, an overly conservative estimate of transfer capability
unnecessarily limits the power transfers and is a costly and
inefficient use of the network. Power transfers are increasing both
in amount and in variety as deregulation proceeds. Indeed, such
power transfers are necessary for a competitive market for electric
power. There is a very strong economic incentive to improve the
accuracy and effectiveness of transfer capability computations for
use by system operators, planners and power marketers.

ATC changes Continuously


The pre-calculated ATC based on some previously
determined set of initial conditions (a 'snapshot'
[1]) has a limited value as a forcasting tool for
some far-away future set of arbitrarily changed
conditions. For example, the network loading
pattern could change, any arbitrary transaction
involving any other pair of grid nodes could come
in, and so on. Events of this kind are erratic by
nature. The very nature of the power flow model
is this: one could not know the power flow
pattern of the meshed network before the
execution of the power flow program.
ATC has a forecating value only if changes of
pattern flows are minor

CERC Definitions

Definitions
Total Transfer Capability (TTC) means the
amount of electric power that can be transferred
reliably over the inter-control area transmission
system under a given set of operating conditions
considering the effect of occurrence of the worst
credible contingency.
Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM) means
the amount of margin kept in the total transfer
capability necessary to ensure that the
interconnected transmission network is secure
under a reasonable range of uncertainties in
system conditions

Definitions
Available Transfer Capability (ATC) means the transfer
capability of the inter-control area transmission system
available for scheduling commercial transactions
(through long term access, medium term open access
and short term open access) in a specific direction,
taking into account the network security.
Mathematically ATC is the Total Transfer Capability less
Transmission Reliability Margin
Congestion means a situation where the demand for
transmission capacity exceeds the Available
Transmission Capability

Important Conditions
Power system model to be
considered
Input data for base case preparation
Selection of Credible Contingencies
Violation of voltages, angular
separation, line loadings
Consideration of Transmission
reliability Margins

Sample formulas and


calculations--ATC

Power Transfer Distribution Factor-PTDF

Sensitivity of a flow on a monitored line to an


injection at a bus w.r.t a reference bus

PTDFij-mn

= [Xim-Xjm-Xin+Xjn]/xij

m is the seller node/bus and n is the buyer node/bus


Line between node i, and j is the monitored line.
,xij is the reactance of the line between bus I and j
Xim,Xjn.. are the elements of reactance matrix [X] ; ([X]=[B]-1)
Pmax ij-mn = [Pmax ij - Pij ]/PTDFij-mn
ATC=min[Pmax
to nl)

ij-mn

ij belongs

Line Outage Distribution Factors


--LODF
When an outage occurs, the power flowing over the
outaged line is redistributed onto the remaining lines in
the system. The LODF is the measure of this
redistribution. Pij ,rs is the fraction of the power flowing
on the line from i to j
LODFij,rs = Nrs.xrs (Xir-Xis-Xjr+Xjs)/ [NijNrs. xijxrs-(Xrr+Xss-2Xrs)]
Pmax ij-mn = [Pmax ij - Pij ]/[PTDFij-mn + LODFij,rs * PTDF
OTDFij,rs,mn = [PTDFij-mn + LODFij,rs * PTDF

rs,mn

ATCmn,rs = min { (Pij max Pij)/OTDF ij,mn,rs}

rs,mn

Test Case Calculations-PTDF


0.002

10 MW
0.002 0.002

0.01

3
0.00125

4
0.002
10 MW

0.002

0.01

Test Case Calculations-PTDF


1000

-500

-500

-500

1100

-500

-500

-500

1800

-800

-800

1800

--500

-500

-500

1000

-500

-500

-500

1100

-100

-100

200

-100

-100
0.00657
61

0.00554
01

0.00561
21

0.00505
46

0.00475
73

0.00445
99

0.005540
1

0.005818
8

0.005261
3

0.004738
7

0.004459
9

0.004181
2

0.005612
1

0.005261
3

0.005962
8

0.005370
5

0.005054
6

0.004738
7

0.005054
6

0.004738
7

0.005370
5

0.005962
8

0.005612
1

0.005261
3

0.004757

0.004459

0.005054

0.005612

0.006576

0.005540

Test Case Calculations-PTDF


PTDFij-mn = [Xim-Xjm-Xin+Xjn]/xij
To find PTDF 34,15
=[0.0056121-0.00505460.0050546+0.0056121)/0.00125 =0.892
Therefore for incremental transfer between bus 1 and
5 the flow increases in line 3-4 by 0.892x 10= 8.92
MW
Therefore continuously increasing the transfer the
line limit would be reached and that would be the ATC

Transmission reliability marginUncertainities


Parameters and their uncertainty
The transfer capability is a function A of many parameters p1,
p2,...,pm:
transfer capability = A(p1, p2,...,pm) (1)
Uncertainty in the parameters pi causes uncertainty in the
transfer capability and it is assumed that this uncertainty in the
transfer capability is the uncertainty to be quanti- fied in the
transmission reliability margin.
The uncertain parameters pi can include factors such as
generation dispatch, customer demand, system parameters and
system topology. The parameters are assumed to satisfy the
following conditions:
Each parameter pi is a random variable with known mean (pi)
and known variance 2(pi). These statistics are obtained from the
historical record, statistical analysis and engineering judgment.

Congestion costs-integrated
utility
500 MW
700 MW
A

200 MW

500 MW

0 A
1000

MwH

100 MW (constrained)

500 600 700


500 400 300

300 MW

1000
B
0

Congestion costs
deregulated markets
Unconstrained case
2200

0 A
1000

MwH

500 600 700


500 400 300

1000
B
0

Congestion Costs under LMP

Congestion Revenues method, is based on the policy


common among ISOs of paying generators a region-specific
LMP for their output regardless of the region where the
generation is used to serve load, and, at the same time,
charging all loads within a given region a single, regionspecific
500 MW
700LMP
MW

Rs. 2000/MwH

100 MW(constrained)

500 MW

Rs. 2500/MwH

300 MW

Charges paid to generators = 2000*700 + 2500*300 = Rs. 21,50,000


Charges paid by loads= 2000*500 + 2500*500 = Rs. 22,50,000
Congestion Revenue = Rs.1,00,000

Congestion costs--LMP

0 A
1000

MwH

500 600 700


500 400 300

1000
B
0

Charges paid to generators = 2000*700 + 2500*300 = Rs. 21,50,000


Charges paid by loads= 2000*500 + 2500*500 = Rs. 22,50,000
Congestion Revenue = Rs.1,00,000

Congestion
Management

Congestion Management
If the ATC is over-estimated, then
real-time congestion could result in
reducing system reliability below
acceptable levels. On the other hand,
if the ATC is under estimated, then
economic exchanges are potentially
foregone.

Congestion Management
Congestion can be managed, before
the fact, with information provided from
the scheduling period only if ATC is
known.
However, congestion must be managed
in real-time if ATC is wrong. And realtime management of congestion is
inherently less economically efficient
because dispatch options are limited.

Congestion Management
Planning Stage
Scheduling Stage-adjustments to
submitted schedules based on ATC

Real Time Adjustmen


-Redispatch/load shedding

Congestion Management
The fundamental point is that if ATC is wrong
during the scheduling period when there is the
attempt to efficiently allocate transmission
capacity, the SO can still maintain system
reliability through real-time adjustments.
Reliability is not compromised, however,
economics may suffer. This can happen
because the calculation of ATC depends upon
forecasts of load and generation patterns
throughout the system. If the forecast is
wrong, then the ATC calculation can be wrong

Congestion Management
CERC (Measures to relieve congestion in real
time), Regulations, 2009
(1) To relieve congestion in the real time, a
congestion charge shall be applied as a
commercial measure. The congestion charge
will be payable by a Regional entity or
entities causing congestion in the interregional link or intra-regional link and
receivable by a Regional entity or entities
relieving congestion.

Congestion Management
Use of FACTS devices such as SVC,
STATCOM(parallel) and TCSC,SSSC,
etc to overcome voltage and angle
stability limits and operate the lines
at their thermal limits. HTLS/MULti
Ckt Lines

Congestion Management
Redispatch of generation/load

Congestion Management
Non Market Methods:
Type of contract
First Come First Serve
Pro-rata methods
Curtailment

Market Based Methods


Explicit Auctioning of Network Capacity
Nodal Pricing
Zonal Pricing
Price Area Congestion Management
Redispatch
Counter Trades

Congestion Management
Dynamic Line Ratings (DLR)
The static rating indicates the maximum amount of
current that the lines conductors can carry (under a set
of assumed weather conditions) without violating safety
codes or damaging the conductor.
Static ratings are adjusted infrequently, so they are
usually conservatively based on worst-case scenario
conditions (i.e., low wind speed, high ambient
temperature, and high solar radiation).
When static ratings are adjusted daily, hourly, or even
more frequently to account for different ambient
temperatures, they are called ambient-adjusted ratings

Congestion Management
DLR technologies enable transmission owners
to determine capacity and apply line ratings in
real time. This enables system operators to
take advantage of additional capacity when it
is available. Unlike static ratings, dynamic
ratings are calculated in real time based on
the transmission lines actual operating
conditions at specific moments, rather than on
fixed assumptions. Dynamic ratings are often,
but not always, greater than static ratings.

Congestion Management
Generalized Network Access
--Shifting from a contract based to an access
based paradigm
--Many IPPs are coming up with substantial
generations without any PPAs/firm beneficiaries
and trying to use the existing corridors for
evacuation which leads to congestion.
--cancellation of PPA after availing LTA causes the
generator to pay transmission charges. LTA
cannot be used for transfer to non-target regions

Thank you

Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM) means


the amount of margin kept in the total transfer
capability necessary to ensure that the
interconnected transmission network is secure
under a reasonable range of uncertainties in
system conditions Available Transfer Capability
(ATC) means the transfer capability of the intercontrol area transmission system available for
scheduling commercial transactions (through
long term access, medium term open access and
short term open access) in a specific direction,
taking into account the network security.
Mathematically ATC is the Total Transfer
Capability less Transmission Reliability Margin

Without congestion, the marginal cost to


supply an increment of load is determined by
the lowest marginal cost generator on the
system and is the same for any load on the
system. However, with congestion the
marginal cost to supply an increment of load
is determined by location. The marginal cost
for a given location is the lowest cost
increment of generation supply with available
transmission capacity between the
generation source and the load.

Robust transmission network is a prerequisite for open access


thereby enabling competitive market
National Electricity Policy envisions
network expansion should be planned
and implemented keeping in view the
anticipated transmission needs that
would be incident on the system in the
open access regime.

'Congestion' is a situation
where the demand for transmission
capacity exceeds the Available
Transmission Capability (ATC) as per
Grid Code, 2010.
The loss of energy due to Congestion
during last 3 years in IEX

In terms of time, congestion in IEX :


100.00% ; PXIL : 73.85%.
Congestion affecting economic
operation of power sector - merit
order operation getting disturbed.
Delay of line congestion and delay of
generation congestion