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1. Webster defines intelligence as:

Intelligence is the capacity for understanding
and for other forms of adaptive intellect of
behaviour; the mind in operation.
Knowledge of an event, circumstances, etc.,
received or imparted; the gathering or
distribution of information; the staff of persons
engaged in obtaining such information.

2. Psychology
Intelligence is the capacity of a person to
adjust to new situations through the use
of what has been previously learned.

3. Government Commission Task Force

It means the collection, processing, collation,
interpretation, evaluation and dissemination of
information, with reference to national security.
In certain context, it may also mean the network
or the system for the collection, collation,
dissemination of information. The term as used
here doesnt include any police powers or
authorities, any investigative function other than
those involve in the collection of information nor any
function involved in the enforcement of laws, orders,
or regulation.

4. Dictionary of Military Terms

Intelligence is the end product resulting
from the collection, evaluation, analysis,
integration and interpretation of all
available information which may have
immediate or potential significance to
the development and execution of plans,
policies and programs of the users.

Objective of Intelligence
The fundamental objective of
intelligence is to ensure balanced and
timely decision-making.

Function of Intelligence in General

3. The dissemination of intelligence to those
who need it.
4. Counter intelligence it is known as negative
intelligence. It is an activity dedicated to the
concealment and protection of ones own
information from the adversary intelligence
operation. It is a defensive function of

Function of Intelligence in General

1. The collection or procurement of information
2. The evaluation of the information which then
become intelligence

Other Functions of Intelligence

1. To procure and obtain political, economic,
military and other
information, which may bear upon, national interest and
which had been collected by the different governmental
department and agencies.
2. To serve all branches of the government
3. To collect, when necessary, supplemental information
whether at its own instance or at the request of any
governmental agency and official from other various
4. To integrate, analyse process and disseminate to
authorized governmental agencies and officials in the
form of report or strategic interpretative studies.

Principles of Intelligence
1.General Principles are fundamental guides to action, broad
statements of truth from which others are derived.

2. Criteria
a. Universality of application it should apply to as many
phases and aspects of intelligence as possible. It should guide
not only the production of intelligence but also the related
activities essential to the process as well as the organization and
thought and actions of the individual composing it.
b. It must be broad truly a general rule. It should form
the basis for a formulation of results and subsidiary guides. It
must be important, indeed essential, to intelligence - If a guide is
truly important and essential, then its violations should bring its
own immediate penalties.
They must not be mutually exclusive; instead each should
complement the other.

3. Doctrine (rules)
Exists the essential of unity between
knowledge and action; that knowledge enhances the
effectiveness of action and minimizes the chances
of error.
The Principles
4. Objectivity
In Intelligence, only the well guided succeed.
It is a basic intelligence concept that there is unity
between knowledge and action. It follows therefore
that intelligence should interact and condition the
decision. Intelligence must be adapted to the needs
of the decision; it is both giver and taker. Action or
decision is planned by knowledge and guided by it
at every step.

5. Interdependence
Intelligence is artificially subdivided into components
elements to insure complete coverage, eliminate duplication
and to reduce the overall task or manageable sizes.
Nevertheless, each subdivision remains as essential part of
unity; contributes proportionately to the end result;
possesses a precise interrelationship; and interacts with
each other so as to achieve a balanced and harmonious

6. Continuity
intelligence must be continuous. It is necessary that
coverage be continuous so that the shape of what happens
today could be studied in the light of what was happened
before, which in turn would enable us to predict the shape of
things to come.

Intelligence adequate to their needs must be
communicated to all the decision makers in manner
that they will understand and form that will permit its
most effective use.

Intelligence is useless if it remains in the
minds, or in the files of its collectors or its
producers. The story must be told and it must be
told well. The story must be convincing and to be
convincing it must not only be plausible or factual
but its significance must be shown.

In intelligence should be essential and pertinent to the
purpose at hand. Intelligence involves the planning through a
maze of information, the considering and innumerable
number of means or of picking the most promising of a
multitude of leads. The requirement of decision-making
covers very nearly the entire span of human knowledge.
Unless there is selection of only the most essential and the
pertinent, intelligence will go off in all directions in one
monumental waste of effort.

Intelligence must be communicated to the
decision maker at the appropriate time to permit is
most effective use. This is one of the most important
and most obvious, for intelligence that is too soon or
too late are equally useless. Timeliness is one
principle that complements all the others.

Security Security is achieved by the measures

which intelligence takes to protect and preserve the
integrity of its activities. If intelligence has no security,
it might be as well being run like a newspaper to which
it is similar.
Attributes Common to Intelligence Directors
1. Exceptional organizing ability
2. Ability for intelligence work
3. Prodigious memory and a sense of history
4. Broad knowledge of many subjects, include complex
technical matters.
5. Insatiable curiosity
6. What might be called intellectual ruthlessness and cold

General Qualification of an Intelligence Officer

1. College graduate
2. Passed prescribed test for intelligence officer (IO)
3. Passed background investigation (BI)
4. Good moral character
5. Loyal to Republic of the Philippines
6. No undesirable trait such as gambling, excessive
drunkenness, indebtedness, drug addiction, etc.
7. Passed by screening committee

Desirable Qualities of an Intelligence Officer

1. Knowledge ability intelligence and mental capacity
2. Perceptive about people good judge of character
3. Flexibility/Adaptability able to work with others
4. Can distinguish between fact and fiction; between essentials
and non-essential.
5. Possess inquisitiveness or an inquiring mind.
6. Have ingenuity able to improvise, looks for solutions
Observant and alert able to improvise, looks for solutions
7. Able to express ideas clearly, briefly and interestingly.
8. Discipline susceptibility to operational control; good sense of
9. Patient and hardworking
10. Good memory
11. Integrity
12. Objectivity should not carried away by prejudice or bias
13. Discreet knows when to keep mouth; does not brag about
what he knows or important connections.

It is the end product resulting from the collection,
evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all available
information regarding the activities of criminal and other law
violators for the purpose of affecting criminals and other law
violators for the purpose of affecting their arrest, obtaining
evidence, and forestalling plan to commit crime.
Purposes of Police Intelligence
1. Check the condition of the community relating to crime, vice,
juvenile delinquency and indications of subversion and
2. Determine through counter intelligence applicants matters
pertaining to personnel security, physical security and document
security of the police organization.
3. Determine the follow-up leads and helps in the solution of
individual criminal cases.
4. Identify criminal elements and other law breakers as well as
their associates.

5. Assists in the arrest of wanted criminals and those wanted

under RA 1700 otherwise known as the Anti-Subversion Law.
6. Check on the quality and effectiveness of the operation of the
police (PNP) forces.
7. Check on the security conditions of PNP Personnel, funds
equipment and materials.
8. Help in crime control prevention.
9. Serve as a tool of management for planning and
organizational employment purposes

Cardinal Principle in Police Intelligence

A cardinal principal in police intelligence at all
levels is the proper, economical and most productive
use of personnel resources and equipment employed
and/or utilized in planning the collection of information
and dissemination of intelligence. To pursue these
ends, heads of the PNP commands in the
zone/regional, provincial, district and station levels
shall maintain a harmonious working relationship with
other civilian intelligence agencies. Liaison with these
agencies will be encouraged at all times and as
necessary to effect coordination of intelligence

The Principle Areas of Interest in Intelligence

The information that nations need for the conduct of their
foreign relations and domestic affairs is vast as to both type and
subject. We live today in a highly complex world in which
competition is accurate and often ruthless. No nation today can
any longer exist in an isolated position, sealed off from the rest
of the world or projected automatically by natural barriers. Every
nation must, of necessity, fit itself into the global pattern that
technological progress has forced upon the world.
Communications and transportation have so much shrunk
that world that even a small and remote country may find itself in
the direct path of military conquest or political or economic
aggression. The unilateral proclamation neutrality in no longer
sufficient to guarantee the invariability of a nation. In the past,
neutrality is frowned upon by the great powers, which demand
that all countries of the world choose sides.

As long as they remain, nations that have expansionist

aspiration and ides of aggrandizement or paranoiac grievances,
other nations are in danger of being outwitted in diplomacy or
infiltrated by economic and political influence or even attacked
by military force without warning.
Behind the shadow of military threat lies, therefore, some
very different aspects of intelligence which though not so
precisely definable, are specially important to a comprehensive
interpretation and understanding of nation under/ over position in
the over-shrinking world today.

To illustrate this point, an outline of the major consideration of

intelligence may appear in this form:
Military offensive and defensive tactics, war plans, strategic
concepts and tactical principles, organizations installations,
industrial lease, armed forces, command structure, command
personnel, material, tactics, morale,
General topographical and hydro graphic characteristics,
historical backgrounds
Diplomatic foreign policies, alliances, diplomatic
establishments, foreign service personnel, technique of
conducting foreign relations
Political ideology, traditions, institutions, personalities, area of
Economic Financial Monetary policies, Currency structure,
Transactions, Institutions, Personalities

Commercial trade policies, markets, trading methods, price

policies, personalities
Industrial structure of Capacity, manufacturing plants and
processes, raw material, energy rotations, labor relations,
Mining Mineral Resources, Production method, Output
Agriculture policies, crop structure, cultivation method,
mechanization, financing, specific characteristics of rural
Communications and Transportation telephones,
telegraphs, wireless, railways, shipping, automobiles and trucks,
highways, aviation, ownership, policies, organization, personnel
Social nationality structure, classes and caste, historical
factors, census, personal aspects, characteristics and mentality
of people forces, social legislation, radio, television, press,
motion picture
Intelligence Organizations, Methods and Personnel of
Competing Intelligence system

Immediate Area and Interest in Police Intelligence

1. Crime prone community relating to vices, juvenile
delinquency, crime and indication of subversion and insurgency.
2. All matters pertaining to personnel security, physical security,
and classified documents.
3. Cases under follow-up
4. Personalities directly or indirectly involved in criminal
5. Personalities, places, events involved in insurgency and
6. Police operation regarding its effectiveness and quality
7. Police personnel, its equipment, funds and materials
8. Aspect of crime prevention and control
9. Aspect of management for planning and organization
improvement purposes.
10. And other as directed by higher authorities

General Activities in Police Intelligence

Strategic Intelligence the intelligence information which
primarily long range in nature with little practical immediate
operation value.
Line Intelligence which is of an immediate nature and
necessary for more effective police planning and operation
National Intelligence it is the integrated product of
intelligence developed by all the governmental branches,
departments concerning the broad aspect of national security
and policy. It is concerned to more than one department or
agency and it is not produced by single entity. It is used to
coordinate all the activities of the government in developing and
executing integrated and national policies and plans.

Counter Intelligence phase of Intel covering the activity

devoted in destroying the effectiveness of hostile foreign
activities and to the protection of info against espionage,
subversion and sabotage.
Undercover Work is an investigative process in which
disguises and pretext cover and deception are used to gain the
confidence of criminal suspects for the purpose of determining
the nature and extent of any criminal activities that maybe
contemplating or perpetuating.

Functional Classification of Police Intelligence

1.Criminal Intelligence (CRIMINT) production of intelligence
essential to the prevention of crimes and the investigation,
arrest, and prosecution of criminal offenders.

2. Internal Security Intelligence (INSINT) refers to the

knowledge essential to the maintenance of peace and order.
3. Public Safety Intelligence (PUSINT) refers to the
knowledge essential to ensure the protection of lives and

Forms of Intelligence
1. Sociological Intelligence deals with the demographic and psychological
aspects of groups of people.
Population and manpower
Characteristic of the people
Public opinion attitude of the majority of the people towards matter of public
Education based of literacy rate
2. Biographical Intelligence deals with individuals personalities who have
actual possession of power.
3. Armed force Intelligence deals with the armed forces of the Nation.
Positions of Armed Forces Constitutional and legal basis of its creation and
actual role.
Organizational structure and territorial disposition
Military manpower recruitment.
Order of Battle
4. Geographical Intelligence deal with the progress of research and
development as it affects the economic and military potential of a nation.


1. STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE An intelligence data that are
not of an immediate value. It is usually descriptive in nature,
accumulation of physical description of personalities, modus
operandi. It does not have immediate operational value bat
rather long range that may become relevant to future police
2. LINE INTELLIGENCE It is the kind of intelligence required
by the commander to provide for planning and conduct tactical
and administrative operation in counter insurgency. This pertains
to knowledge of People, Weather, Enemy and Terrain (PWET)
used in planning and conducting tactical and administrative
operation in a counter insurgency.

Intel information to be determined in Line Intelligence are:

PEOPLE Living condition of the people, Sources of income,
Education of the people, Governmental livelihood projects,
Extent of enemy influenced to the people
WEATHER Visibility, Cloudy, Temperature, Precipitation (rain),
ENEMY Location of the enemy, Strength of the enemy,
Disposition, Tactical capability, Enemy vulnerability
TERRAIN relief and drainage system, Vegetation, Surface
material, Man-made features.

Five Military aspects of terrain are:

1. Cover and concealment
2. Obstacle
3. Critical key terrain features
4. Observation and fields of fire
5. Avenues of Approach


This kind of intelligence covers the activity devoted in
destroying the effectiveness of hostile foreign activities and to
the protection of info against espionage, subversion and
Three Activity of CI
1. Protection of information against espionage
2. Protection of personnel against subversion
3. Protection of installations and material against sabotage

Two General Types of CI

1. Passive Measures are those measures, which seek to
conceal info from the enemy.
2. Active Measures are those measures, which seek actively,
block the enemys efforts to gain info or engage in espionage
subversion or sabotage.

COUNTER INTELLIGENCE is also known as Negative Intelligence. Negative

Intelligence is a generic term meaning three different things:
1. Security Intelligence means that the total sum of efforts to counsel the
national policies, diplomatic decisions, military data, and any other
information of a secret nature affecting the security of the nation form
unauthorized persons. Its effort is to deny information to unauthorized
persons by restricting to those who are explicitly authorized to possess it.
2. Counter Intelligence is the organized effort to protect specific data that
might be of value to the opponents own intelligence organization.
Some of its functions are:
By censorship of the following Correspondence, Broadcast, Telecast,
Telephone conversations, Telegrams and cables, etc
It aims to prevent the dissemination of any information that might aid an
Maintenance of files of suspect
Surveillance of suspects
Mail reading, Wiretapping and recording
Infiltration of the enemy intelligence organized to procure information about
its method, personal, specific operations and interest.

3. Count-Espionage in counter-espionage, negative

intelligence becomes a dynamic and active effort. Its purpose is
to investigate actual or theoretical violation of espionage laws, to
enforce those laws and to apprehend any violators. It is a job to
catch spies. It is basically a police function.
According to Sir Bassil Thompson former chief of Scotland
Yard Criminal Investigation Division:
A basic requirement of a secret agent is disguise himself
and his mission. Much of his training and basic skill is dedicated
to concealment. He is supposed to be supplied with a fool proof
cover story and good documents. He must be a man of
exception ability or else he would not be chosen for this intricate
job. The trapping of the dark intruder is a formidable talk.
The aim of Counter-Espionage is to locate the enemy, to identify
the enemy, and to neutralize the enemy.

Five Importance of Effective CI

1. Denies info to the enemy
2. Reduces the risk of a command
3. And in achieving surprises
4. Increases the security of the command
5. Decreases the enemy ability to create info about our forces
Five Categories of CI Operation
1. Military Security it encompasses the measures taken by a
command to protect itself against espionage, enemy operation,
sabotage, subversion or surprise.
Examples are:
Secrecy discipline
Special safeguarding of classified info.
Security of troop movement
Special handling of weather & escapes
Counter subversion with in the armed forces
Tactical measures in combat area

2. Port Frontier and Travel Security has to do with the

application of both military and civil security measures for CI
control at point of entry and departure, international borders or
Examples are:
Security screening and control of frontier Security control
merchants, seaman and crew of commercial aircraft, Security
control of frontier crossing point, Security control of seaports
3. Civil Security it encompasses active and passive CI
measures affecting the non-military nationals permanently or
temporarily residing in an areas under military jurisdiction.
Examples are:
Systematic registration of civilians and aliens
Control of circulation, Curfew,
Surveillance of suspected political organizations
Security screening of labor, Issuance of passes and permits
Control of internal commerce

4. Censorship it is the control and examination of the Civil

National, Armed forces, Field press, and POWs.
5. Special Operations counter subversion, sabotage and
What is CI Operation?
CI operation is also called CI Investigation. It is an activity
that constitutes the value of the CI workload, worldwide and
includes specific investigation of individual and incidence which
for the most part are conducted in an overt but discreet manner.
Three Categories of CI Measure
1. Denial Measure Secrecy discipline, document
security, Camouflage and concealment, Communication security,
Military censorship, Counter reconnaissance
2. Detection Measure- PSI, security tag or pass card,
Challenge or password, Reconnaissance
3. Deception Measures Trick use of escape and
evasion, Dummy position, Fabricated info

CI Branch and Functions

CI Mission
1. Detection Identify the threat
2. Evaluation analysing the data plan
3. Counter action and Prevention recommended counter
measures in neutralizing the target.
Categories of CI Operation
Counter Human Intel (HUMINT) seeks to overcome
enemy attempts to use human sources to collect information or
to conduct sabotage and subversion which includes CI Special
Operations, Liaison, Counter Security, CI Screening, CI
Counter Imagery Intel (IMINT) Includes action taken to
determine enemy SIGINT and related EW capabilities and
activities. These actions include surveillance radar, photo
thermal and infrared systems. Successful; counter IMINT
operations rely heavily on pattern and movements analysis and

Counter Signal Intel (SIGINT) Determine enemy

SIGINT and related EW capabilities and activities, assess
friendly operations to identify patterns, profiles and develop,
recommended and analyse counter measures.
Functions of CI Personnel
1. Identify insurgent indicators
2. Construct a database on insurgent infrastructure.
3. Analyse current intelligence infrastructure trends.
4. Recommend CI targets to exploitation
5. Recommend specific operations on specific CI targets.
6. Recommended population/ resources control measures.
7. Ensures installation base security
8. Conduct liaison with other agencies