You are on page 1of 14

PROSES

PERPINDAHAN
Fenomena Perpindahan Massa Molekuler
(Diffusi) Steady State Satu Dimensi
Presented by:
Dyan Hatining Ayu Sudarni
Rizqy Romadhona Ginting

2314 201 001


2314 201 002

POST GRADUATE PROGRAM


Chemical Engineering Department - ITS

4.3.2 Natural Gas Hydrates

Natural gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds


formed by the chemical combination of natural gas and
water under pressure at temperature considerably above
.

the freezing point of water. The chemical formulae for


natural gas hydrates are:
1. Methane
2. Ethane
3. Propane
4. Carbon Dioxide

POST GRADUATE
Chemical Engineering Department-ITS

Hydrates tend to form when there is:


Free water present and temperature decreases below that of
hydrate-formation. This usually happens in the flow string or
.
surface line;
Sudden pressure drop due to expansion. This usually happens
when fluids flows through orifices, back pressure regulators, or
chokes.

POST GRADUATE
Chemical Engineering Department-ITS

Hydrate formation can be predicted by


using Figure 48 (for g = 0.6, hydrates tend
to form to the left of the hydration formation line)

POST GRADUATE
Chemical Engineering Department-ITS

Figure
410
(for
first
approximations of hydrate
formation
conditions
at
different values of gas
gravity).

There are four ways to dehydrate the natural gas:


1. direct cooling,
.

2. compression followed by cooling,


3. absorption,
4. adsorption.
first two usually cannot sufficiently dehydrate the gas to
pipeline requirements.

POST GRADUATE
Chemical Engineering Department-ITS

4.3.3 Adsorption Dehydration

The adsorption dehydration unit usually contains an inlet gas stream separator
for initial separation, two or more adsorption towers (also called adsorbers or
contactors) to dehydrate gas, a high temperature heater to dry solid desiccant in
. the towers, a regeneration gas cooler to condense water from the hot

regeneration gas, and a regeneration gas separator to remove water from the
regeneration gas stream (Leecraft, 1987).
In addition, piping, manifolds, switching valves, and controls are needed to
direct and control the flow of gases according to process requirement.
focus is given to the most popular technique of water removal-counter-current
absorption.
POST GRADUATE
Chemical Engineering Department-ITS

4.3.3 Absorption Dehydration

Absorption dehydration is the water removal process


by counter flowing natural gas through a certain liquid
solvent that has special attractions or affinities for
water. The liquid solvent is called a dehydrating agent
or liquid desiccant.

POST GRADUATE
Chemical Engineering Department-ITS

Dehydrating Agents
The most desirable dehydrating agents that can be used for commercial
dehydration purposes should possess the following important properties
(Campbell, 1998):
High water absorption efficiency;
High decomposition temperature;
Low vaporization losses;
Easy and economic to be separated and regenerated;
Non-corrosive and non-toxic to the system.

POST GRADUATE
Chemical Engineering Department-ITS

Glycol Dehydration Process

POST GRADUATE
Chemical Engineering Department-ITS

Thank you

POST GRADUATE
Chemical Engineering Department-ITS